10 MARCH 1860, Page 7

farrign nub Culnuial.

I Si IP.—The bill intended to give effect to the treaty is in course of preparation. Count de Momy, in his opening speech, administered a strong dose of modified free-trade doctrine to the Deputies. The cardi- nals and prelates who are members of the Senate have presented to the House petitions demanding the maintenance of the temporal power of the Pope.

Two important despatches have been published in the Moniteur, both from the pen of M. Thouvenel, and both dated February 24th. One is addressed to Baron de Talleyrand, French Minister at Turin ; the other to Count de Persigny, French Ambassador at London. The former is the more interesting. M. Thouvenel begins by stating that "the moment has arrived for every one to speak out ; " and he proceeds to give, " without any reserve the views of the Emperor's Government, so that the Turin Cabinet may form its own judgment as to how far it may suit it to conform thereunto, in presence of such serious—I may say, such solemn conjunctures." France has never lost sight of the double object of so managing that the results of the war may not be lost, and that they may receive the official adhesion of Europe. The Government of Sardinia is then told that, if it undertakes work out of proportion to regular means and in- fluence, it will cause disorder either internally or externally ; lose its di- recting influence and be carried away into war or revolution. " We frankly say that the sentiment which brought forward in certain parts of Italy the idea of annexation, and which gave rise to the expression of that wish, is rather a manifestation directed against a great Power than a well considered attraction towards Sardinia."

It is high time to come to a settlement ; and this is what M. Thouvenel proposes on behalf of his Government :- " 1. Complete annexation of the Dnehies of Parma and Modena to Sar- dinia.

" 2. Temporal administration of the Legations of the Romagna, of Ferrara, and of Bologna, under the form of a vicariat (lieutenancy) exer- cised by his Sardinian Majesty, in the name of the Holy See. " 3. Ite6stablishment of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany in its political and territorial independence." The advantages of this solution are carefully pointed oat ; the dangers of annexing Tuscany are again dwelt upon ; and the desire for annexation on the part of the Tuscans is said to reveal " on the part of those whom it carries along with it an arriere-pensee of a war against Austria for the con- quest of Venetia, and an arriere-pensee, if not of revolution, at least of menace for the tranquillity of the States of the Holy See and of the King- dom of the Two Sicilies." Then it is said that, if Sardinia will accept the Emperor's proposals, he would defend the arrangement in a Congress, and declare it unattachable by foreign intervention. " In this hypothesis, then, Sardinia would be sure of having us with her and behind her. You are authorized to declare this formally to Count Cavour." Nevertheless, the Cabinet of Turin is free ; but with this qualification—" The hypothesis in which the Government of his Sardinian Majesty would have to rely only on its own forces developes itself, so to say, naturally, and it would be painful for me to dwell upon it.'

" I therefore confine myself to say, by the Emperor's orders, that we {will not consent at any price to take upon ourselves the responsibility of such a situation. Whatever may be his sympathies for Italy, and especially for Sardinia, which has mingled its blood with ours, his Majesty. would not hesitate to evince his firm and decided resolve to take the interests of France as his sole guidance." Finally, M. Thouvenel announces " that the formation of a more power- ful State at the foot of the Alps would be unfavourable to our interests. and, although, in the arrangement developed in this despatch, the annexa- tion of all the States of Central Italy to Sardinia should not be complete, it is certain that in the point of view of external relations it would be equiva- lent, in reality, to an analogous result. The same previsions, however dis- tinct they may be, claim the same guarantees ; and thepossession of Savoy and of the County of Nice, excepting the interests of Switzerland, which we always desire to take into account, also presents itself to us in that hypothesis as a geographical necessity for the safety of our frontiers." But he does not wish to constrain the expression of the popular will, and when the moment has arrived, he will not fail to consult the Great Powers.

The despatch to Count de Persigny is an involved and verbose argu- ment addressed to the British Government in favour of setting the ques- tions upon the basis of universal suffrage ; and a definition of the differ- ent positions occupied by the two Governments.

