Asiicultaralaneetingsihave been haldin-the Past week at Castle Heding- hanksand at Saffron Walden in North Essex at Bury in Lancashire, and at Worcester. The spirit of'the Lancashire4tneWiroreestershire meetings, v?iffai were more important ithan the others in ake character of those who attended them, was manlyarad onwards ; that of the Essex meetings was one of querulous complaint—little hopeful, however, of Protectionist re- action.
The North Essex Protectionists assembled at Castle Hedingham under the ;auspices of the ilinckford Agricultural and Conservative Club. The semi-political character of the body, indicated by its name, was maintained by the speeches ; though on this occasion there was not, as lad year, Mr. Disraeli to illustrate the festival with scintillations of oratorical person- ality, or with the broader light of political explanations on a controverted Parliamentary policy. Sir John Tyrell, who last year introduced Mr. Disraeli as his guest, was absent. The Political discontent of the county Protectionists was xepresented by the Reverend John Co; of Fairsteral, with assistance from Major Beresford, one of the County Members ; Mr. G. F. Young bringing up and covering the rear of these speakers with his heavy array of economical-statistics.
Mr. Cox declared that the whole principle of Lord John Russell's Govern- ment has been to keep down the agricultural interest because it would not consent to the controlment, the nipping, andthe pinching of theMonarchical principle. No doubt, the first consideration of Cobden and Bright in their Anti-Corn-law agitation had been their own breeches-pockets; but it is quite clear what were their views beyond : "if they could once do away with the influence of the landed interest in the House of Lords, their way would be clear to the establishment of a moderate republic." Mr. Cox "advised" the farmers to keep their heads above water, if possible, till next election, and -then -make every exertion to secure a paternal government that would -protect the great interests of the country. North Essex was safe ; and "the
whole of his advice was centered in this having now .got North Essex as safe as en old hen under a coop, they should look a little further afield, and extend the same influence to the other _portion of the county." He feared that Mr. Ferrand's wool-league would have results more injurious than beneficial.
Major Bereeford, M.P., had no idea of humbugging the farmers with '1 hopes of better days," nor of crying peace when there is no race : the fact re, that ruin is staring the farmers in the face. They don t wish to humbug others, and will no longer be humbugged themselves. Mr. G. F. Young did not say there should be an iinmethate reduction of rents ; but tenants should have the justice done'them that will enable them to pay their rents. "In the absence of obtaining the repeal of the malt-tax, which was not very likely," he thought they might demand, as a right, exemption on account of the duty in on malt actually used on their own farms.
The other meeting in Essex was that of the Saffron Walden Agricul- tural Association. The Conservatism of the county had here to be repre- sented by -a reverend Rector and an imported Member of Parliament. The! everend Mordaunt Barnard, of Little Bardlleld, descanted on the unprofitable results of scientific high-farming ; and Major Beresford re- peated the lugubrious opinions on agricultural prospects which he held forth to the North Essex farmers at Castle Hedingham. Mr. Bramston, the Conservative M.P., and Sir Edward Buxton, the Liberal M.P. for South Ease; were not present ; and Sir John Tyrell did not compensate North Essex Protectionists by lending here the countenance which was unaccorded at Castle Hedingham.
The meeting at Bury, last week, was distinguished by a speech of some political interest from Lord Stanley, made for the purpose of allaying ap- prehensions in the agricultural mind which might arise from inability to reconcile his concrete opinions on the prospects of agriculture as expressed in Parliament, with his more purely abstract and scientific opinions on the same prospects as expressed at these provincial gatherings. It had been -his lot to be present at the birth of several agricultural societies. He had witnessed the maturity of several, and seen the decline of some, but he never was present at the first meeting of any one which gave such pro- mise of future success, such assured hopes of prosperity.
