ABBY'S nEstnENCE AND TOUR IN AMERICA. AnnY differs considerably from
the American travellers ho have lately come before us, both in the character of his mind and the matters he sought after. He deals: little in man- ners and the external appearances of things : lie scents to have but small acquaintance with the practical details of the useful arts of commerce, manufactures, and agriculture, and, though fully alive to their importance, seems rather inclined to speculate upon their results, than to report upon the means by which those results are obtained : for the small tittle-tattle awl the minute pe- culiarities of custom, whose observation and record so delight the Teemsoens and the BUTLERS, he has little care; and when he notes a practice, generally indicates its cause. The points to 'which he chiefly turned his attention, were the social condition and political feelings of the people; their public establishments both for the body and the soul—prisons, penitentiaries, hospitals, asylums, and schools ; the provincial and national statistics; and l!stiv, the condition of the "coloured" population—in the eyes of cur author the most important of all.
To his task Mr. Annv has brought the information of a well- edecated gentleman, and that freedom from local prejudices which characterizes the man of the world. Upon polities and political economy he has more than an average knowledge ; but not having heeu hitherto (apparently) in the habit of using it, there is some- times a want of aptness in its application, and a kind of bookish- ness about it which looks raw. These remarks, however, must be limited to matters touching upon principles, or at least theories; he is quick and alive to all facts connected with that kind of public sight-seeing which is practised by European legislators. She style of the book is solid, without much of force or vigour, and dependent upon its matter for its weight. The arrangement is rather inartilicial; being neither narrative nor journal, but a sort of' combination, which has the repetitions of the latter without its raciness. We have indicated that the lighter affairs of life and na- ture are not altogether to Mr. Annv's taste ; and as a portion of his three ample volumes consists of matter whose interest must be derived from the manner of the telling, or whose substance re- sembles something that has preceded it, the reader will feel the work long, and deem that the information he has received might have been conveyed to him in less compass.
Mr, Anny's rambles were bounded by Toronto in Upper Canada on the North, and Washington on the South; he consequently did not penetrate into the worst of the Slave-holding Snates; nor does be either from observation or hearsay add any thing to our previous knowledge of the evils of slavery, unless it be upon two points gathered from the conversations of manumitted or runaway slaves,—that the coloured bondsmen are in the habit of' feigning stupidity and content, todeeeive their wasters; and let their treat- ment be ever so kind, they are still anxious for liberty. The in- formation he gives as to the condition and feelings of the free coloured population in the Northern States, is ampler, more metho- dical, and mme minute, than any we have yet seen ; the details of their legal and sceial persecutions strt)ligly reminding us of Irelawl in the worst state of Protestant Ase.aulttney tied the Penal Laws,—with this addition, that the Ethiop ever carries about him the stamp of his degradation. Like our misgovern- ment of Ireland, too, the slaves and their descendants appear to have caused a sore in the cummonwealth, w hich will weaken its power by internal irritation, if it does not end in separation after civil war, or even in a counterpart of the St. Domingo tragedy. The Southerners are constantly declaiming aeediest the Northern States for their interference with commerce by means of the tariff, and their endeavours to promote emancipation: and these decla- mations constantly take the shape of warlike threats. Yet, with a vast and justly discontented slave and free coloured population, the first appeal to arms seems likely to be the signal for a servile insurrection, carrying massacre and devastation through the whole of the South. Nor is it probable that any efforts of the New Englanders could put it down, still less conquer the country, whilst they had within their own territory many thousands of discon- tented subjects, whose sympathies at least would ev with their dark-skinned brethren.
