11 SEPTEMBER 1858, Page 7


A telegraphic despatch from Jersey, dated Tuesday announced the in- auguration of the Channel Islands telegraph. The wire works emcees- fay. A congratulatory address was sent by the directors to her Ma- jesty, at the completion of which its success was hailed by- the assem- bled multitude with tremendous cheering. The streets were crowded with people, and liege were flying in all directions, ashore and afloat. A procession, accompanied by military bands, paraded the town. The town was illuminated in the evening, and fireworks were displayed in the Royal Square and other places. Something has gone wrong with the Atlantic telegraph. There is a stoppage; and the question is, will it be temporary or permanent. Mes- sages, it seems cannot be received from Newfoundland. Why is this? The Daily News offers an explanation. "The bond of electrical union between Ireland and Newfoundland con- Bien; of a copper strand, containing seven twisted wires of pure copper. Each wire is not much thicker than a thread of sewing silk, and a section of the rope formed by the twisting of all seven not much larger than the head of an ordinary sized pin. Such is the thickness of the electrical road to America under the depths of the ocean. The gutta percha coverings of this capper rope, as well as its hempen and iron wire sheathings, are only for the insulation and support of the precious core.

"Of all the marvels of modern electricity, perhaps the most astounding is this, that either water or earth will serve as a return wire for the Tele- graph. When the electric telegraph was first introduced, it was supposed to be necessary to lay down, or erect, two insulated wires, between the stations from and to which signals were to be received and despatched. Supposing, for instance, we wished to communicate between London and Eduiburgh ; the electrical current could only be sent from London to Edin- burgh, so as to record itself, upon the condition that there should be some means by which it should travel back again to the place whence it started. "The electrical current could only be created in London, and detected at Edinburgh, by the existence of two electrical roads, one to carry the current and the other to return it, so as to establish what is called a complete or closed circuit. This required two wires, one to carry the message shock, wave, or current, from London to Edinburgh, the other to return it. It was soon discoved, first, that wherever there existed an unbroken body of water it might be substituted for the return wire • and secondly, that the earth itself, for all known distances of electrical stations, might be similarly used.

"How it comes that earth or water acts as a means of enclosing or com- pleting the electrical circuit, is not yet well understood. It is one of many marvels of science, well determined, yet hard to grasp intellectually. Elec- trical waves or currents, call them what you will, have been transmitted from Ireland to Newfoundland through 2000 miles of copper rope not thicker than a bodkin ; these currents have found their way back through the earth, under the depths of the Atlantic Ocean, accurately to the spot from whence they started. How have they found their way back again ? Has the subtle lightning forced a path through the shortest mathematical line from the spot where the copper wire dipped into the earth at Newfoundland, to that where the other end of the wire was buried in Ireland ? Are we to conceive some marvellous fluid flowing, or some equally marvellous vibration of par- ticles of matter transmitted, by the shortest route, between the two earth ends of the cable, or is it diffused through the surface of the earth for some unknown distance on each side of this narrow path ? Are we, instead of these processes, so hard to conceive, to suppose the earth a great reservoir of neu- tralisation for molecular disturbance, so that the particles of the wire being disturbed by electrical vibrations, the earth at both ends of the wire may neutralise these vibrations, when both the ends are in contact with it ? These are some of the scientific speculations as to the rationale of the fact that the earth serves as a return- wire for any lengths of electrical cable, provided that cable be kept throughout its whole length out of electrical communication with the earth If the copper rope had been completely broken across and the ends separated trot contact, no signals could have been sent either way. But if there ex- isted a leakage of electricity near one of the stations, or a diminution in the conductibility of the wire by its attenuation or some other cause, a signal might be received at that station, though it could not be transmitted from it.