He hadjust [in a previous speech) congratulated them on the spirit of agricultural improvement and expenditure which he saw in that neighbour- hood, and-had expressed his confident belief that that spirit and that expendi- ture would: be equally beneficial to landlord and tenant. But he doubted not that some in distant parts, who would soon be acquainted with what he had said, would ask—" Who-is this who holds out this encouragement to the farm- ers to lay out this capital ? Who is this who is indulging in this dream of agricultural prosperity, and promiaingthis unbounded success as the result of a further expenditure of skill and capital'? Is this Lord Stanley, who in the House of Lords and elsewhere has been avowing his belief that recent legisla- tive measures have altogether swamped the energies of the farmer—have placed him in circumstances of unparalleled difficulty, and subjected both him and the landlord, in many parts of the country, to distress and ruin." " Yes, gentlemen," he would answer, " this is the seine person." As a private individual he might shrink from the topic ; yet in his position he had hardly a choice but to say tothem how he could "reconcile these-two conflicting opi- nions," -both of which he sincerely believed and upheld. He did indeed still believe—he could not but persuade himself—that recent legislative measures will have inflicted a serious injury upon the agricultural interests of this country generally.. (Slight hissing.) I trust you will hear nie, even if you differ in your opinions." " I believe that, wider the present law, present prices cannot be expected to rise. I believe that we now see the maximum price which we are likely to see for corn of all descriptions, but more especially for wheat,. in this coun- try ; and I believe further, that, at the price at which wheat know selling, there are large districts of this country which have hitherto been greatly employed in the cultivation of wheat but which with a permanence of pre- sent price cannot be employed in that cultivation at a profit ; and I say that that observation applies most of all to those districts in which, by the expen- diture of a lavish but not under the circumstances an injudiciously lariat]. -capital, out of a soil naturally sterile an artificial fertility has been given and an artificial amount of produce has been created. In those distracts and in those soils, it is only by a continued expenditure of that capital and by a continuation of that outlay that that fertility can be maintained and that those lands can be kept in wheat cultivation. It may be, or it may not_be a national advantage that those lands should go out of wheat cultivation ; but of this I am convinced, that if they do, as I apprehend they will, not only the landlords,. but the tenants, who have in successive generations and by the permanent investment, the irredeemable investment of a large-amount of capital, produced that fertility, which must retrograde—both landlords and tenants must be subject to a very heavy loss, and must discontinue an unprofitable cultivation : and I believe further—which I think a more im- portant point still—that if in those purely agrieeaural and highly-cultivated
districts the cultivation of wheat ceases, or is materially diminished, then there will be a large amount of agricultural labourers in the country for whom no employment will be found, because the landlords and the farmers' means will be equally exhausted. Gentlemen, I believe further, that there are other districts which can now afford to grow wheat and yield a moderate rent and a moderate profit, but which under a continuance of the present prices must, and at a very considerable loss, be turned to some different cultivation
and to some different management. Now. again I say, I am not arguiug the question whether this conversion end this loss be for the good of the com- munity at large. If it be so, whatever sacrifice it may be to the agricultural interest, I should endeavour, at all events, cordially to rejoice at it. I do not-say whether it is so or it is not. I toast I may be mistaken in my ap- prehensions, but aiy apprehensions are, that with regard to the purely agn cultural districts-or rather, to the purely arable districts, and most espe- cially to those in which the largest amount of capital has been sunk-there will, and there must be, under present prices, a discontinuance of wheat oul- tivation, which must be injurious to landlord, to tenant, and to labourer. Sow, gentlemen, those are my opinions. They may not be ours. Well, how then,' you will say, can you have the face to occupy that chair, and, in the face of those opinions, to advise the farmers largely to lay out their capital; and the folly to promise, on the part of the landlord, largely to em- ploy his capital in agricultural improvement ? ' I will tell you, gentlemen. In the first place, I consider that this is not a purely or exclusively an agri- cultural district. I conceive, in the next, place, that it is a district in which -so far as it is -agricultural, it is not exclusively-it is not even mainly-I may say in many parts it is not to any great degree-dependent for its pros- penty upon the price of earn. I say further, that you have-the farmers of • this district have-at -their own doors, the inestimable advantage-of an al- most insatiable market for their produce. I say they have, further, the ad- vantage (if they make the most'of it) of, almost at-their own doors, an inex- Intangible supply of manure. And