fortigu nub Colonial.
"rant. —The Congress of Paris continues to sit, and the state of ItalY is confidently reported to be the subject of its deliberations. More than this, the English Leading Journal gives currency to a statement that, in reply to a question from the French Emperor of " What can one do for Italy ? " the Sardinian Minister, Count Cavour, seized the op- portunity of presenting papers which comprised a thoroughly comprehen- sive anawer, on the actual condition of Italy, the policy of the Abso- lutist Governments, and the reforms at present practicable.
One of the reports in Paris is at when the ratifications are exchanged, the Emperor will visit i thlgeria. He is to entertain the Ple- nipotentiaries at a grand banquet today. " It has been decided," says a telegraphic message, " that the proces verbaux of the Congress shall be published."
t 111.-.--The Pope, it is stated, intends to testify his delight at the reestablishment of peace by celebrating the Anno Santo, or Holy Year. This ceremony should have been performed in 1850 ; but the revolution- ary condition of the States of the Church prevented the Pope from in- flicting on the Romans a year of "exhortations and fasting, without theatres, carnivals, and other riotous amusements."
Diplomatic relations between Russia and Sardinia have been suspended since 1848: it is anticipated that they will now be speedily resumed.' "Mutual sentiments of esteem and goodwill have sprung up between the two nations who have fairly and courageously fought each other.4! Iii is stated that General La Marmora will be sent to St. Petersburg, aos Ambassador, "to assist at the coronation of Alexander II."
11155 i .—Ths, following Imperial manifesto, on the close of the war, has been published at St. Petersburg. "The obstinate and bloody struggle which has distracted Europe for nearly three years at last has ceased. It was not Russia that commenced it. Even before it burst forth, my late august father, of imperishable memory, so- lemnly declared to his faithful subjects, and to all the foreign powers, that the sole object of his desires and aorta had been to protect the rights of our corelig,ionista in the East, and to cause the persecutions of which they were the victims to cease.
"A stranger to any selfish view, he could not believe that his just claims would have the scourge of war for a consequence ; and, regarding its cala- mities with a profound sentiment of sadness, he did not cease, as a Christian and as the father of the people confided by Providence to his care, to mani- fest his disposition in favour of peace. But the negotiations which opened a short time before his death, upon the subject of the conditions of that peace which was the necessity for us all, remained without success. "The Governments which had formed a hostile coalition against us did not discontinue their armaments; during the progress of the negotiations they even increased them : the war had to take its course, and we continued it with a firm hope in the grace of the Most High, and with a firm confi- dence in the unshaken devotion of our beloved subjects. They have justified our expectation. During this period of painful trials, our brave and faith- ful soldiers, as well as all our people without distinction of class, have, as ever, shown themselves worthy of their high vocation. Throughout the ex- tent of our empire from the coasts of the Pacific Ocean to the borders of the Baltic and the Black Sea, one thought, one impulse, has inspired every soul, and led it to spare neither fortune nor life in the defence of the country. Labourers quitting the plough and their fields have hastened to arm them- selves for our holy cause, rivalling our veteran soldiers in courage and ab- negation. New and brilliantly striking feats have signalized this last am- test with powerful foes. "The enemy has been repulsed from the coasts of Siberia and from those of the White Sea, as well as from the ramparts of Sweaborg. The heroic defence for eleven months of the fortifications of the Southern part of Sebastopol, erected under the eyes and under the fire of the assailants, will live in the memories of the most distant posterity..
"In Asia, after the glorious victories of two previous campaigns, Kars was compelled to surrender with its numerous garrison, composed of the entire army of Anatolia; and the elite of the Turkish troops who wont to the succour of the place were forced to retreat.
