jfortign anti Colonial.
Festrice.—The agitation in Paris came to a head in a Ministerial crisis, which seems for the time to have passed off. On Saturday last, M. Woir- hay presented the report of the Committee of inquiry into the military organization of the 29th January. The report decided against the "ur- gency," and gave an opinion in favour of the Government policy. M. Ferree proposed an amendment, to the effect that the Assembly feared the tendencies of the Ministry were creative of danger to the Republic. A farther amendment on this amendment was moved, to get rid of it by a formal motion; bat after some debating this last amendment was rejected, -by 407 to 387. This was deemed a direct blow to the Ministry, and it was expected they would resign. On Sunday, however, the Moniteur contained a statement that the Ministry met at the Elyse* Nationale after the sitting, and it was decided that they should remain at their post and persevere in the mission confided to them.
On Monday the debate on the motion of M. Perree was renewed. The declaration in the Moniteur had caused great indignation among the Op- position by its defiant tone; but M. Leon Faucher, Minister of the Interior, explained that it was nothing more than an individual speculation, inserted in the journal to allay apprehension and reassure the country. M. Faucher proceeded to vindicate the Government measures to prevent out- break on the 29th January; describing the extensive organization of the Clubs, and the anti-social principles which they promulgated. M. Murat, on his late candidature for the post of Colonel to the first Legion of the National Guard, was summoned before one of these clubs, and asked, "If your cousin should attempt to make himself Emperor, would you be prepared to plunge a dagger into his heart ?" M. Murat replied, that would be murder; and his questioner rejoined, "Do you call Charlotte Corday a murderer?" The murderer of Rossi was defended, and blamed only for fearing to announce himself. The dissatisfaction of the Garde Mobile on account of its reorganization gave the clubs an opportunity which they seized—it precipitated their plans. An insur- rection on a vast scale was organized, and intended to break out on the same day in Paris and the provinces: cartridges had been distributed, and on Monday the 29th January a large body of men in disguise had gone in bands to the principal points of the former insurrection. The plot had extensive ramifications in the provinces. At Dijon, at Strasburg, in the Vaucluse, in a vast number of points, disturbances had actually broken out, and the Prefects were obliged to call out the military force. But the Prefects were already warned by the Government, and enabled to make such preparations as totally overawed the plotters in many cases, and as quickly restored order.
After some warm debate, M. Oudinot moved an amendment on M. Per- .- rile's motion, to the effect that, as the offensive bulletin in the Moniteur was denied and blamed by the Minister, the Assembly adopted the con- elusions of the Committee of inquiry, and passed to the order of the day. On a division, this motion was carried, by 461 to 359; and M. Perree's mo- tion fell to the ground.
The Rateau proposition came on for debate on Tuesday. Five other pro-
• positions or amendments competed with it for priority. After a long confused debate, the proposition of M. de Lanjuinaia obtained priority of discussion. - By it the Assembly pledged itself to commence deliberation on the electo- ral law immediately, and to proceed on that law as fast as the.forms of the House would permit. This was a conciliatory modification of M. Rateau's - motion—a " Rateau ntoderg," as it was termed by M. Pyat; and obtained that member's adherence. After a debate during the whole sitting of ' Tuesday and most part of Wednesday, the Assembly adopted M. Lanjuinais' proposition by 470 to 337—majority in favour of Ministers, 133. In the course of the debate, M. Felix Pyat termed the President "a hat put on in preparation for a crown." The Journal des Debate calculates that by the adoption of the proposition of M. Lanjninais the period of the termination of the labours of the-Assembly will be fixed at eighty or ninety d
' The reorganization of the Garde Mobile terminated on the 2d. All the chiefs of battalions of the Garde Mobile belonging to the Army have re- ceived orders immediately to return to their regiments. They are to reen- ter with the same rank they held on quitting it. It is said that the num- ber of Gerdes Mobiles who have not Joined the new corps is under three thousand.