lastly, I say-and I say it in no compli- mentary tone-we are se far from having arrived-at that expenditure of capi- tal which, being permanently sunk in the land, has led to an artificial fer- tility, that we are not yet at that state of advancement in which we can say we have placed the soil in a condition of even its .natural fertility : and it needs no argument to prove, that although a very moderate scale of expendi- ture may raise the fertility of a given :piece of land from three quarters to an -acre to four quarters, yet if you seek to raise that fertility from four to .five quarters, or to-six, each successive quarter which you endeavour to raise from the same land is by no means obtained by an arithmetically correspond- ing outlayof expenditure ; but after you comet) what I will call the natural limit to the fertility of the soil, every bushel which you raise beyondas raised at a cost far exceeding that of the previous bushel, or the previous two bushels. Consequently, I say that, even in this country and at this time, and even in the wheat cultivation of this country, I believe there is room yet for profitable investment of capital. -Gentlemen, at all events I .am quite sure of this-that if it don't answer to farm well, it can't answer to 'farm ill. I am qnite sure, that if a well-drained and a well-cleaned field will not pay rent, an =drained field, full of weeds andhalf full of water, will not pay rent either. I am quite sure,that until we-make-the most of the soil as we find it,-we are not ina condition to say it will not pay to make further outlay upon it. I speak, therefore, to those who find that it is worth while, with the advantages of immediate markets--with-the-demand for their produce- with the advantage of obtaining manure-and with facilities given to them which ought to be given by every landlord, for improvement upon their land; and I env to -them, go on boldly, notwithstanding the discouraging position of agricultural affairs generally, and improve the land ; if you mean to culti- vate it at all, cultivate it in an improved and scientific manner." (Cheers.) He was not-recommending a system of what is called high farming. 'If you see clearly that you can grow five quarters where you are growing only three quarters, in God's name grow them, or use the best endeavours to do so; but first satisfy yourselves that-the result will pay for the experiment. Let those gentlemen who adopt farming as an honourable and patriotic amusement try-theoretical experiments ; but let the humbler class of farmers embark in no-experiments that they-are-not satisfied will answer. On the other hand, after you • are satisfied the experiments will answer, -don't be idiots enough to confound cheap farming with economical farming, but lay out without apprehension what will return a more than 'corresponding amount.
He had lately passed over elarge 'tract and had stared with astonishment at the neglect of some lands : he had seen lands paying 30s. and 2/. the sta- tute acre, which if they would feed a snipe he was sure -that was the only two-footed or four-footed animal they would be able to 'feed; other lands, lately in a seemingly hopeless state, exhibited a condition of contrast as-re- markable for fertility as it was possible to afford ; and this fertility had been attained by a very moderate outlay in draining, which has returned neither gradually nor slowly. Remight be-told that the cost is great. -"For a man who has no capital-Tor manwho is 'farmingavithont a shilling of his own --4or a man who 'never • ought to have been .a farmer-clearly it is an expensive operation:" But what is the actual cost, according to the best system, the most improved system, and with the best materials-(not with stone-draining, -which ie sometimes-resorted to-invonsequence of the nearness of the stones, hut which, even upon -the spot, practical experience will prove to be more expenaivelhantile-draining)-what lathe expense of thoroughly tile-draining a Cheshire acre of land ? tit the outside, twelve pounds per sere. rgive a large estimate.; and I-appeal to -the -experience of 'many in this room to tell me whether they, having drained at im expense of ten and 'twelve pounds:an acre, havenotobtained, I do not say ten or twelve shillings an acre (though that would befiroper cent upon the outlay) in the very next crop ; but I will appeal to them whether the two -years' succeeding crops have not brought them in as a return three times, four times, five times, ten or twelve shillings:per acre for the outlay ? But.gentlemen, I state this as an outlay which may fall heavily upon the means of farmers, and more es- pecially upon the small farmers ; and although I value highly the advantages of-capital,-although I-value the advantages of moderately large farms,- although I certainly desire to see this neighbourhood squared off in a more convenient or rather a less inconvenient.manner than now, in which I find itparalyzing the efforts of both landlord and tenant,-yet I am not one of
those who desire to get rid of or to swamp the small farmers of this county. And with regard -to the small farmer, and more especially if he be a man
having a short-term inhis lease, I say that; ermanent improvements in the shape of drainage fall properly and truly upon and ought to be taken by the landlord and not by the tenant; the tenant, of course, during his continuance of holding, paying the landlord a fair and just remuneration in the shape of interest for the-outlay of capital which he has expended." He did not shun the delicate subject of the relations of landlord and te- nant. "-I say at ones, that as I think it is the duty of the landlord-and prac-
