Sir Jeremiah Dickson, K.C.B., is appointed to the command of the troops in Nova Scotia.
There was a conference, on Wednesday afternoon, between Viscount Palmerston, Prince Esterhazy, Baron Nieumann, Baron Bulow, Baron Brunow, and the Turkish Ambassador.
A letter from Alexandria, in the Sud, asserts that Commodore Napier is to replace Admiral Elliot in India.
Alexandria is again the scene of troublesome negotiations. Three firmans arrived from the Sultan on the 20th of last month, conveying the Pashalic of Egypt to Mehemet Ali, with succession to his descend- ants, on certain conditions. Those conditions are both numerous and .stringent. When the Government of Egypt shall become vacant, "the Porte will choose among its heirs him that shall suit it best, who will be called to Constantinople to receive the investiture " : the Hatti Scherif of Gulhane and the fundamental laws of the empire are to be enforced in Egypt : all taxes in Egypt will be levied in the name of the Sultan, who will take one quarter of the proceeds : coins are to be struck from the same dies with those at Constantinople : the army is to be limited to 20,000 men, 2,000 of whom are to be placed in Constanti- nople; every year 4,000 recruits are to be levied by lot, 3,600 to remain in Egypt and 400 to go to Constantinople ; soldiers freed from service are not to be called again to arms ; and the form of the troops and flags -are to be similar to those in use at Constantinople : and the Pasha is not to be allowed the power of conferring rank above Solkolagassi, (said to be equivalent to Adjutant-Major,) higher ranks being conferred by the Porte ; nor is the Pasha to build new military edifices. In case of -the non-performance of any of the foregoing conditions, the inheritance would be revoked.
Mehemet Ali absolutely rejected the first and last of the conditions, declaring that he looked to England, on whose good faith he always relied, to save him from the disgrace and danger involved in them. -Negib Said Effendi, the bearer of the firmans from the Porte, was about to leave Alexandria on the 24th, with the Pasha's refusal. But he had not declared the negotiations at an end. Commodore Napier -remained at Constaninople when the mail left, in hopes of assisting to bring the renewed dispute to an amicable termination. Mehemet Ali was very busy in raising money, and had demanded a loan of 100,000 dollars, without interest for a year, from each of seven of the principal houses in Alexandria. It was expected that he would obtain it, notwithstanding the singularity of the demand and the pre- cariousness of his position. Ibrahim Pasha had proceeded to Damietta. All the Egyptian and Syrian troops had left Gaza, and Lieutenant Loring had returned to Alexandria. Serious complaints are uttered against General Jochmus for impeding the: retreat of Ibrahim's army ; in consequence of which 12,000 men have died, besides multitudes of women and children who -accompanied the army. The plague was at Acre and Jaffa, and was increasing at Alexandria, where the smallpox was also becoming destructive.
The Albanian troops at Beyrout had quarrelled with the mountaineers of Lebanon, who set the Sultan's authority at defiance. The Russian Consuls in Syria had received official instructions to " protect" all the -Greeks who might demand their assistance against local oppressions.
At Damascus, a few days after the departure of Ibrahim Pasha, the provincial authorities havino-'s gone out to meet the public functionaries appointed by the Porte, the Turks, excited by the Jews, attacked the police-officers, of whom several were killed, and commenced plundering the city. It is stated that the object of the Jews was to excite a general rising against the Christians, who could not appear in the streets with- out exposing themselves to the worst treatment. The persecution con- tinued after the Turks obtained possession of the city ; and the Chris- tian clergy had addressed a circular to the Consuls in the place, claiming their intervention. The Consuls exerted themselves, but without much effect.