Five of the persons charged with the murder of General Brea and Cap- tain Mangin were sentenced to death by the Council of War of Paris, on Wednesday,—namely, Dabs, Vapreau junior, Lohr, Chapael, and Nouvrit. Three others were sentenced to hard labour for life; five to fifteen, ten, and . five years of the same penalty; nine to various years of imprisonment; and • three were acquitted.
• At a review which took place on 2d, in the Champs de Mars, the Presi- dent of the Republic, on distributing some crosses of the Legion of Ho- '
flour, caused the officers to assemble in a circle and thus addressed them— "The decorations that I have distributed today are few in number, but they are the more honourable to those who have obtained them. The cross of the Le- gion of Honour has been too often bestowed lavishly under the Governments which have Fanceded me: it shall not be so in future. I will take care that the decoration of the Legion of Honour shall be the recomsence only of services ren- dered to the country, and be only bestowed on indisputable merit. It is thus, gentlemen, that I hope to restore to this institutional' its glorious prestige." (En- - --thusiastic applause.) The Evenenzent states that in consequence of the discovery of papers on the arrest of some anarchists, which show. that an attack was intended on the house of M. Thiers, a company of the Line is placed in the eeighbour- ' hood for its protection.
• Pause:us—The Berlin correspondent of the Morning Chronicle, an honest opponent of Ultra-Democracy, gives this statement of the result of the Prussian elections in the first degree-
" The result of the Berlin preparatory elections, as well as those in the vinces, whence returns have been made, show a decided majority in favour ef Democracy—or, perhaps, more correctly speaking, of Liberal Constitutionalism Taking the whole, it may be affirmed that a third will turn out to be whath called-Conservative, a third more Constitutional Liberal, and the remainder Ultra- Democratic."
The Publicist, a Berlin journal, calls attention to-the great increase in the number of suicides among the more wealthy classes since the political convulsions of last year; attributing the acts of self-destruction to the anxiety created by the general depression of property.
AITSTHIA.—The Diet at Kremsier has resolved on the abolition o capital punishment. Joseph the Second abrogated capital punishment; the Emperor Francis reintroduced it; the National Assembly reabolished it last spring; and the Diet has confirmed that decision, after a debate of -great length and ability, Fischoff concluded an harangue on the subject with this striking hypothetical apostrophe- " Were I a Gallician peasant condemned to death, I would thus address the judge=-State, you have used me as dung over the fields of another; you have made Me the target for cannon and musket balls; my hard earnings have been squeezed out of me for taxes: and what have you done for me? Have we been mentally nurtured or morally ennobled? No! You have taken our money for diplomatic missions and the support of absolute pretenders. It has been squan- dered in military display and bureaucratic luxury swhile we, made in the like- ness of God, were left to perish in the slough-. But you, • Metternich and crecs. tures, have denied the divinity within you, by wantonly wasting the sources of a people's culture; you have left us in moral starvation; and you are the real criminals, if any such deserve death. The hand of justice cannot overtake pm; you are shielded by your exile, our generosity, and. the mall paragraph_usths fundamental rights which declares` capital punishments are-abolished: " THE UNITED STATES.—The America mail steam-ship arrived at Live.
pool on Monday, with dates-from New York to the 23c1 January. - The only topics of interest are the slavery discussions in the Federal anil State Legislatures, and the gold of California. The first question recurs again and again, and is exciting much political attention. In the Senate at Washington, Mr. Underwood has presented a memorial in favour of making an "appropriation for such Africans-ass may desire to emigrate to Liberia, and such slaves as may hereafter be emanci- pated." Mr. Underwood thought that the memorial before the Senate to that effect should be referred- to the Judiciary Committee. This- was op- posed; and thereupon discussion arose. Mr. Berrien declared that the ob- ject of the petition was neither more nor less than an annual appropriation of Congress for the gradual emancipation of slavery—an invasion of the rights of the South. At length the matter was postponed, by a vote of 27 Yeas to 23 Nays.
