iFortiaa anti oaiai.
FRANGH.—The National Assembly elected its officers on Friday. The state ofthe vote for the President's chair was as follows—M. Belches, 383; M. Trete, 234; M. Recurt, 91; M. Voiringe, 5; M. Cormenin, (Tienon,) 3; lost votes, 12. The required majority was 364, so M. Buchez was declared Preeident. It had been already determined that the first election should only be for ooie month. M. Buchez is a highly respectable man, and a 4'Irtreleratee." M. Trdlat was the Rollin candidate. M. Rectut is also a Moderate; and Teeth be and M. Buchez sue adjoiots to the Mayor of Paris. The EfilI Vim-Presidents chosen weee—M. Recurt, who obtained 633 votes; General Cavaignac, 575; M. Carbon, 397; M. Gaillard, 378; M. Comeenine319; and hi. Senard, 318.
The six Secretaries—MM. Poupin, 365; Robert, 333; Degeorges, 325; Feiix'Pyat, 322; Lacrosse, 287; and Emile Pean, 262.
The three Questors—M. Degousee, 439 votes; hi. Bureaux de Pusy, 333; mad General Negrier, 290.
On Saturday, the Presidents of the various Committees appointed to verify the elections gave their reports in succession. The Abbe Fayet, Bishop of Orleans, was reported against, on the ground that corruption, end undue sacerdotal influence, ha been used to procure his election for the department of the Lot. The election of M. Sehmit as 15th candidate for Paris, was specially reported on. Two Schmitz bad
been candidates, and many of the votes intended for Schmit (+eerier been planed placted tu the poll of Sohmit Governmental clerk, and author of
" Oateejaismele,POuvrier": the Commietee determined that the return eat, void; and recommended that M. Moreau, who was the 35th candidate__ the highest usmuccessful one—ehould be held as elected. But this was objected Would a new election advocated: M. Moreau was a anew; pas_ tisan of the Moderate party. A division was taken,—twice by rising,aeg sitting which waved doubtful; .and at last by ballot, when the new dee. tion was carried ley 414 to 298. The members of the Provisional Government then in succeeclon rendered account of their respective depattments. A geuend preamble to time de- partmental reports was first to be read by the President of the Provisional Government. M. Dupont de l'Eure, however, on account of his weakness of voice, requested that M. de Lamartine should read it for hire; and the Chamber assented with alacrity. The chief points of this document vrere the bellowing— The Throne being overtatned, and the Deusety having departed into erile, the Provisional Govan:intent simply recorded that Republic which was proclaimed by the voice of the entire people. The first task of the.Government was the reste, ration of order in Paris. The cooperation of the citizens made this a task of less merit than otherwise it would have been: each citizen became at the same time the soldier of peace and the volunteer magistrate of order. The magnanimoas aspect of the people' their heroism and generosity, inspired the idea of the filet decree publiehedenthe name of the Republic—that which abolished the punish. meet of death for political effences. Europe saw that the spirit of God was neer the crowd, and karat to hope that a revolution so magnanimous in its Mavens_ ties wealth be pare and sacred in it.e success. Regards were -turned in succession to the departments of France, the Area, the Colonies, Algeria, and the teatimes of Europe. As to the last, Europe waited undecided the first word of the Republic. " That first word was the eh:Aide:4* facto and de jars, of the reactionary treaties of 1815; liberty restored to our fo. reign policy; the declaration of peace-for territories—of sympathy for nations-. of justice, good faith, and moderation for governments. France, by that mane. festo, disarmed her ambition, but did not disarm her ideas; she let her principle of action shine forth fully. tier war went no farther. The special report of tte Minister of .Foreign Affairs will show you what this system of open diplomacy has produced for France and what it will in all likelihood still produce for France." The Minister Of War energetically reestablished the shaken discipline of the Army; a Council of Defence was formed; four armies of observation were established—in the North, on the Rhine, the Alps, and the Pyrenees; and the Navy was despatched to display tile flag of the Republic to our brethren on the Italian =ems. Bat in proclaiming a Republic France proclaiened a priateple—ehe principle of equality by right, and fraternity by iestitations. The revolution ought to be organized for the profit of the people. To suppress the servile name of" pro- letaire," and elevate the working man; to elevate and enrich the without de- grading or injuring others; "to preserve property, and render it more feudist, by multiplying