We have intimated that the work is of a desultory nature; and our extracts shall partake of its character. Here is a description of One of those institutions for which America is deservedly eels"
The principle on which the establishment is conducted differs very consider- ably, and, as far as I was enabled to judge from what I saw ;mil heard, very successfully, front the methods usually pursued in the treatment of lunatics. No kind of deceptiou, and, if possible, no restraint, is exe.reistil upon the pa- tients, who are allowed every indulgenee and gratification that are not incom- patible with the object for ullich they are sent hither. They are informed, on their first arrival, diat they are labouring under some disease which has affected their minds, and repiires p.,ettliar treatment. If, as is generally the case, they deny that they are thus afflicted, they are requested to submit to a Lie experi- ment, that they may he restorol to their friends with the testimony of compe- tent judges to confirm or disprove their own account of themselves. With the aid tit soothing language, oven p it ion ,ilited to their inclinations, proper exercise, and appropriate medivines, int alleviation. if not a cure, of the in:daily is effected. The eonfidence of the must suspicious and the acquieseenee of the most refiac- tory are thus obtained ; :old, by the judicious employment of the principle of association, the mind is gradually led to exert it, dormant powers, and the bodily functions are restortd to their natural state. No one is confinol, however vio- lent or intractable, in irons or in ,olitude. No breach of promise, no attempt to It: Mead, is ever permitted. 'fle little glitinnering of reason that remains even in the avorst c s, is skilfully employLd by the keepers and assistants to lead the sufferer into feelings and habits that at last conduct him to a clearer sky if not into open day. " Let gentlette,s illy strong enforcement be," seems to he the guiding rule to all xvIto are to cooperate to carry this principle into practice. The whole machinery throiOnott is consistent in its structure and opmation ; and the results are inii,t gratifying and encouraging. Even in those unhappy cases where certain functions of the body are involuntarily and uncon- sciously pet formed, some peculiar want or fancy may int d tvItich, wheui combined with tlte decent and regular di,cltarge of this office, will ultimately destroy these distressing symptoms, and sub,ritute a habit to which the former will gradually yield. Wilk we were visit. ii in front of the hothe, some of the invalids (three young women) wvre returning front a tide with some of tlic assistants, in a Irarouche. We assisted them to get out of the carriage ; and made the customary observathins, which wore reoeived in the usual way, on the weather and other topics of a similar kint Biding on lmrseback for both sexes is found serv ieeable : gardening, or :my other wimp:aim] that may interest or amuse, is employed with good effect ; and, as the house is open to visiters at all times, and the same coot te,ies art observed toward, tin' inmates as are prat:- tiscd in common life, a con,taitt suceo,sion of objects presents itself to give gentle exercise to the ta,tos and aff.etions, and th•pel the morbid illusions of the imagination. To gain hi, confidence, awl impel cept Oily to lead hint to the exercise of its di,used energies awl facultie,, " waking thoughts that long had slept," is all that the pilysichia studies in the management a hi, patieut, who seems to give to candonr and conciliatory milkiness those affoctioillS and regards which harshness and dist:km.4 had Ilriven front their natural chatitieh,. The patients itttend their respective places of wet ship, when not incapacitated by the nature of the truiluly kinder which they labour. This is con,idered an in- (liligence; and, as it titoy be withdrawn on disobedience or infringement of the conditions on which it is gr.:Litt:11, an additional motive for self-restraint is ob- tained, beyond witat may be expected from attendance on public worship in thc house. The ivish to be admitted, in CO111111011 tho,e who are in good health, and the apprehension of being thought undeserving of that privilege, ale powerful inducements Arith persons who find their comforts to depend upon their conformity with the will of their attendants. Whenever it is necessary to put a strait-waiscoat upon a patient, it is done, if possible, with his consent. Ile is told that the excitement under which he suffers may be considered as the work of an enemy, and not the result of any voluntary action of his own litho', for which he wottld, if in sound health, be responsible; and that self-defence requires and excuses a precaution that might otherwise appear degrading. lie is thus induced to submit, when any attempt to control his own violence by force would be resisted or resented. Cases often occur of patients, under the conviction of an approaching paroxysm, suggesting themselves the propriety of being bound.
ARISTOCRArY or THE SKIN AT BOSTON.