In the House of Representatives, debates and oscillating decisions have occurred. A motion was made to reconsider the vote in favour of Mr. Gotes resolution, which was favourable to the abolition of slavery in the district of Columbia. After an exceedingly warm debate, the motion to reconsider was carried, by 119 to 101. Upon the declaration of this vote, Mr. Botts, of Virginia, moved to lay Mr. Gott's resolution on the table. This, however, was regarded by the House as going too far, and was ne- gatived, by 110 to 94.
The Illinois Legislature has passed resolutions, by 38 to 34, instructing the Senators and Representatives of Illinois to use all honourable mesas to procure the enactment of such laws by Congress as to expressly pro- hibit the extension of slavery- into newly-acquired territories.
The Morning Chronicle correspondent, Publicus, makes these obser- vations on the debate in the Senate-
" It is not unconnected with the preparations for holding a convention in Kentucky (a Slave State) with a. view to alter the constitution of the common- wealth in such a manner that a gradual emancipation of slaves shall be provided for, in the event of the Kentucky Legislature so decn3eing, hereafter. With a view also to this contemplated change, a leading slaveholderin Kentuoky sent the petition and memorial to the United States Congress; which was presented by Mr. Underwood, by way of ascertaining and testing the question, whether or not the nation (Federal Republic) would pay for the transmission of slaves taLiberia, in case of their being emancipated by their masters?"
The gold question, however, is even more absorbing than the slavery question. The accounts grow more incredible, and yet more authentic. Official letters from the American -Admirals and military officers describe a state of almost total disorganization in their forces, caused by the enor- mous gains of the gold-seekers. The military would seem to be deoamps ing by wholesale from their stations—officers and men alike. The naval commanders dare not approach shore for fear of losing all their crews- the commercial ships are dismanned, and lie rotting with cargoes on board. Commander-in chef Thomas A. C. Jones writes to the Secretary of the Navy, that there are five ships of war at Monterey, and yet if any-out- break occurred not a ship would dare go nearer than to bombard the bawn! The New York Herald introduces an interesting letter from a correspondent at Monterey, California, with the following mysterious paragraph-
" We have also received a private and confidential letter which contains in- telligence so astounding concerning the gold regions that we forbear giving it to the public at this time, lest they should not credit it, and might only laugh at Us for our pains, and accuse us of attempting to hoax and deceive the public."
We give considerable extracts from the public letter-
" The old foreign residents of California, having done very well ten or twenty years without law, care but very little whether Congress pays early or late-atten- tion to the subject. Those who have emigrated from the Atlantic States within the last three or four years deem the subject an important one; I only call it diffi- cult. The carrying out a code of laws, under existing circumstances, is far from being an easy task. The general Government may appoint governors, secretaries, and other public functionaries ; and judges, marshals, collectors, Saes may accept offices with salaries of 3,000 or 4,000 dollars per annum; but how they are to ob- tain their petty officers at half these sums, remains-to be seen. The pay of a member of Congress will be accepted here by those alone who do not know enough to better themselves. Mechanics can now get 10 to 16 dollars per day ; labourers on the wharfs or elsewhere, 5 to 10 dollars; clerks and storekeepers, 1,000 to 3,000 dollars per annum: some engage to keep store during their pleasure at 8 dollars per day, or 1,1b. or 1JL of gold per month; cooks and stewards, 60 to 100 dollars per month." "The Sandwich Islands, Oregon, Mid Lower California, are fast parting with their inhabitants, all bound for this coast, and thence to the great 'placer' of the Sacramento valley, where the digging and washing of one man that does not pre- , duce 100froy ounces of gold, 23 carats, from the size of a half spangle to a ponnd, in one month, set the digger to 'prospecting,' that is, looking for better grounds. Your poison° ' can point- out- tunny a man who has for fifteen to twenty days in succession bagged up five to ten ounces of gold a day. Our placer, or gold region, now