tically I am ready to prove it--as I think it the duty of the landlord to ad- vance to his tenant the means of permanent improvements in the shape of
draining, so as-to-make-a fait return,from the during the term of his
oecupataon ; so I say also, that with regard to the due adjustment of the re- lation* between landlords and tenants, I am not only ready, but I am willing and desirous, and think it advantageous to both parties, where there is a
tenant of capital, af skill, of improvement, and of industry, to .give to that tenant the ample and full security of a lease. (Loud and protracted cheering.) I say so, gentlemen, frankly and unhesitatingly : but I say so subject to the conditions that I have mentioned-that the tenant shall be a man who is I able to make use of the advantage ; that as he obtains the security for his outlay, so he is willing to make that outlay, if he obtains the security that no accident, wholly independent of the honour of his landlord, shall deprive him by removal from his farm of any advantages which he might expect to derive from his outlay. I say on the other hand, for both landlord and tenant, where there is on the one hand a readiness to make fair allowance, and on the other a determination to do his duty by the land-I -say the conditions of a lease are security alike to landlord and tenant, and beneficial to both ; because the tenant has the means of calculating precisely the cer- tain duration of the term, and, in proportion,. the amount of that expenditure which In justice to himself and family he may make upon it." The subjects of manuring and fencing were next touched upon. " In this county you have peculiar advantages of supplying an unlimited amount of manure. I need not tell you that it is of no use applying it to unchained lands ; but well-drained lands will pay in every instance for a judicious and liberal application of the manure which-more especially in great manufac- turingg districts and in the neighbourhood of great towns-is not only ab- solutely squandered and wasted, year by year, but is absolutely turned, in- stead of enriching the land, into the means of poisoning the streams and- destroying the comfort of the population. But, gentlemen, it is not only from the supply of the great towns, but it is the domestic supply of manure from the farm itself, which, I fear, is often too much neglected. I believe that a great amount of valuable manure is year by year wasted, merely from the want of an economic method of saving that which they possess, and of, at a very small cost, retaining for the advantage of the farm that which is allowed absolutely to run to waste." With refereneato the waste of land by ill-made fences, he told a striking story, on the authority of Mr. Wilson Patten,-a story they might laugh at as extreme, but which they would find accurate in itself and true in its general application. "'Mr. Patten found a farmer in the South of Scotland actively employed in destroying a very crooked hedge. He said, What term have you in the land ?' 'I have a lease, and three or four years are yet to run." Three or four years only ! then I suppose the landlord: is doing this for you ?"Not a bit of it; I am doing it myself.' ' Why, how can you be doing this with -ally three or four years to run ?' His reply was, I have calculated prerisebr what it will cost me to destroy this fence, and I have calculated that the whole- amount of cost of destroying this zigzag fence will in-the course df my cul- tivation of four years be saved by the difference between the turns of the plough which I shall have to take."' Lord Stanley closed with some compliments, which seem to have been well deserved, on the high character of the cattle-show : it was one which, especially in reference to the horned cattle and the pigs, the Royal Society itself need not have disowned. "I pray you not to relax in your efforts. Let the zeal which you have manifesteclin the first instance be continued, as I am sure-it will. Let the landlord and the tenant, let the merchant and theagriculturist, pull together in a joint endeavour after our common prosperity ; and believe me, that we shall insure, in spite of all discouragement and difficulty, great and grati- fying success." Lord Stanley's address had provoked occasional interruptions, 'but was- on the whole received with hearty sympathy, and at its conclusion there was- much cheering. Mr. Walker junior, jealous of the Free-trade reputation of the borough which his father represents, in acknowledging the:toast of his parent's health goodhumouredly protested, amidst cheers, that Lord Stanley's opinions were not those of his father's constituents "hewould be sorry to lot Lord Stanley leave -the town under the impression that his sentiments were in unison with those of the electors of Bury." Lord Stanley disclaimed, amidst renewed, cheers, any intention to make a dis- guised canvassing speech at a social meeting.
At the Worcestershire meeting, Lord Ward presided ; and there wasa large attendance of local notables ; among others, Sir John Pakington, M.P., General Lygon, M.P., Captain Rushout, M.P., Mr. Foley, M:P., the Honourable -R. H. Clive, M.P., the Honourable W..Coventry, Sir. Thomas Winnington, the !Honourable and Reverend W.' C. Talbot, 11r. Watkins, High Sherif and Mr. Curlier, Deputy-Chairman of the Quar- ter-Sessions.