" In fact, the course of events during the past year has thrown us into the necessity of sustaining the weight of a war. England, on the contrary, has been able, without harm to our interests, to remain in an attitude of expectation. God forbid that I should pretend that England ought to show herself indifferent to the happy or unhappy results of the experience to which she invites us to associate ourselves ! But I shall say nothing but what is conformable to the nature of things in admitting that, if this experi- ence happened either to be wrecked in Italy itself or to provoke a European crisis, England would always be free to withdraw into the post of simple ob- servation. This task assuredly would be less easy for France, and we have the right, without wishing to oppose ourselves to the wishes of Central Italy, and still less to dictate a solution after consulting nothing but our own convenience—we have the right I say, to take into our previous considera- tion much more than England has any need to do so, the elements of in- ternal order and of external peace contained in the different solutions which may be offered for the great problem which holds at the present day all minds in suspense."

There Count de Persigny is directed to place before Lord John Russell the despatch to Baron de Talleyrand, containing the advice of France to the Court of Turin.

The Patric of Thursday believes itself "in a position to state that, on the question of Savoy, Sardinia shows such conciliatory intentions as could be expected from a country which owes its aggrandizement to France."

The Minister of the United States presented his credentials on the 5th.

The Iffeniteur of March the 6th observes that " Some German papers announce that the French artillery has been increased by the creation of three new regiments. The fact is," it continues, " the number of bat- teries having been reduced, the artillery has in reality undergone a re- duction."

tHil[•—The sole political question uppermost in Italian minds is— Will Central Italy again decide for annexation to Piedmont? The Go- vernments of Tuscany and the /Emilian provinces have submitted to the people the question in this form—Annexation to Piedmont or a separate Government. The suffrage is universal.

On the 26th of February, Baron Ricasoli delivered standards to the National Guard in front of the Campo Santo, the Battistero and hanging tower, and said :-

" If the departed heroes who sleep in this consecrated earth brought hither from Jerusalem by our crusaders, could hear this clang of arms, they would ask—Is it against Genoa or Venice war is waged ? No ! Italians now don't fight each other ; we all rally round one King, Victor Emmanuel' munici- pal jealousies are of the past. It is for us and not for strangers to decide on what suits our country. They may throw obstacles but they cannot stop our course. Romagna has decreed, Tuscany has adjudicated on the issue. Foreign powers may seek to suffocate our peninsula by obstructions to its free breathing. 1ti a breathe at last, and, save at Rome, Naples, and Venice, our lungs inhale national vitality. " We have in our midst a decrepid foe in Rome's temporal sceptre. Mix not up the faith of your fathers with that nuisance. They are distinct ; and in our day incompatible. Soldiers ! sons of the crusaders whose bones re- pose in this soil, keep your faith intact. In my veins there flows a blood that has for ages been at the service of our religion, and as a Catholic I feel it my duty to denounce the fraud and artifices of a worldly and profane Court, as much adverse to true Christianity as to national happiness. The Duke of Modena has gone to Bassane, " to inspect the troops." The Roman Government has prohibited commerce between Ancona and the Romagna. At Rome itself General Coven has been obliged to send soldiers to aid the students at the university. In Naples, the Govern- ment has been making fresh arrests. In Sicily, the Attorney-General has been murdered at Messina. The Neapolitan Government night and day prepares munitions of war.

Count Cavour's answer to M. Thouvenel's despatch of February 25th has been published. It is an important document. After reciting the substance of M. Thouvenel's proposal, Count Cavour remarks that its realization would encounter serious difficulties. Had it been proposed in August, it would have pointed to a solution more advantageous for Italy than Italy was permitted to hope for the day after the peace of Villa- franca, and it might have been accepted at least without repugnance. But that is not now the case. The people have been accustomed to na- tional governments, and they feel strongly that they have a right to /Re- pose of themselves, a feeling increased imposed force, and by the publication