"The intensity of a current of electricity sent though any length of elec- tric wire or cable 1/3 diminished in some ratio, depending upon the length of the wire through which it passes. The current, which may be of great in- tensity as it leaves Newfoundland, becomes much weaker as it reaches Ire- land. As it leaves Newfoundland it would perhaps paralyse you as it nears Ireland you might take it with impunity. Now, if there be an inter- ruption or leakage, not a total stoppage, of the electrical current near Ire- land, the current sent from Newfoundland to Ireland might suffer a great diminution of intensity near its destination, and yet be strong enough to make itself manifest to the recording a instrument in Ireland. On the other hand, the current sent from Ireland to Newfoundland, suffering a great loss of intensity near its starting point, might not, after its diminution of inten- sity, be able to record its presence at Newfoundland."

The Queen has given orders for the appointment of Mr. Richard Me- an Bromley, C.B., Accountant-General of the Navy, and of Mr. Tho- in.as Tassel Grant, late Controller of the Victualling and Transport Ser- vices of the Navy, to be Knights Commanders of the Order of the Bath, Civil Division, and of Mr. James Ormiston 31`William5 M.D., Surgeon in the Royal Navy, to be a Companion of the Order, Civil Division.

An appeal is made to public opinion on a point of universal interest-

cruel and barbarous scene was enacted a month ago in the house of M. Mortara at Bologna, a respectable and worthy man, the father of a flraily professing the Jewish religion. A child, six years old, has been violently torn from its parents under the pretence that it had been bap- tized by a Christian maid-servant two years previously, and all the en- treaties and supplications offered by the parents to the authorities have to the present moment proved unavailing, either to recover the child or to learn anything of its fate. Twenty-one Sardinian congregations have. addressed a joint appeal to the London Jewish Board of Deputies, soliciting its interference in behalf of the heart-broken family. The Board met on Monday last, when,it was unanimously resolved to res- Vnd to the appeal. A sub-committee of eight was appointed, with Sir "loses Montefiore at its head, to which full power was given, to take all necessary steps required by the emergency. The sub-committee re- solved to put itself in communication with the Israelitish Central Consis-

toriea of France and Holland, to appeal to the press of England, to en- deavour to enlist the sympathy of the English Government in the cause, and, if need be, to send a deputation to the Pope.

The Bishop of Oxford has issued a commission addressed to three laymen and two clergymen of his diocess, to inquire into the statements alleged against the Reverend Richard Temple West, M.A., of Christchurch, Oxford, and curate of Boyne Hill, in reference to his practice of confession, as brought out in a case which has lately been so prominently before the public, and to report to his lordship whether there is prima facts ground for instituting further proceedings. The commissioners are Br. Robert Phillimore, Chan- cellor of the diocess ; the Venerable James Randall, 31.A., Archdeacon of Berkshire ; the Reverend J. Austen Leigh, M.A., vicar of Bray (the parish in which Mr. Gresley's district is situate) ; Mr. Charles Sawyer, of Hey- wood Lodge ; and Mr. J. Ilibbert, of Braywick Lodge ; the two latter being county magistrates.

Nearly the whole of the 5000 reinforcements of cavalry and infantry se- lected by the Government to proceed to India have now been despatched. During the present summer reinforcements of upwards of 10,000 men have been despatched to India, the whole of whom are armed and equipped with the Enfield rifle, and are in other respects tit to take the field immediately after landing. With the exception of the two regiments of the Line ordered to embark ou the 18th instant, the war authorities do not intend forward- ing any additional reinforcements for the present, unless any unforeseen emergency arises, in which case there are at the present moment at least 5000 troops immediately available.

The Channel fleet is again at sea. Bear-Admiral Sir C. Fremantle, in the screw steamship Orion, 91, Captain D'Eyncourt ; with the Renown, 91, Captain Arthur Forbes ; Caner, 90, Captain Charles Frederick ; Brunswick, 80, Captain Erasmus Oinmanuiey ; Euryalus, 51, Captain John W. Tarle- ton ; and the Racoon, 22, Captain James A. Paynter, left Plymouth Sound on Wednesday afternoon for Bantry Bay.

Lord and Lady Stratford de Redeliffe started on Saturday for Marseilles, where they will be received on board the Curacoa and conveyed to Con- stantinople. Lord Stratford goes to take leave of the Sultan. He and his family will afterwards winter in Rome.