Lord Ward observed,-that nothing hi the rules of-the society could prevent their thinking of the great political questions which affected their agricul- tural interests. They must consider the special question of how the ad- vancement of agriculture can best be accomplished ; " because, if there was any truth in the cry of distress from the agricultural-districts, that distress must be alleviated, or it would come to a culininatingpoint." Last year he told them that he thought amore desponding tone had been used than the circumstances of the case justified ; and he thought that since that time an improvement has taken place. The present is doubtless a time for the land- lords to look'to their tenants, and have their interests at heart ; "yet if there was no great and general relinquishment of farms, the landlords could not be induced to believe that things were come 'to a culminating point." He hoped that the society had not been assembled oat of compliment te- him, much as he would appreciate such a mark of kindness : if none but landlords came there, the-show would be little better than a show of hats. As to theahow actually made, it struck him it was not one to be proud of, or to do honour to the capital of the county : this betokened some 'flaw; which they must detect and mend, or the sooner the society was dissolved the better. "He hoped the improvement in .the society would be apparontnext year ; and assured them that whatever his opinions might be, or•whatever his course of conduct as compared with others, there was no man who-could be more anxious than himself that thetenant-fanner should occupy a dignified- and useful position, enlarged by-scientific knowledge." 'Captain Rushout, M.P.; and Mr. Foley, M.P., uttered some kindly senti- ments in relation to the education of the poor. Mr. Clive, M.P., had considered deeply the question of the mutual inte- rests of the landlord and tenant, and had come to the conclusion that the landlords must do something to assist the tenants. Ile fully admitted the principle of -a tenant right, but there was great difficulty in producing one general measure which should meet the varying Mown, stances of different counties and districts. The main object of tenant right was to compensate the tenant for any =exhausted improvements which might remain at the time of his leaving a farm. This was nothing but strict justice, and in all matters of that kind lie should say, let'these im- provements be made known before they are carried into execution, andthen no difficulty could arise. judicious and equitable tenant right would be a. benefit to the landlord and a security to the tenant. As to the present posi- tion of agriculture, he hoped that every exertion .would be made to remove from the mind Of the tenant that apprehension which was now so justly en- tertained. He would therefore propose the, principle of a corn and meat rent,. which, ifjustly and honestly carried out, would undoubtedly be one moonset' allaying the fears thatnowprevailed. Thecultivation of the land must likewise be improved ; and if the tenant wore unable to do so, he for one was prepared to do it himself. In such case arrangements must be made which would be: but just between the parties, that both might be benefited, and that they should not continue doing nothing. He would also recommend that where old pas- tures might be broken up with advantage, it should be done. He was no great stickler for old pastures. The greatest consideration was to cultivate the land, and make it do its full duty. These were some of the principles which he was determined to adopt, and he thought they must relieve the agricultural interest and give all parties renewed confidence. If this were done, a great point would be gained. He thought they had been alarmed a little beyond reason, and that their difficulties might be eventually over- come by intelligence, activity, and perseverance. With regard to the con- dition of the labourer, he had been endeavouring to encourage cottage gardens, for he had found the good of it. The cottages of the labourers had greatly improved within the last few years; but it could not be done all at once; it was sufficient to say that the work of amelioration was going steadily on, and ho looked fur a great improvement of morals as the result.
Sir John Pakington's remarks pointed to unexpected quarters for relief. No reflecting man could witness the great changes and extraordinary oc- currences, as well in public events as in the progress of the arts and sciences, without seeing good ground for hope in that natural law by which all things were given to change. He thought that the great discovery in California was an element in the political horizon which should not be overlooked. The supplies of gold from Russia and California were estimated at Si millions per annum. The effect of that might be slow, but it would be certain, and its operation beneficial to the landed interest. They should not despair, if their prospects were gloomy; and although the transition state at which they were now arrived might be attended with much individual ruin, never- theless the owners and occupiers of land were bound to face the times with that resolution which had always been the characteristic of Englishmen. A well-considered tenant right, and a fair and equitable adjustment of rent, at the present time, were due to the tenant. Mr. Curtler demurred against the too encouraging tone of the preceding speakers, especially ridiculing the prospect of relief from California. Mr. Woodward, a yeoman farming his own land, demanded commiseration for those who, like himself, have no landlords to go to for a reduction of rent— they, indeed, are hardly dealt by under Free-trade prices. As to the remark about farms not being thrown up, he would undertake to find five hundred vacant farms, if Lord Ward or Colonel Clive would find tenants. Lord Ward said, he had inquired of his agent, and had found that he, for one, was not yet in the unhappy position of having to farm his own land : if Mr. Woodward in his peculiar circumstances appeals to his landlord, he has this advantage—that he is sure to find an indulgent one • and if things get worse, he stands in a better position than many other landlords, for his te- nant will be sure not to give notice to quit.