b/ithe declaration of the Emperor

that no government should be of the English propositions. Therefore, t e King's Government can only transmit to Tuscany and the /Emilia the poposal of M. Thouvenel. The Governments of those countries had already engaged to consult the people in accordance with one of the British proposals, and they will do so by universal suffrage. " Whatever may be the reply returned by the States of Central Italy, the King's Government at once declares that it will accept it unconditionally. If Tuscany declares for the preservation of her self-government by means of the formation of a State distinct from Sardinia, not only will it not oppose the realization of this wish, but it will frankly aid in overcoming the obstacles which such a solution might encoun- ter, and obviating the inconvenience which may follow from it. It will act in like manner with respect to the Romagna and to the Duchies of Panne and Modena. But if, on the contrary, these provinces again manifest in a clear manner a wish to be united to Piedmont, we cannot any longer oppose it. Indeed, did we wish to do so, we could not. In the present state of public opinion, a Ministry who should refuse a second demand for annexation, sanctioned by a second popular vote on the part of Tuscany, would not only no longer find support in Parliament, but would soon be overthrown by an unanimous vote of censure. In accepting beforehand the contingency of annexation, the King's Government takes upon itself an immense responsibility. The formal declarations contained in the despatch of M. Thouvenel to Baron de Talleyrand render it is aware, the dangers much more serious which it may produce. if it do not recede before them, it is because it is convinced that by rejecting the demand of Tuscany, not only the Cabinet, but King Victor Emmanuel himself, would lose all in- fluence and all moral authority in Italy, and would probably be reduced to the alternative of governing by force. Bather than hazard in such a man- ner the great work of regeneration, for which France has made so many generous sacrifices, the honour, and even the interest, well understood, of our country, urge the King and his Government to expose themselves to the most perilous chances."

The question of the Vicariat is not submitted to the Romagna because its rejection is certain ; and Count Cavour thinks that the better plan would be for the King to take possession of the Romagna, if the people vote for annexation, and settle afterwards its relations to the Holy See, on the basis of an acknowledgment of the suzerainty of the Pope. Count Cavour does not fear that the annexation of Tuscany would embarrass the King's Government ; on the contrary, it is to Tuscany that he looks for both moderate Liberals and Moderate Conservatives.

The Opinion affirms that, in the note of the 2d instant, relative to Savoy, Count Cavour expresses the attachment of the Government of the King to his provinces ' • but, at the same time, true to the principle which he supports in Central Italy, he declares his intention to interrogate the population in a manner to be established by Parliament, reserving be- sides the questions of the frontiers and guarantees to be given to Savoy.

Governor-General Farini arrived at Bologna on the 1st instant. He had taken counsel with Cavour at Cremona, and at Panne with Buon- compagni and Minghetti. Farini appeared in good spirits. Cavour's re- ception at Cremona was overwhelming. Marquis Avaldi gave him and Farini a splendid banquet, at which the French General and his staff and the Bishop of Cremona were present. The electioneering movement proceeds with enthusiasm.

6trIna1111.—An imperial patent was published at Vienna on the 6th of March, ordering the augmentation of the Imperial Council by extra- ordinary councillors, who are to be assembled periodically. The Em- peror himself will appoint for life, as members of the Council, the arch- dukes, the clerical dignitaries, and some distinguished persons belonging to the civil and military branches. The Provincial Diets are to propose thirty-eight members, subject to the approval of the Emperor, who will choose every member from a list of three candidates presented by the Diets. These members will take their seats in the Council for six years. The following are the subjects which will be submitted to the discus- sion of the Council :—The budget, the examination of the balance of public accounts, the demands of the commission for the public debt, and important projects of general laws. The Council will have no initiative in the discussion of the wishes of the Provincial Diets. The Ministers and the heads of the public central offices are entitled to take part in the discussions of the council. The arrangement of the rules for transacting the business of the Council is reserved. The Conneillors are to have no allowances from the Treasury. Another imperial ordinance convokes the assembly of the Councillors for the month of May next, in order to examine the budget for 1861, for which purpose, and for the active preparation of the establishment of the Provincial Diets, the Emperor will call competent men from all the pro- vinces.

A telegram from Vienna contains this curious statement touching Austrian policy :- " On inquiries made here by the representatives of some foreign Powers, the Austrian Government has replied that its interests not being directly affected by the annexation of Savoy to France, it would observe, on this question, the same passive conduct which the great Powers exhibited at the i time of the last war in Lombardy ; and that Austria will not protest against the annexation of Savoy." The despatches of Count de Rechberg, in answer to the French despatch, supporting the English propositions, have been published. They are dated February 17, and are addressed to Prince Metternich. Moderate in tone, they amount in substance to a demand for the fulfil- ment of the stipulations of the treaties of Villafranca and Zurich, and are full of a hostile animus towards Sardinia. Austria considers that the French Emperor's assurance that force should not be used power- fully contributed to that attitude of the Central Italians which is now alleged as a reason why the programme of Villafranca cannot be fulfilled.