"In the mean tune, by the salutary and impenetrable decrees of Provi- dence, an act was preparing which harmonized with the wishes of our au- gust and beloved father, with our own wishes, and with those of entire, linasia, and which realized the object of the war. The future condition and rights of all the Christians of the East are henceforth guaranteed. The Sultan solemnly recognizes them ; and in consequence of this act of justice the Ottoman empire enters into the concert of the European states. " Russians ! your efforts and your sacrifices have not been in vain. A. great work has been accomplished, although by other and unexpected ways ; and we can today, in the calm of our conscience, put an end to these efforts and sacrifices, and restore our dear country the invaluable benefits of peace. In order to hasten the conclusion of the treaty of peace, and to dispel for the future even the thought of ambitious views or projects of conquests which might be attributed to us we have consented to the adoption of certain measures of precaution destined to prevent a collision between our vessels of war and those of Turkey in the Black Sea, also to the establish- ment of a new line of demarcation in the Southern part of Bessarabia nearest to the Danube.
"The concessions are without weight (gravite), if we put them in the balance with the expenses of a prolonged war, and the advantages tran- quillity holds forth to the empire of which God has confided to us the destiny. May those advantages be completely attained, by our efforts united to those of our faithful subjects! With the aid of the Almighty, who has always protected Russia, may its internal organization be consolidated and perfected! May equity and clemency reign in its counsels! May the impulse towards civilization and all useful activity spread itself everywhere with new force ; and may every one enjoy in peace the fruit of his labour, under the shield of laws equally just and protective for all! Finally—and this is the most important, the dearest of our wishes—may the saving light of faith, in enlightening souls in fortifying hearts, preserve and improve
more and more our social mo , which is the surest pledge of order and happiness. "Given at St. Paersburg, March 19 (31), and the second year of our reign. ALEXANDER."
The intelligence of the signature of peace reached St. Petersburg on the 30th March ; and at midnight the Journal of St. _Petersburg , an- nounced the fact in an extraordinary Supplement. Next day, the clubs, the cafes, and public thoroughfares, were thronged by a crowd anxious to learn the !particulars." The guns fired, the bells rang, and "the sensation was immense." On the same day, the Emperor reviewed 75,000 men.
The Russian Minister of Finance has notified that the merchant-ves- sels of the Western Powers may enter Russian ports ; and that the pro- hibition to export Russian produce has been removed.
It is rather singular that the present moment should be selected by the Abeilk du Hord to preach up "the emancipation of Russian civilization from foreign influence," and to make a violent attack upon England.
Slf trimnt.—Two events are recorded in the last advices from the Crimea ; the firing of salutes on a grand scale in honour of the birth of the Imperial Prince, and "the Sebastopol Spring Meeting." The former took place on Sunday the 23d March. The whole of the British artil- lery were drawn out to fire the salute, and at the same time to be in- spected by Sir William Codrington. They mustered ninety guns in line. The array formed a splendid spectacle as the sun shone brightly, and all were in excellent condition. The first salute of 101 guns was fired in the French camps at twelve o'clock ; and almost simultaneously the fleets at Kazatch and Kamiesch contributed their share. The Eng- lish salute began at half-past twelve, the line firing from right to left. The Sardinians fired at the same time as the French. When it was 09CT the whole line marched past Sir William Codrington ; then wheeled up into batteries, and then passed the General in single file. The races were run on the 24th, on the banks of the Tchernaya. Up- wards of 40,000 soldiers and officers attended the meeting. As General Lidera was supposed to be one of a group of Russians on the right bank of the Tehernaya it may be said that the races took place in the pre- sence of the Marshal and Generals of four armies ; Pelissier, Codring- ton, and La Marmora forming conspicuous figures on the field. The weather was fine, and the spectacle seems to have made a deep impres- sion on the minds of "our own correspondents." There were six races, with large fields. The first and second were won by two Frenchmen— Captain Cornet on Biquet, and le Viseomte Talon on "Paddy Boy " ; the others fell to the lot of the English.
Miss Nightingale met with an accident going up to the front. The ve- hicle in which she was riding upset ; her back was slightly hurt, and she Was taken to the Castle hospital.
aniffir sift fn.—The Arabia arrived at Liverpool on Sunday, with adviees from New York to the 25th March.