How fur the aristocracy of the skin is carried in this pious city, may be seen by a curious document that was put into my hands by an Abolitionist. A free black, some few years ago, came into possession of a pew in one of the churches here. It was the only thing lie could obtain from a man who was unable, or unwilling, to pay a legal claim he had upon hint. Ilaving furnished it, he of- fered it for sale. Not finding a purchaser at the price Ile demanded (and few would be likely to give the full value for what no one imagined the owner would dare to make use of), lie determined to ktecupy it himself ; whether Ike was un- conscious of the offence he was ahout to give, or thought he might as well :pe- culate upon the White loan., pride. as, it would SeCill, the Whiteman lint specu- lated upon his subliii,siveness. The sensation produced by his unexpected appearance among the favoured children of Nature in the very satietum sane- tomtit of their dioatiction,, can bo Ile•Crii):•11 by those only who witnessed it. The next Sunday he tool: hi, will,. and ellildren with hint. It should be ob- served. that the coloured people ii '1 ail Mired to places of %%airship, except to small pews or boxes set apart expressly I; it' them, and so phoaal that they can hear without offending the la-tidion, ilelieaey of the congregation. At Albany, there is one whero a curtain is placed It kult to conceal the occupants, when there ale any ; for those for whom they are destined seldom enter them, and speak of them with flue contempt ty deserve., as •• martin-holes" and " human menageries." It was now high limo that notice should be taken of this contumacious spirit ; and the int midor le...t.ivLd the two following notes.
t, Sir—If you have any pew-forMtore in pew No. :Is, Palk Street Meeting- house. you will remove it thi, atiel noon.
" (voit.at: Onrollsr. for the Committee." Britisley.
Whit tho :ibove was a cepy of a note, written the day before to this agent of the Committee, in tligm words — " hear Sir—Pew No. LiS in Park S:trect Church is let to Mr. Andrew
Ellison. "...Vous respectfully, " J. BumsTran."
The other letter was athlre:sed " to Mr. Ftederiek Ifrinsley, Coloured man, Elm street : " the contents are as follow.
Boston, Mardi 6.
" Sir—The Prudential Coramittee of Park Street Church notify you not to occupy any pew on the lower limn of Park Street 11Imting,-house on any Sab- bath, or on any other duty during the time of Divine worship, after tltis date; and if you go there with such intent, you will hazard the consequences. The petvs in the upper galleries are at your set vice.
" GLont:t.: Goio:tsr, for the Committ2e."
" Mr. Frederick Itrinsley." ObSerVell a Mall Of e010111' sr' ; 1
At soon as I had .1 ,-.•• - eyes were fixed 111/011111o. last a y g man stepped As • act whieli all present wet --'.• country.'" The matter tvas arrived front a country in her - man is allowed to do as he liki..
not the slight ,•t intention to .
not ag tin to risk his reputation 1 a•p',
Another 1,renchin0n (the Frenali, 1,•• it a'.
for their liberal :11111 generous 1'.;
in the sheets of New York, far morel)
belmiging to the lionse itt whieli Ise statwe connected %vitt' this stilijert, As- • t
and ill other respects, III e1.1111111blo
NV111.11.113: Lecamit intimate with a A • • an appinticent to vi.it some '
flietel at 10- ill arm with-- a
turned av..ay abruptly, atal v met, the Englishman asked ii .. !
mplied ; how cmild I do ii• to sprat: IlZairl ti 3113311 Who r. COIIIISItly with." " '0:kJ!" . sell.) is with toe when we o
sptaintance—one of my int 1•■
It should be observed in refec,ame to :his last iniecdote, that the Americans have a line eve for the colour cf skin. Persons were pointed out to the author as belonging to the Pariah caste, whom lie considered as purely Euroyean it t'h'seeiit. 1Ve may here re- mark too, that he rather overrates Eaglish " Few families would be very in,16,-;-0.1t, we suspect, aimit a la:Wilma- nial connexion with a pure Negro, and even a /11:1:1 ui 0.111teral " coloured" relation would he considered as far 1r,u1 enriching the genealogical tree. Our social feelings in Eqgdanil are cer- tainly not so sensitive as a slaveollivor's wit h res:met to a meeting with pure Ethiops, or an). of the deeper ecosses; but the guests, we opine, would be given to understand, or take for granted, that there was "something about him "—that he was a sort of coloured "-star." It must also be barne in mind, that ire have not several millions about us, degraded in opinion, some by their servile con- dition, and others by that of their ancestors. The Jews in Europo were formerly as much a caste as the free Nogroes in America; and the prejudice is not yet wora out. Upon this point Mr. Aunt', as Dr. Cu ANNING said of hint, is an enthusiast.