An interesting discussion took place in the Prussian Chamber on the 1st of March. A petition was presented in favour of the Italians, and a committee, assuming that the Government and Prussia would share its opinion, proposed to pass to the order of the day without discussion, a course in which the Minister for Foreign Affairs concurred. But the Chamber would discuss the question. M. Reichensperger, a Roman Ca- tholic, and deputy for Cologne, made a long speech. In Italy, the Ger- man eagle has been replaced by another, but liberty has not gained by it. The committee were for non-intervention--why, there are 50,000 Frenchmen in Lombardy. He insisted that the mission of Prussia was to uphold the principle of legitimacy. He admitted that he had at heart the welfare of the Pope. M. Behrend, a Liberal, and Deputy for Dant- sic, advocated the unity of Upper Italy and an alliance with England. " The alliance of Prussia and England ought to replace certain ententes cordiales contrary to nature, and thus prevent the annexation of Savoy to France. I think, gentlemen, that this is the conviction of the great ma- jority of the Prussian people, and I have felt it my duty publicly to ex- press it."

M. de Bonin said, alluding to the Italians, that he had no sympathy with "insurgents." After further debate, M. de Vincke rose and spoke at length. He vindicated the proceedings of the Italians. The Bing of Prussia had in 1848 declared that the vote of the National Assembly gave him a claim to the Imperial crown of Germany, and England called her revolution of 1688 " glorious." Do not, therefore, cry yourselves hoarse, by railing against insurgents.

The loss of a portion of his temporal power would give the Pope an in- crease of spiritual power. The Papacy existed a long time without having temporal possessions. The Romagna fell to it recently enough. Only last

year Austria possessed on the Po a territory which had fortnerly belonged to

the Holy See. I leave it to you, gentlemen, to draw your own conclusions from these facts. (Laughter.) The French are in Lombardy with the con- sent of the King of Sardinia. I have not heard it stated that they have in- tervened in Tuscany or in the Romagna. M. Reichensperger has also spoken of English guineas. I advise him, as a friend, not to pronounce on futile suspicious words from this tribune insulting to an allied power nor to swear by the Augsburgh Gazette, whose correspondents notoriously in part to a Radical society of London, commonly called The sulphur party.' (Laughter.) It is said the petition is hostile to Austria, and the double- headed eagle of Germany has been invoked. If I consult history, I cannot find anything Germanic about that bird, not even a single feather. The Austrian eagle is simply a black and yellow bird; it has nothing German about it, and has done everything to disunite Germany. I might quote ex- amples by the dozen. One will suffice. Remember the peace of Villafranca. The official despatches prove, according to my idea, that Prussia advanced too far in favour of Austria, to whom she wished to guarantee Lombardy. Despite this, the Emperor of Austria has dared publicly to accuse Prussia of having abandoned her at the moment when the Emperor Napoleon declared he was stopped in his victorious march by the attitude of Prussia! In pre- sence of such facts, we have no need to show too much friendship and com- placency to Austria. (Cheers.) In Austria's own interests, I trust Sar- dinia may become strong enough to become a bulwark against France. Austria would do well to give up Venetia likewise. (Laughter from the Feudal Left.) Do von prefer, then, now that she is bankrupt—("No no !" from the Feudal Left),—yea, I repeat it, now that she is bankrupt ;—do you prefer to see her add additional millions to her debt, or to contract another secret loan of one hundred and eleven millions ? I look upon everything that strengthens the power of Sardinia as an advantage for Germany and for Prussia, not only on account of similarity of institutions, but because Sardinia ought to be a bulwark against France. It is for this same reason that Sardinia ought also to keep the passes of the Alps, end, had the peti- tioners only indicated so much as that, I should thank them for that alone. As regards the principle of legitimacy, I ask whether the Crown of Eng- land, despite the usurpation of 1688, is not legitimate ? And what do you say of Portugal, of Spain, of Sweden, of Belgium ? Are thirty or fifty years required ? As long as the international law of Euro.pe does not contain enactments in this respect, you had better leave us in peace about your principles of legitimacy. (Laughter.) I am firmly convinced that the policy of the present Minister of Foreign Affairs is conformable to these views."

M. de Schleinitz made a speech, in which he said that Prussia would not refuse her efforts to bring about a regular state of things ; and the Chamber passed to the order of the day.