The Liverpool Town-Council, in special meeting on Tuesday, adopted an amendment which negatived a proposal by the Dock Committee to es- tablish and maintain a home for emigrants at that port; "an object which her Majesty's Government and the Emigration Commissioners alike ap- prove," and which in the opinion of the Committee was itself desirable and necessary. Alderman Bramley Moore supported the recommendation of the Committee, by giving a history of the course which the emigrant runs from the time that he lands at Liverpool-
" When the steamer arrives, and before he puts his foot on the quay, there are a set of men waiting for him called men-catchers and runners. These men don't even wait to ask his object, or what he is about; but they first of all seize upon the poor man's luggage, and he has great difficulty to contend even with that. Then he is taken to a lodging-house; for which the man-catcher gets his commission—that is, his first commission. When be does that, he next takes him in charge to engage his passage. On that he gets a second commission. That done, he then goes back to the lodging- house keeper—mind, I am only speaking of the disreputable part of the lodging-house keepers, because there are some highly reputable. Many of these men are in league with the man-catcher and the runner; and they say to the emigrant, this money which you have will not be of any use to you where you are going to ; you must have it changed into dollars. They take him to the money-changer ; and he there gets a third commission. It would only weary, you were I to detail the gradual plunder • but the last measure of all, after plundering him in this manner in every step he takes forward, is this—at the eleventh hour, when the emigrant is about to go on board his vessel, he has some exorbitant demand put into his hand—at the eleventh hour, when the man knows that the emigrant has no means of when he cannot go before a magistrate without losing his passage; retlflireerseeiore he pays the money, releases his goods, and leaves the country with all those bitter and unkindly feelings which these incidents have awakened, and takes
them with him to the country where he is going About 164,000 emigrants passed last year through this port ; and the trade had now become so important, and was so distinct, that vessels had been expressly constructed for this live carrying-trade, which was found to be a profitable one. The tonnage in our docks which emigration employed was very great. Last year it numbered 600 large vessels, of 500,000 tons. Thus it was a matter of great pecuniary importance to the Dock estate, and it deserved the very grave consideration of the Council, lest they should lose such a valuable branch of trade. It was such an important trade that it should be kept in Liverpool, and connected with the Liverpool Docks."
The opposition to the proposal was chiefly grounded on the principle that "emigration is not a Liverpool but a national question, and that Government ought themselves to come forward and establish the institu- tion which it advised." The amendment was carried by 29 to 9.
At the quarterly meeting of the ironmasters at Wolverhampton, on Wednesday, it was admitted on all hands that the prospects of the ensuing winter months were extremely unsatisfactory, and that nothing short of a great reduction of make will open a way to future improvement. " The reduction during the last two months of the exports of machinery and metals is deemed of fearful import ; while the new high tariff adopted by the Spanish Government, apparently for the exclusive advantage of Her- redia Malago, the great Peninsular ironmaster, threatens the destruction of the South Staffordshire iron-trade with that country." Spain has re- duced the import-duty on coals, and considerably increased the duty on iron. The Spaniards have hitherto been large consumers of English manufactured iron. The nominal price was the same as in last quarter. The unsatisfactory state of the trade is ascribed to excessive production and the absence of railway demand. A reduction in the make was ap- proved of. The state of credit was satisfactory, settlements generally passing off well.
Notice has been given to the workers in the Welsh iron districts, that, in consequence of the bad state of the trade, the rate of wages must be diminished. The make also is to be considerably reduced.
The Railway Company at Brighton have got into a dispute with the owners and drivers of cabs. It seems that the company gave a species of monopoly at the station to a certain number of vehicles ; the remainder of the cab- people resented this, and withdrew their carriages from the neighbourhood of the station, and even ceased to ply in the 'streets of the town. On Friday sennight, a special train from London took down twenty-one cabs, horses, and drivers, to meet the " strike " of the Brighton men.
Four cases of rick-burning. have occurred in the vicinity of Rainhani in Kent this week. A labourer is in custody on suspicion.