it, and dividing it amongst a greater number; to distribute the taxes in such a way as to cause the heaviest weight to fall on the strongest; to create by the stete the work which should happen.to fail ley the fact of capital being ietimidated, so that not a workman in France should remain without bread; in flue, to examine with the workmen them,sehres the practical an,d true phee =myna of use:wisdom and the theories, still problematical, of the various sys- tems, in order to discover the true applicati="3—such were the ideas of the Provisional Government in all its.decrees. The momentary dismissal of immense numbers of artisans,from factories, the commercial and industrial crisis oil the Continent and in England, the disorder of the' national fioances, which ehe,fallen Qoveremeee,had brought about, caused specie to disappear, and called for provisional aid which it would have been falseness to the Republic to refuse: labour and credit were assisted; and the moment awaited which at leogth eanno coned, wheeconfidenceretnrned to men's minds, and restored capital to the .employer and.wage,s to the worktnau. The department of justice waspuribed; judicial situatione were removed from everything politi- cal: the Miniseer of Jnstice with grief, but with =inflexible hand, effected-the separation. Public lestruction and Worship were placed under one hand, et the intention allows that they should be made free before human conscience and the law. To agriculture and commerce the hand cif the state was momentarily stretched out, till returued security should bring its s taneaus_retief. In Francs, timp, that Republic had beenestablishe which the Governments of Europe declared could only be so on the conditions of foreign and civil war, anar- chy, prisons, and the seaffeld: it is, shown to be compatible with peace to all Europe and order at home with individual liberty, and even with gentleness, mildnere, and-purity of morals, iou people to whim hatred is a tortiue end con- cord a national iestiact. Forty-exedays have been passed through, with ao exe- cutive authority over the people but that moral one which they themselves were pleased to acknowledge: the people consented to be governed by persuasive words, by counsels, and by generous inspirations. Throughout that time of crisis, cone tion of work, and misery.-.of political agitation and social anguish—property Wee unviolatel, and life =menaced by the people: nor had a single proscription or imprisonment, sr a single drop of bleodeloed-by the Govemmeut, east a shade of sadness en the past. The members of the Provisional Government might descend from their stations and remix with the-people withoutene.one being able to ask, "As citizensewhat have beep your deeds? The National Assembly has been called, lind the- National Guard organized around it for its protection. Every one now has his right, and his weapon te 'maintain it. Faction is ma longer possible; for there tee n° longer divided classes —political and non-political, armed and unarmed citizen& Insurrection would no longer be extreme right.arismg against oppression: it would itself be oppression and crime. With the closing labours of the Provisional Goverment commeaces the work of the National Representatives. Let the latter lose not time—that ptillr cipal element ofluman affeirs. Let a Committee on the Constitution, emanating from the suffrages of the Assembly, introduce without delay the simple mechan- ism, brief end democratic, of the -constitution, the organic and .secondary laws of which can afterwards be discussed atleisure.
Meanwhile, the Peovisiontal Goyernment submitted its acts to judgment; ask- ing only that the difficulties of their task might be taken into account, and de- manding an amnesty for its involuotery dictatorship. In conclusion M. de le- martiee said" Our only ambition is to reenter the ranks of good eilizens.
the history of our beloved country inscribe with indulgence, below, far below, the great deeds which Fromm has accomplished, the recital of the three past mouths, during which-we have crossed an abyss between a crushed Monarchy stud a Re- public starting up in its place. And instead of the obscure and forgotten names of the men who have devoted themselves to the public welfare, may history in- scribe on her pages eply two naines—the name of the People who has preserved ail, and the name of the great God who has poured his blessings on the Numbs, time of the Republic."
The Assembly manifested extreme tlereelat at . the oration. As MAO Lamartioe withdrew to his place, be was wanuily felicitated by his friends;
and on his arrivingreleese 4.0 hi, JEure, the old man embraced him with transpert
followed.with.an account of his Ministry of the Interior. His speech was moderate, and effective.