But though almost hating the Americans for their treatment of the Africans, he has too much good sense not to admit their merits in other points, or not to allow for the peculiarities of posi- tion. 1Ve take a few passages indicative of this quality.
hilt SEIZ.P.s it IV AT NEW • If first impressions have any influence upon our opinions, I conid not but think favourably of the society among which I found myself. I Wilt illVitell to dine at a lionise in Laight Street. It was a family party, consisting of twelve or thir- teen : the latter number is not connected with any staperstit' feeling in that part of the world. A heat ti welcome awl an unaffected manner, that put every one at once at his ease, greeted my entrance ; and the absence of display arta reserve rendered the conversation that pas,ed during the evening exceedingly agreeable. The delicate attenti.a.s, I received made me forget that I was a foreigner and an invalid. 1 cont.h perceive but little difference in what I saw and in what I had been accustomed to ; the gi eater or less degree of formality seemed to tic the chief national distinctiou. ITpon further acquaintance, I found that the different members of the family were as much distinguished far amiable dispositions as for natural good breeding. Here, as in other houses I vi.ited, Ns-ere signs of dotnestie attachment not eery common in the old country. Fuller t/w same roof were living the parents, their mother, and sisters, and the grown- up children. Whether SO striking a difference between two nations &wrote!' from the same stock, is to be referred to the difference in the law of descents that prevails in each is not unworthy of consideration.
A TRUE INFERENCE.
Several persons with whom I conversed, complimented me on the correctness of any language, and seemed to he astonished that an Englishman should speak his mother- tongue with propriety ; that he should leave the letter k in its right place and suffer r and w to speak for themselves. One man observed to me, that the grammatical accuracy with which Charles Kemble spoke struck the people on his fist arrival in New York as something unusual in cue from " the old countrie."
We may "guess" from this what sot t of gentry are used to honour the United States with their presence. Many who go thither upon business, and are dis- tinguished ;it home for nothing but vulgarity and ignorance, set up fur gentle. ran—though they have no pretension, or rather are all pretension—and com- plain that outward appearance is not treated with sufficient respect, as if into. knee would be taken for full payment of personal merit anywhere.
in a court of justice, and decided in favour of the plaintiff, a coloured man of tie name of Joshua Eastou. Ile Lad sued for damages against certain persons, who had ejected him from his pew, or ratio r had reudered it useless to hint. purchased seats in a ',loist chureh, recently erected in the town of Randolph, in the State of Massachusetts, le: foutal, on going thither one Suit. ray with his family, that the s, ats frol been I entuvul. They accordingly sat r!own as well as they could on the flooring. The next Stualay, nuthhig but the round being left for their accommodatiom the pir'y Were chliged to st.ital up during the service The enemy, finding that these /created inconveniences were unavailing, covered the pl teo with pitch ited tar. Ile was satisfied with the victory he had obtained, ;:t.;', showed Li:, sup ti•t-ity to this petty vulgar malice by not ins:sting on his ri A young Frenchman, who i. sAtleil in the .'-1t af otehusetts, tolol me that he once unintentionally and "iiighted " the " propriety " of a whole steatn-boat load of white hy 11;1,z:ie.; Id; cisar at the mouth of a piece of black " ci tI ' ! A. • • Avall,:a • , :leck, he
• ,I a son s I it. At Lid co:.,:•.■Ilt•rl :111
■ al the ; r tm-:er itht • :onl diere every 11 that I.c had his own mind,
• !, an aop.,:dols.
: 1111 .. 11,11(11 '•, .,•ishats o..to (odour eireunt. on intelligent, - I.ololon, i• 133.11I
• it Iii
11c. ( • I
1 that ..