Rear-Admiral Robert Gordon has been unanimously elected Deputy-Mas- ter of the Trinity House Corporation in the room of Captain Shepherd, Member of the Council of India.

In a letter received from Lord Clyde on the 3d, the gallant Commander- in-chief refers to the hope "that his sword will soon be returned into the scabbard for the last time, never to be drawn again."—baily Notes.

There is now another candidate in the field for the Glengall Peerage in the person of Mr. Francis O'Ryan, eldest son of the late Mr. Francis O'Ryan, of Cashel, and grandson to the late Mr. Andrew O'Ityan, of Banshee Castle, county Tipperary. • The Duke de Nemours, the Count d'Eu, and the Count d'Alencon, have been visiting the English lakes.

The King and Queen of Prussia have returned to Potsdam. "When they arrived at the railway station the public were strictly excluded.

Queen Victoria has presented Count Peckler Marshal of the Court of the Prince of Prussia, with a valuable snuff-box. Her Majesty has also given 5000 thalers to be distributed among the servants at the ralace of Babela- berg, and a similar sum to the poor of Potsdam.

The last accounts received from Tangiers state that the Emperor of Mo- rocco, who has now reached an advanced age, is seriously ill.

Archdeacon Cowper, the father of the New South Wales Premier, and one of the earliest colonial chaplains, died early in July, and was buried on the 9th of that month. He belonged to a past generation. He lived to nearly eighty years of age, and had resided in the colony for almost half a century.

Mr. James M‘Gregor, late Chairman of the South-Eastern Railway, and sometime Member for Sandwich, died on Sunday. He had gone on Friday week to his hairdresser, had fallen down insensible while talking in the shop, and lingered until Sunday.

Mr. Dorliug, the author of" Dorling's Correct Card," a great racing au- thority, died recently at the advanced age of 86.

A monument is about to be erected at Prague to the late Marshal Ra- detzky. The statue of the old soldier will be supported on shields upheld by eight colossal figures made of the metal of Sardinian cannon.

Statues of Montaigne and Montesquieu were inaugurated on Monday last at Bordeaux. The mayor and municipal authorities of the city, the prefect of the department, the councillors of the prefecture, a number of the members of the Academy of Bordeaux, and a large concourse of people, were present at the ceremony.

A director of the Midland Railway has erected, at his own expense, a marble drinking fountain on the Leicester station. These fountains are becoming very general, but it is stated that wherever they have been put up drunkeness has decreased.

The commission formed by the French Minister of State for reforming the diapason, has sent a circular to the directors of foreign theatres and orches- tras, asking them what pitch they generally use, and requesting useful sug- gestions. In order to afford time for replies to arrive, it has adjourned its sittings for the present.

During the last week the comet detected by Dr. Donati on the 2d of June has rapidly increased in brightness, and on Sunday evening, when the sky was very clear, was fully as conspicuous to the naked eye as a star of the fourth magnitude. The tail is very distinct, forming, with the somewhat brilliant nucleus a pretty telescopic object. The brightness of the comet will be constantly on the increase during the present month. It will be found about ten degrees above the north-west horizon at eight o'clock in the evening.

The Times has received the following amusing letter which it print (Wrath?' et verbatim :—

" Sheerenees Sept. 7 1818

"Sir—on 3funday morning the 6th of Sept. I Seen a Commet Star at 2.10m Am I have Cauld two more men to witness my Strange Site, in the Heavens this Commet Maid its apierance to me above the Horezen at 10 minuts Past 2. The Skey was then very Clear I watched it Course until 4 Am when the Strong Dawn of Day took away ists Refliction at 2.30 it is on an Even line with the 2 Pointers to the North Star & about the Same Dis- tance Below the Pointers as the North Star is from the Pointers I fist 2 Sticks in the Ground & flat a rool By them I took my alivation By those at the Same time I had my Spy Glass to watch menutely it Course in on Half Hour it Crossed my fixt alevation to the South about 3 Points this Commet is not as large as the Commet of 18011 I have witnessed the Commet of Eighteen Hundred and 11 & all the Comnets Since the above Date, this one 18 about the Middle Size Class Commet of a Clear Morning you Can See it in the NN.E House at 2. Am at 2.30 to 3. it is on an Even line aithe the 2 Pointers to the North Star it is Visibly Seen By the Eye if the Heavens is Clear- "Horesen 111111 Comet =so pointers o. o N Star o