extends. over 300 or. 400 milessof country, embracing All tles credo and branches on the East side Of the rivet Sacramento =crone side of the Sell Josquin. In my travels I have, when resting under a tree and grazing my horse, aim pieces of pure gold taken from crevices of the rooks or slate where we were sjOpping. On one occasion, nooning or refreshing on the side of a stream entirely =bowie to diggers orprospectors,' or, rather, if known, not attended to, one De my companions, in rolling in the sand, said, Give me a tin pan; why should we not be cooking in gold sands ? ' He took a pan, filled it with sand, washed it alt, and produced in five minutes two or three dollars' worth of gold; merely say- ing, as he threw both pan and gold on the sand, I thought so.' "The extent of the gold region on the San Joaquin and Sacramento rivers extends a distance of 800 miles lu length by 100 in width. It. embraces not only gold, but quantities of quielrailver in almost general abundance. It is estimated that a small population actively engaged in mining operations in that region could export 100,000,000 dollars in gold in every year, and that an increased population might increase that amount to 300,000,000 dollars annually. You may believe me when I say that for some time to come California will export, yearly, nearly or quite 5005000 ounces of gold, 22 to 24 carats fine; some pieces of that will weigh 16 pounds, very many 1 pound. Many men who began last Jane to dig gold with a capital of 50 dollars can now show 5,000 to 15,000 dollars. I saw a man today making purchases of dry goods, &o., for his family, lay on the counter a bag made of raw hide, well sewed up, containing 100 ounces. I observed, That is a good way to pack gold-dust.' He very innocently replied, 'All the bags I brought down are that way; Dike the size !' Five such bags in New York would bring nearly 10,000 dollars. This man left his family last Angust. Three months' digging and washing, producing four or five bags of 100 ounces ea h, is better than being mate of a vessel at 40 dollars per month, as the man formerly was. His companion. a Mexican, who camped and worked with him, only had two or three cowhide bags of gold. "In this tough but true golden tale, you must not imagine that all men are .equally successful. There am some who have done better, even to 4,000 dollars in a month, many 1,000 dollars during the summer. and others, who refused to join a company of gold-washers who had a cheap-Made machine and receive one ounce per day, that returned to the settlements with not a vest-pocket- ful of gold. Some left with only sufficient to purchase a horse and saddle, and pay the physician six ounces.of gold for one ounce of quinine, calomel and jalap in proportion. An ounce of gold for advice given, six ounces a visit, brings a fever and ague to be rather an expensive companion. A well' man has his pro- portionate heavy expenses, also, to reduce his piles or bags of gold. Dry beef in the settlements at 4 cents per pound, at the 'placer' 1 to 2 dollars per pound; salt beef and pork, 50 to 100 dollars per barrel; flour' 30 to 75 dollars per barrel; calk', sugar, and rice, 50 cents. to 1 dollar per pound. As washing is 50 cents to 1 dollar a garment, many prefer throwing away their used-up clothes to pay- ing the washerwoman; that is, if they intend returning to the settlements soon, where they can purchase more. As to shaving, I have never seen a man at the placer' who had time to perform that operation. They do not work on Sundays; only brush up the tent, blow out the emery or fine black sand from the week's work. Horses that can travel only one day, and from that to a week, are from 100 to 300 dollars. Freight-charge by launch-owners for three days' run, 5 dollars per barrel. Waggoners charge 50 to 100 dollars per load, twenty to fifty miles on good road. Corn, barley, peas, and beans, 10 dollars a bushel. Com- mon pistols, .say price; powder and lead very dear. "1 know a physician who, in San Francisco, purchased a common-made gold washer at 20 or 30 dollars, made of seventy or eighty feet of boards. At a great expense he boated it up to the first landing on the Sacramento, and there met a waggoner bound to one of the diggings with an empty waggon distant about fifty miles. The waggoner would not take up the machine uncle; 100 dollars. The doctor had to consent, and bided his time. June passed over, rich in gold; all on that creek did wonders: when the waggoner fell sick, he called on his friend the doctor, whose tent was in sight; the doctor came' but would not administer the first