The Liverpool Magistrates reexamined Mr. Sirrell and McAuley and Mquire on Tuesday. Evidence proved that a part of the plate seized at Sirrell's had been stolen from the house and chapel of the Reverend Mr. Fisher, a Roman Catholic clergyman living at Great Crosby : M'Auley was accused of this robbery. Maguire was charged with stealing plate from the house of Mrs. Tinley, also found in the parcels at Mr. Sirrell'rs. Lawrence Khoe, an officer of the Liverpool Detective Force, described what took place when Mr. Sirrell was arrested. He was accompanied by several London officers, and did not enter the house till he saw the parcels taken in. " When he went in he saw Inspector Lund standing at the counter, and the two parcels were placed on the desk at the end of the counter. Lund seized the parcels, and witness went into the counting-house where Sirrell was. On entering, he pulled out his warrant-card, and then said to him that two parcels had come to him that morning from Liverpool. Sirrell said he did not know who they were from. He next asked him if he had not got any letters of advice respecting them. Sirrell inquired what he wanted with his private letters, and said he would not allow him to come there. Witness then arrested him, and told him if he could not conduct himself properly he would make him. Mr. Lund also told him that he must behave himself quietly. He then produced a letter which he got respecting the parcels." It was in these words-
" Sept. 30, 4 Hope Street, St. Jude's, Liverpool. " I have forwarded some silver, about 15.5. Your attention as usual will oblige yours respectfully, Wirmum
All the prisoners were remanded for a week.
William Dowling, a private of the Eighth Hussars, has been committed to prison by the Dorchester Magistrates for attempting to poison Corporal Riley. Riley put some tea in a bottle ; Dowling was seen to shake something into it ; when Riley and another man drank of the tea they became ill. A medi- cal man found tha,t sugar of lead had been put in the tea.
During the night of the 3d instant, the groom to the Reverend T. A. Hol- land, of Poynings in Sussex, was alarmed by a noise in the yard. He went
out, and saw a man standing by a gate ; on a signal from the robber-sen- tinel, another man and a boy ran from the hen-roost, and the whole party retreated : as they would not stop, the groom fired a gun, and it is supposed that one of the gang was shot, though they all got away for the time.
On the Sunday following the day of the murder at Frimley, a burglary was committed at Woldngham, about mid-way between Reading and Frimley. The shop of Mr. Porter, a watchmaker in the Market-place, was entered during the evening, and property worth from 2001. to 3001. carried off.
The inquest on Mr. Holiest was resumed at Frimley on Tuesday. The evidence was not very important, but more is promised by the Police at a future time. Mr. Biddlecombe, Superintendent of the Godalming Police, described the state of Mr. Hollest's premises. A pane of glass had been broken in the scullery-window, and an iron ,bar cut away, permitting the entrance of the robbers ; a door between the scullery and the kitchen had two holes bored in it with a centre-bit, and a bolt drawn back with a crooked instrument. Cupboards and room-doors had been forced open by means of a screw-driver. A number of small things were found about the place, which may hereafter turn out important as evidence. There were marks of naked feet on a gravel path and on the lawn ; and on admeasurement these marks
agree as nefuly-as_possible.svith the feet of Levi Harwood and Hiram Trower, two of the persons in custody. The great toe of Harwood's right foot is much cut, as if it had come into contact with a flint or other hard substance. On his stocking there was also found a quantity of blood. Samuel Har- wood, the fourth man taken into custody, is first cousin to Levi. Ellen Yel- ler, one of Mr. Holle.st's servants, desenbed what she observed on the night of the robbery, and the finding of pieces of green baize, a bit of black silk, an old cotton handkerchief, and pieces of paper which had been used as wad- ding. The inquest was adjourned till the 22d instant.
Some further progress has been made in the inquiry into the death of Mrs.
Severne, of Brixton, near Laugharne. It seems that the cook Gibbs, on whom suspicion rests, was in the habit of waiting on Mrs. Severne2 and preparing
whatever she wanted. On a Sunday morning the lady received broth from Gibbs ; she was very ill after it, and died that night. Gibbs appears to have had an idea that she had made a conquest of her master: she had talked in a very suspicious manner, saying how persons were to die. A post-mortem examination of Mrs. Severna's body showed the symptoms of death by poisoning.