"Gentlemen Be Plead to let me Know if I am the firs man that that Seen this Strange Star out of 16 Milieu of Poeple in England "C MOREN Shereness "Kent Engaland "I have two men to witness my Strange Sight. "As I Ern my living By being out at Night this 35 years Past' have wit- nessed often wonderfull Strange Sights in the Heavens—that neaver Come Before the Publick."

The first Austrian steamer arrived at Frankfort-on-the-Main on the 31st August. It had passed up the Danube, and the Ludwig,'s canal.

It is now very probable that coal will supersede coke in the engines of railway locomotives. Some interesting experiments have recently been made on the Manchester and ]Jlackpool railway, with the view of testing sets of apparatus invented for rendering the substitution practicable and profitable.

Bishop Maltby has presented a donation of 20/. to the Royal National Lifeboat Institution. The demands on this valuable institution are at pre- sent very heavy. In addition to having seventy lifeboats under its manage- ment it is now building ten new lifeboats for various dangerous points of the coast. When complete with carriages, houses, and other stores, these ten lifeboats will cost at least 3000/.

There are now six ships advertised by the Postmaster-General to take ship letter-bags to Vancouver's Island. Two of the ships arc steamers.

Mr. James Wylie, in a letter to the North British Mail, offers the following remedy for two evils—viz., excessive crinoline, and liability to accidental combustion, of which the fair sex are now the subject :—" By adding to the starch used in preparing these dresses a table spoonful of common alum in a powdered state, the starch makes the dress far stiffer, and prevents its bursting into flame when placed in contact with any burn- ing substance."

• A correspondent who has had good official experience of the Chinese, ex- presses a strong apprehension that if the payment of the war indemnity, Which is rumoured to have been fixed at 3,200,0001. for England, and 1,200,000/. for France, is allowed to he left dependent on the collection of Customs' dues at Canton, not only will its receipt be problematical, but there will be a constant recurrence of disputes. It is thought that, owing to the organized system of smuggling. encouraged by the local authorities, and tacitly promoted by the commercial representatives of the various Go- vernments, European and American, trading with the country, the annual total lately paid by foreigners at Canton for import and shipping dues has actually not exceeded 50°,000/. The practice has been to sell the imports, leaving the purchaser to pay the duties; exports, on the other hand, being purchased on board ship, so that in either case the payment of all imposts was invariably left to the Chinamen, who made their own arrange- ment with the Customhouse runners and river-police. Under these cir- cumstances it is contended, that if the indemnity is to be secured promptly and quietly it must come from Pekin, and that it would be grievous to with- draw the fleet from the Peiho so long as there is a single point on which we are asked to trust to promises. The same writer looks with apprehension to the turbulent disposition of the Cantonese, coupled with their virulent hatred of foreigners, and recalls the fact that some years back a deputation pre- sented themselves at the British Consulate from the ninety-six villages of the district, consisting of the gentry and landholders, for the purpose of giving a " respectful " warning that any foreigners found in the surrounding country would be killed, in the same manner as some half-dozen gentlemen lately at Hwang Chee-kee, "the anger of the people being intense and their will uncontrollable." This feeling he believes to be as universal as ever. "I can therefore never again," he says, "look forward to Canton as a place of trade or safety." On this point, however, few persons perhaps will be disposed to share his fears to their full extent. The recent mismanagement of the Bri- tish and French occupation has doubtless done much to encourage the tru- culent spirit of the rabble, but under a determined course, such as Lord Elgin would probably have adopted towards them, the result, it may be pre- sumed, would have been wholly different, and they would have thought only of trading and cheating. At the same time, with regard to the in- demnity, there can be little doubt that it should be made a prompt transac- tion, and that the Emperor, if pressed, could find the means of settling it with perfect ease. Customhouse complications at Canton, or any of the other ports, are certainly the last things with which it would be desirable to en- cumber the new era which the opening of China to the world is expected to inaugurate.—Times, City article.