The work of which he was proudest was the preparation and organization in ogee weeks of universal suffrage; a mode of election which three months before bed been declared utterly impassible_ hitherto calumny had been unheeded and unanswered by him: he had not lost, in refuting odious falsehoods, the precious time which the service of the Republic demanded. Now, however, that the sovereignty of the Assembly discharged him from the burden of affairs, calumny would find him ever ready to confound it. creenieux described the ameliorations he had accomplished or put in train, chiefly in connexion with the magistracy and the press. me Louis Blanc described the origin of his department, and the nature of the labours performed. We have gathered on the question of labour a great deal of information, which wm be communicated to you, and you will examine it in all its details. Suffice it for me to say, that the two fundamental ideas of our work—whether it concerns commerce or agriculture, or the banks or the establishments of customs—the two fundamental ideas are, association and disinterested intervention, the pacific and tmee,re intervention of the State. We do not pretend that the State should be- came the only industriel of the kingdom; but we wish it to be understood that tile State has a great duty to fulfil in what regards those who suffer. What we wish is, that the State should be the guardian of credit, giving credit not only to the rich, but to the poor."
Association is a noble and beautiful thing; not because it will displace riches, brit because it will make them universal, by making them fruitful; and because it will raise the level of the people and of humanity.
M. Gamier-Pages did little more in his address than recapitulate the points of the financial statement which he published on entering his de- partment. He stated that the Provisional Government would leave at the disposal of the Assembly a reserve fund of 100,000,000 francs.
M. Arago's statements included the fact that 800,000 muskets had been delivered to the National Guards of France.
M. Marie, in allusion to the Railway question, contented himself with recommending the Assembly to consider it most maturely.
M. de Lamartine then spoke as Minister of Foreign Affairs.
There were two parties in presence after the late Revolution,—these who thought war needful and inevitable; those who desired peace with liberty. M. de Lamartine was of the latter. This policy was now comprised in two words— armed diplomacy. He reviewed, the European events of the past few months, and concluded from the situation of each nation that no one at present united the de- sire with the ability to attack France. Who were now her enemies? Formerly, with her thirty-six millions she was isolated: now she stands bound in the closest fraternity evith the greateet part of the millions of Europe. Far from fearing war from them, she may look to them for aid. She may now remain at peace with all the world, though prepared for every event; and may carry out those views of Democratic progress which ought to be the characteristic of a Republic. M. Domes proposed from the tribune a vote that the Provisional Go- vernment deserved well of their country; and a violent- scene ensued. M. Bathes rushed to the tribune and inveighed against the Government as the authors of the Rotten massacres: he demanded an inquiry into the posi- tion of France before Europe- Ile was interrupted by prodigious uproar, but continued to scream his denunciations for some time. At last his voice was completely drowned. M. Senard, the Commissioner at Rouen, replied energetically to M. Bathes; and M. Cremieux added some words of indignant eloquence. The Chamber hastened to a vote; and resolved, almost unanimously, that the Government "bed well merited from the country." M. Barbes and M. Dnrrieu were the only two persons who held up their hands in the negative.
The President of the Assembly stated that he had received a note of resignation from M. Beranger. The Assembly became curiously excited, and it was actually put to- the vote whether the poet's resignation should be accepts/ It. *as at last decided to accept the resignation.
On Monday evening, the members assembled in their Bureaux. The Assembly isdivided into eighteen of these bureau; or standing committees, which deliberate in separate chambers. The bureaux chose their officers— the far greater number of them from the Moderate party. A committee was then formedeby choosing one from each bureau, to deliberate on the best form of the Interim Government which should succeed.the'Provisional Gessnunent: tea Of the number were members of the old Chamber of Deputies.
Or the-9th, the order of the day in the Assembly was the consideration of the report of the Committee appointed to examine the various propo- sitions for constituting the Executive Government ad interim. M. Peupin, " ouvrier," read the Committee's report. Two proposals had been chiefly discussed,—one that the Assembly should appoint in public sitting an Executive Council, which should name the nine Ministers; the second, that the Assembly itself should directly name the nine Ministers With portfolio, and one other without porttblio, to act as Ptesident. The Cool- nutted had resolved, by 14 to 4, to support the latter scheme. M. Durrieu proposed that the Provisional Government should resume its functions till the constitution be determiued.
A debate of much length, bat no interesting features, arose. The Abbe Lacorduire supported M. Durrieu's proposition. M. Odilon Barrot was the chief speaker in favour of the scheme of direct choice; M. Jules Fevre and M. de Lamartine the leading ones in support of the scheme of an interme- diate Commission du Gonvernement.