The latest date from Bombay is the 1st February. The news from India is of little interest. The North-western provinces were compa- ratively tranquil ; but preparations which were making for a third cam- paign indicate that no confidence is felt in existing appearances. Nusseer Khan, the son of the late ruler of Khelat, had surrendered, and left the Belooches without a leader. Candahar was in a disturbed -condition. The Dooranees, upon whose support Shah Soojah, the un- popular ruler of Cabul, chiefly relied,-hali revolted : one writer says- " The whole country has risen against Shah Soojah ; and nothing but his dethronement will ever keep them quiet." Shah Soojah's finances are said to be in a very deranged condition ; and he is unable to pay his yearly tribute to the Khyburrees, an unruly tribe of mountaineers whom he pays to keep quiet.
A strong. built fort at Kaiak, between Sambra and Jeypore, had been taken from a refractory chief, by Major Forster's brigade, on the 25th December ; though not without difficulty. Bebee Send Koun, the widow of Kurrukh Sing, the late ruler of Lahore, (and not of Nao Nehal Singh, as she was at first supposed to be,) had obtained undivided possession of the throne, as Regent. She tad closely leagued herself with Rajah Deean Sing, the illegitimate son of Runjeet Singh. Reports of disaffection in Nepal still prevail. Sir Stamford Whittingham, Commander-in-Chief of Madras Presi- 4dency, died of apoplexy on the 25th December. The Bombay Times reports a dull state of trade. The merchants of Bombay have petitioned both Houses of Parliament to take the affairs of China into consideration, with a view to urging the Government to adopt vigorous measures.
The Paris papers furnish very little news this week. Rumours have gained strength in that capital, that a protocol has been signed in Lon- don, which was originally said to have for its intention the termination of the isolation of France ; but the journals of Wednesday say that France has refused her signature, on account of the. hard conditions which are imposed upon Mehemet Ali. It is said in Paris, however, that negotiations are still going on here. The Journal des Debuts of Tuesday states that the Committee appointed to investigate the supplementary credits of 179,707,435 francs, granted by ordinance to defray the expenses attendant on the increase on the land and sea forces, made in consequence of the treaty of July 15th, have declared that "the situation of affairs in Europe would not permit the Government to reduce the effective of the land and sea forces during 1841."
The Chamber of Deputies have been discussing the question of slavery in the French Colonies. On Saturday, M. Guizot declared that the present Government was sincere in its desire to afford the Co- lonial Committee every possible aid in bringing about the cessation of slavery, as well as in reforming the administration of justice in the Colonies. It transpired during the debate, that while M. Thiers had affected to be favourable to the emancipation of the slaves, he had secretly aided the planter in defeating the objects of the Commission.
Madrid journals to the 3d instant represent the capital as perfectly tranquil. A plan which was talked of for investing Espartero with the whole power of the Regency, without colleagues, was not thought likely to be successful, doubts being entertained of his capacity and energy. General Alava, the Ambassador to this country, had sent in his resignation for the second time. It is supposed that he will be suc- ceeded by Senor Gonzales.
Letters from Lisbon to the 1st instant announce that the Portuguese Government have withdrawn altogether the unpopular project for re- viving the feudal ground-rents as a source of revenue.
The Paris Commerce publishes a letter, dated from Bologna on the 28th ultimo, which mentions an attempt that had been made on the life of Queen Christina, the ex-Regent of Spain, by a Carlist refugee, who is supposed to be insane. He tried to strangle the Queen, but was prevented by the bystanders.
The King of Prussia has reformed the constitutional law and privi- leges of his States. These are to meet now every two years, in lieu of every three years. The protocol of the sittings is to be printed and distributed. The States, when they separate, are to elect members to be Commissioners, to advise the King, and aid him with their counsel in important circumstances.
The Union of the two Canadas is completed. On the 10th of last month the oath of office was taken by Lord Sydenham, at Montreal, on assuming the government of "Canada," in the presence of the Special Council, the judges, the clergy, and the heads of the departments. Salutes were fired, a numerous levee was held, and in the evening a grand ball was given by the Governor. After taking the oath, he formally proclaimed the Union. The proclamation commenced thus-
" In obedience to the commands of the Queen, I have this day assumed the government of the Province of Canada. Upper and Lower Canada, separated for fifty years, are once more reunited, and henceforward will form but one province under one administration. On my arrival in Lower Canada, I de- clared that one of the main objects of my mission was to put an end to the suspension of the constitution in that province, and to restore to its inhabitants the full benefits of British institutions. That object is accomplished. By the Imperial Act which fixes the Union, representative government is again esta- blished; and that control by the people over their own affairs which is deemed the highest privilege of Britons, is once more restored to them."