dose under the old sum of 100 dollars; which was agreed to, under a proviso that the following doses should be furnished more moderate. . "In San Francisco there is more merchandise sold now monthly than before in a year. Vessels after vessels arrive, laud their cargoes, dispose of them, and bag up the dust and lay up the vessel, as the crew are soon among the missing. The cleanest-clear-out is where the captain follows the crew. There are many vessels in San Francisco that cannot weigh anchor even with the assistance of three or four neighbouring vessels. Supercargoes-must land cargo on arriving, or have no crew to do it for them. Some vessels continue to go to sea with. small crews at 50 dollars per month for green hands. Old hands are too wise for them, and pre- fer digging an ounce or two a day, and drinking hock and champagne at half an ounce a bottle' and eating bad sea bread at 1 dollar per pound. I have seen a captain of a vessel, who by his old contract-in the port whence he sailed was get- ting 60 dollars per month, paying his cook 75 dollars and offering 100 dollars per month for a steward; his former crew, even to his mates, having gone a 'pros- pecting.' Uncle Sam's ships suffer a little the same way, although they offer from 200 to 500 'dollars for the apprehension of a deserter. The Ohio, however, lay in the port of Monterey about a month, and lost only twenty or thirty men. Colonel Stevenson's regiment is disbanded; ninety-nine out of a hundred of whom have also gone prospecting,' including the Colonel, who arrived in Monterey last month from his last post, and was met by his men at the edge of the town to escort and Cheer him into the town. The captains, &c., have bought up country carts and oxen, turned drivers, and gone to the placer."
The Washington Union contains a letter from Lieutenant Larkin, dated Monterey, November 16th, received at the State Department, containing further confirmation of the previous despatches, public and private, and far outstripping all other news in its exciting character. The gold was in- creasing in size and quality daily. Lumps were found weighing from 1 to 2 pounds. Several had been heard, of weighing as high as 16 pounds, and one 25 pounds. Many men who were poor in June were worth 30,000 dollars by digging and trading with the Indians. One hundred dollars a day is the average amount realized daily from July to October. Half the diggers were sick with fevers, though not many deaths had oc- curred among them. The Indians would readily give an ounce of gold for a common calico-shirt; others were selling for 10 dollars each in specie.
CANADA: AND No Scoma.—The mail brings news of interest from Canada and Nova Scotia.
On the -18th January, Lord Elgin opened the second session of the third Parliament of the province of Canada with a speech of unprecedented pro- mise. A local writer gives the following summary of present prospects under "responsible government."
"An amnesty for political offenses; an independentColonial post-office, with all its patronage; mil intercommunication from Halifax to Quebec; free navigation of the St. Lawrence; these are the graciowl gifts of the mother-country. The Colonial Ministry promise an enlargement of the representation, with a numerical addition to the representative body, an amended judicature, improved municipal laws, the University question settled, (attempted only, perhaps I ought to say, after as many failures,) the common school system extended, or at least pushed into more vi- gorona execution; the perfection of the efforts made to render the St. Lawrence -navigable for sea-going ships for a distance of 2,000 miles from its Meath; the maintenance of a sinking-fund for the invigoration of colonial credit; iimnigration facilitated; and finally, the segregation of a portion of the public domain for the promotion of education. Such a Ministerial bill of fare has not been shown since the days when Lord Sydenham astonished the liege's with the promise of a million and a halt sterling for the St Lawrence canals. There is no doubt that this ' bill' will be a very successful and popular one. Lord Elgin, it is discovered, has influence with the Imperial Government, and turns his influence to the ad, vantage of the country." The Provincial Legislature of Nova Scotia opened its session on the 18th January. Sir John Harvey announced that aU the acts passed in the pre- vious session had received the Royal assent. Like Lord Elgin, he dwelt at considerable length, and with much interest, on the progress of railway communication, particularly the connexion with Quebec.