The Assembly at last went to a division, with this result—
For the Ministry to be appointed by an Executive Committee 411 For the Ministry to be appointed by the Chamber direct 385 Majority 26 During Tuesday night some apprehensions of disturbance seem to have been felt; for notice was sent round to each National Guard to be on the alert and ready at the rappel. On Wednesday morning, at the meeting of the Assembly, double guards were found on duty. It is stated also that 900 muskets were deposited for the arming of the Representatives in case of attack.
The Assembly met at noon; but so few persons were present., that there was an adjournment till one o'clock.
Senard created some excitement by the mention of rumours that several members of the late Provisional Government had declared they would not accept a renewal of office if certain of their colleagues were ex- cluded. He stated from personal inquiries that the rumours were un- founded. After a confused discussion amidst much uproar, no point being distinctly before the Assembly, the order of the day for balloting the five members of a Commission of Government came on. The process was im- Mensely operoso and occupied three hours: at its close, the five members whose names follow, With the votes for each, were declared to be duly ekoted—Arago' 725; Gernier-Pages, 715; Marie, 702; Laraartine, 683; Li:dm-11611in, 458. M. Louis Blanc made a lengthened oration on the subject of the organi- zation of labour; advocating the appointment of a special Ministry of La- hour. He spoke much as if defending himself from attack, and was lis- tened to throughout with great impatience. A member rose and rebuked him fier defending himself so much, when his principles only were attacked. M. Blanc declared he had no personal interest in the question; a remark which provoked incredulous laughter. He concluded by demanding the immediate organization of labour, that a revolution of hunger might be prevented. M. Peupin, " ouvrier' " opposed the proposition of a Ministry of Labour; though he besought the Assembly to turn instant attention to the situation of that body of workmen of which he was a member. M. Peupia defended the Commission which sat in the Luxembourg from the blame of doing wrong: it did not deserve blame on that score, for it had done no- thing at all—(Great applause and laughter)—its will and its ability were good, but its elements rendered it inefficient. M. Peupin advocated a committee of inquiry from among the members of the Assembly: that would establish confidence, and confidence would restore all to safety. Other members supported the committee proposed by M. Peupin. The proposition of M. Louis Blanc to establish a Ministry of Labour was unani- monody rejected; and that of el. Peupin was adopted.
M. Thiers is about to stand for the department of the Seine, in place of Lamartine.
Brigadier-General Tanpoure is appointed Commandant-in-chief of the Garde Mobile, in the room of General Duvivier ; whose resignation has been accepted.
The 5th of May being the anniversary of the death of Napoleon, a grand funeral service was celebrated in the Church of the Invalides. Severed members of the Imperial family were present,—Jerome Bonaparte, and his two children; Napoleon Bonaparte, Deputy for Corsica, and Princes!! Mathilda Demidotr; Joachim Murat, Deputy to the National Assembly; and Pierre Bonaparte, son of Lucien, and Deputy of Corsica. Among the others present were-- Marshal Molitor, Governor of the Invalides; General Petit, Deputy Governor; Generals Fabvier, Genrgand Friant, Montholon, and Chatry-Lafosse.
It appears that order has not been restored in the provinces. At Brive, the majority of the inhabitants not only refused to pay the 45 per cent additional taxation imposed by the Provisional Government, but had threatened with violence any person who should pay it.
At Montluel, near Lyons, the soldiers of a regiment of artillery quartered in that town revolted; and being joined by some of the people broke open a prison in which one of their comrades was confined, delivered him, and paraded him in triumph through the streets by torchlight, singing the Marseillaise.
It is stated that tranquillity has been purchased at Limoges by a sum of 300,000 frances, sent by Government for the maintenance of the operatives thrown out of work.
In the district of St. Dizier, nearly all the furnaces have ceased working, because of the difficulty of obtaining coal and ore.
Desterea.K.—The Prussians entered Jutland early on the morning of the 2d instant, at Konigsau, near to the town of Kolding. This over- running of Denmark Proper is at the orders of the German Diet; which resolved, on the 26th April, that the troops of the Confederation should enter Jutland, and keep possession of it till security Were given by Denmark for the restitution of the captures made by her ships of war.
On the other hand, the King of Denmark, on the 29th April, proclaimed an extension of the blockade operations of his fleet to all the ports of Oldenburg and Mecklenburg; and those of Lubeck, Hamburg, and Bre- men.