The Registrar-General reports that the total number of deaths in London in the week that ended on Saturday, cSeptember 4,) was 1039. In the ten years 1848-'57 the average number in the weeks corresponding with last week was 1341; but as the deaths of last week occurred in an increased population, the average to admit of comparison must be raised proportion- ately to that increase, in which case it will become 1478. Hence it appears that last week was so favourable to the health of the inhabitants of London, thats139 persons survived, who would have died if the average rate of mor- had had prevailed.

An earthquake took place in Mexico on the 19th of June last, one of the most severe that has been known since the Spanish invasion. There were eight shocks. In the city of Mexico the strongest structures reeled to their foundations, the waters spouted in jets from the sewers ; the street lamps vibrated from east to west for a quarter of a minute. The earth opened in the streets ; trees writhed and swayed for many minutes, and some were thrown out of the earth. Houses, aqueducts, and railroads were seriously injured. About twenty-four towns and cities in Mexico sustained damage from the earthquake, and a great number of lives were lost. Damage to the value of more than a million sterling has been done to the city of Mexico. All the violent shocks took place in the space of about one minute and a half. The shocks and tremblings lasted about three minutes.

An accident, very fatal in its character occurred on Monday evening at the Vesinet station of the St. Germain's railway. The trains are propelled from the station up an incline by a stationary engine. They descend by their own weight, controlled by breaks. A huge train, full of revellers from the forest, was descending, when the breaks gave way, and the mass rushed to the bottom, dashing against the engine waiting to take it to Pali', Seven were killed and fifty were wounded.

A porter in a respectable establishment in Bristol lately received a letter from one of his sons, a private in the 60th Rifles, now serving in India, ' which he states that he " can put his hands on a thousand pounds a: day," and in proof of it enclosed a draught for 20/. as a present to the old man. This is "the fortune of war" in a substantial fonn."—Klem Paper.

A horse, driven by Major-General Dalton, was lost week attacked by a vast swarm of wasps. In eight and forty hours the poor creature died from the shock given to its nervous system and the inflammation caused by the venemous stings.

An extraordinary statement is made in the St. Petersburg journals. LI demolishing a wall in the apartments of the Hereditary Grand Duke, jo what is called the "Great Palace," in that city, the skeleton of a female was found still covered with fragments of clothing, which fell to dust on being exposed to the air. There is not the slightest tradition, they add, to show who the woman was, or why she was closed up in the wall.

In the fifth week of July last (the most recent return made) there were 815,853 paupers receiving relief in England and Wales alone, against 812,392 in 1857. The increase extends to every week of the month. In the metropolis, however, there was a decrease of samperism in each week as compared with July, 1857, and this has been the case for several weeks past.

The latest intelligence from Victoria contains a statistical return of no little interest to ladies. By the last returns of the Registrar-General of the colony we perceive that the numerical preponderance of men over 'Women amounted to the astounding sum of 134,000 in a population of 470,000. In other words, there were only about 168,000 women to 302,000 men, and this proportion was becoming even more unfavourable, as the goldfields still acted as a magnet to the adult male labour of the world. Now, these 134,000 unhappy bachelors consist mainly of men earning needy the best wages in the world. An acre of land can be purchased for 20s. and what more obvious to the well-paid workman than that the only things neces- sary to a reasonable amount of earthly felicity are a cottage, a garden, and a wife ? Are statistics always uninteresting to fair readers ?

At the close of the reign of Napoleon I. the total number of members of the Legion of Honour was 9,000. Great progress has been made since then. There are now 272,000 members. Their name is, indeed, "legion,