Ten WEST INDIES.—The mail-steamer Tay arrived at Southampton ox Monday. The advices from Jamaica are to the 7th January. It seems that Governor Grey did adopt the resolution to benefit by the error in the Import-duties Bill; but the determination of the Assembly not to hold X sitting till this policy were retracted, induced him to reconsider his deter- mination, and ultimately to withhold his assent. He prorogued the Legislature, and called it together again on the 26th December. Oa that day he met the Assembly, and addressed it with a speech containing this passage- " Having learned that on Friday last you had adjourned to the 23d of January, before any bills had received the Governor's assent, and knowing that some of the Colonial enactments, on which the maintenance of civil government and social order within this island immediately depend, would expire within ten days from your adjournment, I have thought it my duty to invite you, in the Queen's name, to resume the despatch of business, in order that you may avail yourselves of the short interval during which it still remains within your power to make due pro- vision for_ the preservation of the public peace, and of your faith with the public creditor, and for the support of your existing social institutions, including those of the Established Church." Sir Charles concluded with hopes that the oommod good would throw into the shade the symbols and differences of party.
The Assembly replied with counter-innuendoes-
" We agree with your Excellency that impatience and hurry in the transaction of public business might be productive of mistakes: it would be presumptuous in us to indulge in the hope that our proceedings can be exempt from the error which beset all human institutions. The best test, however, of that mutual re- spect which your Excellency desires should exist between the several branches of the Legislature, would be a generous refusal on all occasions to avail themselves of the advantages to arise from such mistakes." In the afternoon sitting of the 27th December, the Council summoned Mr. Girod, the editor of the Jamaica Dispatch, for publishing a false and scandalous libel on the Council, in the shape of a letter from Mr. White, locke, the Chairman of the Assembly's Committee on the Import-duties Bill, concerning the conduct of the Council in regard to that bilL On refast lug to any anything till furnished with a copy of the warrant for his arrest, Mr. Gird was sent to prison. An application to release hint on a habeas corpus writ had been heard and refused by Mr. Justice Macdougal. From Trinidad, the accounts are to the 6th January. An order in Council was proclaimed in Port of Spain on the 30th of December, by which the whole of the Imperial duties payable upon the importation of goods into the colony were abolished. The new tariff came immediately into operation.
NEW ZEALAND.—We have received two numbers of a Wellington jour- nal, the New Zealand Spectator, for September 20th and 23d, in mourning guise for the death of Colonel Wakefield. The latter number reports the funeral, which was conducted with most impressive solemnities. The public offices, shops, and all places of business, were closed; the ships in the harbour carried their flags half-mast high; and a concourse both of colonists and aborigines collected to pay their tribute of respect to the de• parted leader. Governor Sir George Grey and Lieutenant-Governor Eyre were among the chief mourners; among the pall-bearers were the Honours able H. W. Petro and the Maori E Puni; and many gentlemen in the pals. lie service, the service of the Company, &c., joined in the procession. "All ranks, all professions, all classes, all religious denominations both races, united in testifying their regret at the loss which the colony has en- perienced. Never was any private individual in any colony followed to the grave with a greater demonstration of respect; never, perhaps, was it more deservedly bestowed. It is calculated that upwards of one thousand persons (including Na- tives) followed the body to the grave; while, including spectators of both races the number of persons present could hardly have been less than two thousand. The church was completely filled, and a considerable number of persons were obliged to remain outside for want of room.
"One Of the incidents most worthy of observation was the number of Natives present, and their appearance on this occasion. Nearly all were clothed in ESIO-
n attire; very many of both sexes were clothed in decent suits of black, evi- ently purchased for the occasion ; while many of the men wore crape on their hats, and the women crape on their bonnets, and some of them wore black veils. . . . . . The aboriginginhabitant and the colonist of New Zealand unite hr one- heartfelt and common demonstration of regret, and walk side by side while following to the grave the mortal remains of the founder of this settlement. And these men, who in common parlance are still called savages, are seerehabited, to all external appearance, like their civilized fellow subjects. This fact speaks volumes as to the treatment they have received. 11 at the best, the most un- equivocal testimony, is the conduct of E Puni. This fine old man, whose life is already extended beyond the ordinary term of human existence, is afflicted with a deep and genuine sorrow: in the loss of his friend and benefactor he appears to have lost all worth living for."