Eungarg.—The Evangelical community of Presbung have unani- mously refused to submit to the Imperial decree of the 1st of September, and to the Ministerial ordinance of the 2d of September.

0 pan auk 311.nrurru.—General Echague has commenced a for- ward movement from Serallo, but it is not known in what direction. Marshal O'Donnell has sent to Madrid the cannon taken at Tetuan. The siege train was embarked on the 1st, and mules were disembarked. The .Epoea and the Occidente, Ministerial papers, assert that to preserve the territory conquered in Africa would entail sacrifices on Spain greater than the advantages she would obtain. The other papers maintain reserve on the question. The manufacture of rifled guns has been de- clared free in Spain.

II kt 4.—Advices from Constantinople to the 3d of March, state that "Sir Henry Bulwer would shortly proceed to England on family affairs. The Western Powers have made proposals to the Porte to assist in the maintenance of its rights in Servia and the Danubian Principalities, should any complications and an armed intervention take place there. It is stated that the Porte has requested a treaty of alliance with them for cer- tain emergencies."

SAE 11.—The Overland summary of the Bomhay Times and Standard of the 9th of February states that—in consequence of troops from home being sent to China, her Majesty's 24th will stand fast " and two regi- ments will be stationed in the hills, one at Dugshai, and the other at Kussowlie. The Submarine Telegraph cable has been laid to Kooria Mooria. Lord Canning held a grand durbar in Umballah on the 19th of January : a large assemblage of Native princes and nobles were present. A grand review, a presentation of colours to the 87th by Viscountess Can- ning, and a ball were on the programme of the gathering. Lord Clyde it is said gives to Peshawar with the Governor-General where Dost Ma- homed is to be received at a grand durbar.

R11 lid tatty.—On February 21, the Senate ratified the treaty of amity and commerce with Paraguay. The Mexican treaty had been reported and read. Resolutions for the acquisition of Cuba and the Canadas were before the Senate, also the French Spoliation Bill, and the Bill for the International Copyright. Mr. Lamar had declared in the Senate, that " the South were determined that the institution of slavery should be maintained as an existing fact in the confederacy." The boundary-line of St. Juan has been again discussed. A grand mass meeting in favour of upholding inviolate the Government of the Union according to the spirit of its founders, was held in New York, on the night of the 21st of February. ,

lutrlaig.—The overland summary of the Melbourne Argus, of the 17th January, states that the Melbourne Chamber of Commerce has agreed to recommend to the Government the proposition of the Penin- sular and Oriental Company, to alter the route of the mail steamers from Mauritius to Point de Galle, and to give a fortnightly service for an ad-

ditional subsidy of 25,0001. a year. The proposed route will bring the Australians into more direct connexion with India and our Eastern possessions.

The volunteer movement is progressing. An order from the War- office, directing an immediate discharge of all soldiers from the Fortieth Regiment, who have served a term of ten years, has caused much dis- satisfaction among the colonists. The number of men to be withdrawn would not amount to more than seventy or eighty, but they could ill be spared.

At Lamplough diggings, in the Avoca district, the miners, some 20,000 in number, are making large earnings. The gold-fields generally promise well. The companies have done little. The share mania was at an end some time since.

The agricultural season has been very prosperous. The grain is good, the returns above the average. Machinery is increasing, and the colo- nial makers have carried off all the prizes for reaping machines. Stock of superior quality continue to be imported and improved with great success.

Melbourne had been drained of labourers for the harvest field, and they were receiving a very high wage. " Mechanics and tradesmen are still out of employment in great numbers, but it is not known to the public whether this is the result of combinations among themselves or of there being no work for them to do."

Railway-making is proceeding with activity. In a commercial aspect, the year 1859 " closed amid general gloom and despondency." In general resources, however, the year does not contrast unfavourably with the previous one. The money market had been subjected to several fluctuations. Mercantile houses had required large advances, in order to enable them to hold the merchandise con- signed to them. Rents have been maintained in the business part of the city.

From New South Wales we learn that the Assembly has assented to the principle of subsidizing the proposed sub-marine telegraph from Aus- tralia to Java. Coal has been found in the Valley of the Grose in large quantities. There was an increase in the revenue of last year of 8 per cent over 1858.