Some of Mr. Feargus O'Connor's unhappy "children" are travelling about the country to raise money to continue a lawsuit with their "father." Mr. O'Connor got a judgment in the Queen's Bench against the Minster Lovell allottees, and in November they are to be expelled from their little holdings: they are advised to apply to the Court of Chancery, but they have no funds: hence this appeaL [Would not contributors to such a fund be guilty of the common-law offence called " maintenance " ? We suspect they would; as they would rarely be contributing, in the permitted cases, to " maintain the suit of a near kinsman, servant, or poor nesghbour."] At the Tewkesbury County Court, last week. William Woodward, a poor etockingmaker, obtained a verdict against Mr. ?eargus O'Connor for 21. 10s., with immediate execution. It appeared from the evidence of the plaintiff that he was one of the contributors to the land-scheme, and had paid the sum sought to be recovered.
There are still believers in witchcraft at Cheddar in Somersetshire. At a recent meeting of the Axbridge Magistrates, Anne Jeffries, wife of a farmer, was charged with assaulting Hester Cooper, an old woman of eighty. At eight o'clock at night, the accused went to Cooper's house, seized her by the throat, violently threw her on the floor, and with a sharp instrument punctured her hand until the blood flowed copiously, and a sufficient quan- tity was obtained for the purpose required—that of sprinkling her own fore- head, which the defendant had been informed by a "cunning body would have the effect of dispelling the charm of witchcraft" : and having effected the object she absconded, leaving the old lady almost lifeless. Anne Jeffries, who looked like a confirmed drunkard, admitted the charge, and justified what she had done. She declared that the witch Cooper had often come to her house and " overpowered her," throwing her on the floor, and " hag- riding" her ; but on those occasions Cooper was not dressed as she then ap- peared. The Magistrates threatened to send the farmer's wife to prison un- less she made the poor old woman some compensation. This was done ; but Anne Jeffries still thought the complainant a witch, and found others to side with her in the notion.
Harrison and Shenton, two men who were under sentence of transportation for felony, have escaped from Leeds GaoL They were stationed in the up- per part of the prison, and were employed in mat-making. In their work they used a large needle, as thick as a small chisel. With this instrument they cut away the stone-work of the window, removed the bars, and de-
wended by means of ropes made from the materials supplied to them for matting. They got clear off for a time.
Medley, a convict imprisoned in the Wakefield House of Correction, has made his escape. He removed the bars, and got through a small window, mounted the roof, and hid himself in a chimney, where he remained con- cealed, without food, for forty-eight hours. He left the cprison during a ;dorm, and took the rail to Bury. He has sent back his prison-dress to the Governor by railway Mr. Gideon Hatchwell, station-master at Bury, on the Eastern Union Railway, and Mr. James Cousins Walton, station-master at Thurston, on the same line, lost their lives last week, by an accident on their railway. They were seated on the luggage at the top of a carriage, at a height which raised
heads above the top of the engine-funnel, and in passing under a bridge both of them were struck dead by the crown of the arch. It appeared at the inquest, that the men had been sitting on the roof in a safe position : more luggage was taken up, and then they got upon that, elevating them- selves to a dangerous height. A porter warned them, but they took no heed : they were breaking the rules by sitting on the roof at all, and had rendered themselves liable to dismissal from the service by quitting their stations. Verdict, "Accidental death."
Nicholas Bowman, formerly a resident in Carlisle, and recently an inn- keeper in Liverpool, had been on a visit here. On Tuesday sennight he set off for Liverpool, by the 2.25 p.m. train South; and at starting was in his usual health and spirits. At the Citadel station he was jocularly told by a person on the platform that he had better insure his life; but he laughingly repudiated the idea, and took his seat in a second-class carriage. On arriving at Lancaster he got out, and on returning to his seat he found the train moving; he hastily laid hold of the handle at the side, and was in the act of stepping into the carriage when his foot slipped ; he swung round and lost his hold, and falling below the wheels of the carriages, his head was com- pletely severed from his body.—Carlisle Patriot.
A. Mr. Robert Rogers, while on a visit at Clifton Baynes, near Olney, has accidentally shot himself. He placed his loaded gun against a wire fence while he caught and mounted a horse; he rode up to the fence, and drew the gun towards him ; the lock caught in the fence, the piece exploded, and Mr. Rogers was killed.
During the gale on Monday night, a windmill in Chadwick Street, Liver- pool, with the adjacent warehouses, was entirely destroyed by fire. Fortu- nately, in consequence of the storm, the men were not at work, otherwise, from the rapidity with which the flames travelled, there would probably have been loss of life.
There was an explosion, on Tuesday, in Messrs. Hall's powder-mill at Ospringe, near Faversham, which destroyed a building ; but, fortunately, no one was near at the time.