...Id "cal'. a youtr woman who assi-it was getting what I hal asked for, I entered into conversation with him, and found him very obliging and civil. Perceiving I was an Englishman, he was anxious to hear how maters were going on in the old country, and his questions-vere readily answered. A neihhour coming in, our talk continued for some time ; snit whet' I taok toy leave, lie begged I would call ;igain and have some more chat with hint. Niohing was furthar from his thoughts than to mortify me by any appe,r;auce ot slight or inattention; nor was I disappoilited at not meeting with that assiduity and obsequiousness which s:Af-interest would have prompte.1 a London tiatlesman to disphy before a cus- tomer, and which would have been as little con:octetl with teal respect as my Hartford friend's nonchalance with rudeness or ill-inianners.
I hall but few aentetiotances among what may lo called the refined efoss, society in New Yolk. From the little I saw, however, I was led to conclude that the manners that prevailed ilt those circles differed no further front those in the corresponding rank arming ourselves, thall is might be explained by refer en., to habits that give :t dill'areet -value in the eyes of each to the connexion betweell t;Asentials tool externals. li-re k a natural goad bleeding about an Aim-tie:to gentleman that places yon it OHO.: in a position most congenial to your feelisigs, aml Foints out to you thee,: let limit, between sticial freedom and vulgar f Ile Its, in general, too nmell respect for Itituself to treat you with Imatelir, to mortify you by an assumption of sty er ilit v, or snob 'miss a ,sfrAnger Ii)- It display of those conventional forms. WhiCh 13.-311.00tity hiS imposed upon the spirit of-exclusiveness to shelter its hisignitic.inee and protect its privileges.
55 NOTIONS OF EN,:!.ISII IIIIEEI/ING.
A trip to the United titates is often revoinineolied a, a cute f, w morbid attach- ment to political equality. It would pet limps be a bitter remedy for a similar predilection i Ii favour ol' swial disparittes. It is not every une that can reason, but all can feel the fin (10 of the In:herons. Among the many odd questions that are pot to Englishown abont the clefionis of Oh: old country, is one that shows how 111111ell t I CO:1(.1.1)ii•la of external iinerv enters ill to the abstract idea of rank catertained hy tilos., who lew.. 110 other nuele if distinction. " Du not, your noblemen wear 3 great de d ;:bout their persons ? " seems to its a very silly question ; yet is hi -Cult with measti awl prov.,s that the- conditions oil Which respoct is obtained. a1i! little understood under 3 republie as under a ; and that the imagination is eon t1Iy inclined to confound the means with the Cl in both hemispheres. The judgment is misled, in one case by the ct n, and in the other by the ear. We li:ten to the title, while the Americans leok tO ti 111el I is ill by an intelligent whether own of rusk in Enghtnd associated with esentionteis? and aninhyr, who had evithutry received a good it,•nred the coutpany, at an hotel whcrc I was, that a Peer of Great !hi,- .1 would, if he by chance ins-it:31 to dinner, place hint at the bottom of the table, to show his hint d t■freptibliean prinriples. It was in vain ti at I tried to point out the imp...0..1,114y of a .11.fiinction which would ucces- sari!: b-,11tly Cl' tclative superiority It the very person it 13•3•4 intended to depress. le had the bast authority for what le- said • atul his auditors, who were accus-
tomed to elevate themselves by inortii'virg their own caantlymen, readily
believe what thyv tholight I hal an int...test in denying. II1s infirmant had ptolsably, as an English lady afterwards obs.wved to me, psi-daises) the top of tile tilde far the bloom, 01111 imagined he was " humbled" below his 41..serts, while he was "ex sited " above thein. It is somewhat difficult fit tililke it Transat- lanti,7 reptiblieant comprehend that Sill cquaiity is encouraged, while it is checked by political inequality ; and that rank is respected the more because it it not hoisted lipom Englishmen sometimes take itilvantage of this imperfect idea of our 111.1 ii, to impress on Co.: minds of iii se who entertain it a sense of their grit imp-rtarce. A 1111v speaking to me of one of my c mcitryinen, whom silts had met at Philadelphia, 'added that he was highly (omieeted„ and a fre- quenter of ilea very best society at home. " He was a fellow. commoner," she sail, "at the sum• ciallege with the late King." I told her it was an honour eisily acquired to be a fellow-c llllll notier It any college ; though he might per- lays claim the merit Of discovery, if he could point otit mac where the Prince of