In a speech in the Senate on the affairs of Central America, Mr. Clay- ton expressed himself against arbitration, because the passage of the Isthmus is necessary to the United States and not to Great Britain, and because "with an impartial umpire our case would be dear." If the treaty were abrogated, Great Britain might seize the opportunity to get possessions that would annoy America. He proposed to continue the negotiation, with the hope of bringing Great Britain to reason by argument. Meanwhile he said, "we should arm in our own defence, protect our coast, build fortifications, and increase our navy ; not, however, to make our country rival Great Britain. We should take time to do this. It is our right to do so, war or no war. This would be the worst time we could engage in a war with Great Britain. She is armed cap-a-pie, capable of throwing 40,000 troops from the Crimea on our coast, and with the greatest naval equipment ever known in the history of the world, while we are almost defenceless. If Great Britain should see we are resolved to enforce our rights by pursuing the doctrine laid down by Wash- ington—' in time of peace prepare for war '—should see we are building up our fortifications and naval power—the people of England would compel their Government to yield its positions." Since the publication of the cor- respondence between Lord Clarendon and Mr. Buchanan, public opinion in England had been rapidly tending towards an acknowledgment of the jus- tice of the American construction of the treaty. Mr. Clayton had received on this point such information as left no doubt of the fact, "that our ap- peal must be from the British Ministry to the British people, who wish to engage in no unjust war with us. At any rate, be the consequences what they may, if we are driven to the alternative of disgraceful submission or war, we must fight. He could not, however, believe there is any real dan- ger of war. If Senators and Representatives stand firm and present an un- divided front—if we all agree on our rights and manifest a determination to enforce them—they will be respected. The British people would turn any )linistryout rather than fight with such a nation as ours. ' The House of Representatives had resolved to appoint a committee of three to proceed to Kansas and investigate all the facts, charges, and statements connected with the return of the rival candidates for the re- presentation of that Territory.
9,115T T a i IL—The Red Jacket arrived at Liverpool on Tuesday, with ndvices from Melbourne to the 12th of January.
There is no news beyond the usual periodical estimate of the progress of the colony formed by the journals. From this it appears that the yield of gold is steady and increasing ; that the quantity shipped in 1855 was 2,650,578 ounces, against 2,122,596 ounces in 1854 ; that the boundaries of the gold-fields are extending, and that enterprise in this direction is now more systematically directed. The population stood at 325,000 at the end of 1855—an increase of 52,000 over 1854. Trade was reviving, and there was an absence of illegitimate speculation. The wool-clip had commenced a month earlier than usual : it was expected that the clip would exceed that of last year ; and that, as greater pains had been taken in washing and shearing, its quality would surpass that of any year since the discovery of gold. The wool-warehouses were no longer occupied with luggage and unsuitable ventures from Europe, but were again devoted to the staple export. Land had fallen in price, but the sales had not diminished. Agriculture seems to have made con- siderable progress. The area of land under cultivation is double that of any former year. The proportion of wheat to other produce had largely increased, and "a great advance had been made towards establishing the colony as self-supporting in the article of bread." Hay was unusually plentiful, but want of labour led to great waste ; and the same scarcity of labour would, it was feared, seriously interfere with the harvest. Flour-mills were in progress ; market-gardeners were flourishing, and all farmers were more numerous.
fir Charles Hotham had been succeeded as Acting Governor by the Commander of the Forces, General Macarthur. As Mr. Nicholson could not form a Cabinet, the old Ministry retained office. A singular agita- tion had arisen in Melbourne. "At the moment we write," says the Argus of the 12th, "we hear that a requisition to the Mayor of Mel- bourne, to call a meeting to consider the propriety of addressing her Majesty praying her to extend to the colonists the privilege of choosing- their Governor, has been signed by many influential citizens."
The funeral of the deceased Governor, Sir Charles Hotham, on the 4th January, was a striking solemnity. All business and amusements were suspended. An immense multitude of all classes took part in it, forming a vast procession to the new cemetery : it included twenty ministers of the Church of England, and forty of other persuasions, in- cluding the Roman Catholic Bishop and Vicar-General. There were two hundred carriages and sixty horsemen. A military band performed the dead march, and the muffled bells of the cathedral were tolled.