POLAND.—Posen is 'universally in arms against Prussian rule•' a state of things mainly brought about by the conflicting conduct ef Generals Willisen and Coulomb, the civil Commissary and the military Commander of the province. It is asserted that General Coulomb, impatient at the Polish sympathies of General Willisen, has disregarded his stipulatione and smacked the Poles, and so raised the flame of insurrection throughout the conetry. There have been conflicts, actual battles, between the Prus- sians and Poles at Xiouz, Miloslaw, and at Wreschen. At Xionz, on the 29th April, the Poles fought behind barricades, and were not subdued till the town had been bombarded and laid in ashes by fire. The Prussian report states the Polish losses at 835 killed in the fight, and 732 buret in the flames of their burning town, after the fight. Five hundred prisoitere were made. At other points the Poles have been successful. The Prim- shuts attacked Mieroshevski at Miloslaw, on the 290, with a- large form and Melva guns; but Were beaten off, with immense loss. General Hirsch- feld has been attacked and defeated at Wresehen, and driven back to So- kolow. Captain Boenigk was attacked and driven out of the town of Buck, on the 4th instant. Major Breetz, at Grine, hearing of this, marched to his aid, joined him, and reentered the town, meeting at first little re- sistance. A priest led a large body of scithemon against him; who slew him and sacked the town, before they were overcome by his troops. The Dehtehe Zeitung publishes the subjoined circular letter teem the Polish Committee of Posen to that of Gotzyn, dated the 28th of Marche- " We must avoid alarming the Germans, in order not to provoke a reaction; but it is itnportant to maintain our supremacy over them. Ihte therefore recom- mend your treating the Germans to their films in a candid, stitsightfor ward man- ner, so that they may confide in our attachment and fraternity. But behind their backs the people are to be armed; their minds are to be inflamed with a fiery zeal."
General Willisen has been recalled by the Court of Berlin; and Gene- ral Pfuel, a man of moderation and experience, commissioned to endeavour to pacify the Polish insurgents.
Auseerree—Ifungary is following the example of Posen. The awe/into are not detailed, but it is said that the whole kingdom is in rebellion. In Croatia, too, troubles are rising. Zara Georgiewiek has been proclaimed King by some districts inhabited by Servians. Another prince has pro- claimed a counter4evoltaien on his account. In Vienna, there have been mob and student disturbances. The tuliti to the 5th. Count Fiquelmont has been beset in his palace, and forced- to resign. Baron Leleeltern succeeded him as Home and Foreign Ministdr ad interim. The Minister of War, Zanine has also resigned, and been re- placed by Count Baillet Latour. The sequestration laid on Prince Adam Czartorysky's property was re- moved by a decree of the 3d instant. freer.—Rome has had its revoluthen. News not long since arrived in Rome of revolting cruelties practised to the Roman volunteers by the Austrians near Verona. Signor Caffir an artist, a man much beloved Rome, was found hanging from a tree, with a written inscription—" This is the way in which the Crusaders of Pins the Ninth are treated." The populace of Rome, already impatient at the reluctance of the Pope, arose and with violence demanded a declaration of war. On the 29th April, the Pope still held out: he made a speech to his Cardinals in conclave against declaring war, and said that his troops had crossed the Po without his in- structions. But on the 30th, Cicero Vechio, at the head of the populace, took possession of the post-office, and inspected the correspondence of the Car- dinals. It was found that they meditated flight. The city-gates were gained. Deputations to the Pope from the people and-the clubs pressed the Pope to yield; and the Sardinian and Tuscan Ambassadors joined in urging him. On the 1st instant he yielded, at the persuasion chiefly of Senator Mamiani. The Ministry resigned. The declaration of war was issued. The Pope recalled his Ministers, all but Cardinal Antonelli; who was succeeded in the Foreign department by Mamiani. The Ministry, now completely secularized, resolved to push the war with vigour.
The news from Lombardy now grows clearer. Charles Albert has pushed his troops over the Adige at Pontone, on the North of Verona; cutting off Radetsky from the valley of the Trent, and from the power of a junction with Nugent's troops, advancing from the North-east. There was much fighting in doing this; the Austrians losing many men killed and prisoners in each affair. Durando and Zuechi are said to have effected a junction, and to be in front of Nugent with a superior body of men.