The following picturesque account of a natural convulsion in the Nia: gara river, is treated by the correspondent of the Morning Chronicle as one of those hoaxes to which American journalists are addicted-
" Office of the Advertiser, Buffalo, 14th February, four o'clock.
"We hasten to announce to our readers and to the world, an event in its nature at once the most stupendous and sublime that has ever been recorded in the annals of the wonderful. The Falls of Niagara—the unmatched pine- nomenon of nature—the centralization of power, grandeur, and beauty—the theme of poesy and the material of the traveller—the resort of the ennuie and the delight of the susceptible—is no more. " On Saturday morning, about nine o'clock, were manifested the first symp- toms of the great catastrophe that shortly ensued. Mr. Arnold, a citizen of the village, while waiting at the foot of the spiral staircase for the return of the boat, in order to execute an errand on the opposite side, perceived the jut- ting rocks which formed on the Canada side the famous submarine cavern, to break away and fall into the caldron underneath. The incident itself, and its effect on the aspect of the Fall, were so remarkable, that he returned to the village and communicated the facts to several citizens; and very soon a large group had collected to watch for further developments. "In the course of an hour considerable masses were dislocated and thrown down. The sheet of water that before fell abruptly, almost perpendicularly, with an unbroken breast over the protruding cave, of course now shot down an obtuse angle, losing its graceful and majestic curve, but gaining in tumult and effervescence. By three o'clock p.m., the number of spectators was augmented by many from Buffalo, ourselves among them. Nothing further transpired that night. Early next morning parties were anxiously gazing towards the Falls, despite the severity of the weather, expecting to see the work of disor- ganization proceed. " At half-past seven o'clock, a wide space of the frontal bastion near to Goat Island, within the Horse-shoe, fell down ; and then followed effects with greatly accelerated rapidity. What was actually taking place could only he surmised, as the great confluence of water hid the immediate stage of operations from sight. But it was plain to all that the supporting fabric of the cataract was fast wearing away before the tremendous enginery. Its immemorial dura- bility might have been owing to the strongly-intrenehed and adamantine ram- part that had always presented its shoulder to the assailing flood ; or the whole, equally compact and secure, might have been preparing for this demolition through ages of sapping, solving percolation. The angle of descent every mi.-
flute diminished. At half-past eight the Biddle Towee and all the adjoining woundwork had disappeared. The tower sank into the gulf like a subsiding wave. Shortly after, the water having made a sabterranean passage, burst through the wall of Goat Island, cumbered with masses of rock and rolled with earth ; and as instantly the crust above collapsed and mixed in the wild chaos below. In rapid succession, on the Canada side of the island, mass followed mass; and the island, throughout its entire length, was chafed and narrowed dolvn to a lean stripe, as if of more substantial constituents. On the British border, the wall of loose friable rock was gored and ploughed away until the Table Rock, so much resorted to by visiters, fell down in fragments; the spiral staircase toppled, and for awhile it was expected that the hotel would
It etill stands, though in a perilous posture, all the furnitare being removed. On the American side, the great shelf is unmolested; but the water falling over is greatly diminished, it being diverted to the largely-increased channel on the British side. Here the waters have a prolonged fall of nearly a mile, the plane of course very gentle, commencing abase Goat Island, and eliding below the old fording-place, the intermediate space being filled up and graduated by de- posits from above. "The appearance of the Fall in its new shape time will not permit us to sketch.
" P.S. The hotel is gone, we learn. It is believed no lives have been lost."