ffortign anti etolonfal.
FRANCE.—The loan of 250,000,000 francs was adjudicated on Wednes- day morning. The room in the Finance Minister's official residence was crowded to excess; the Minister took his seat at noon, at the head of a table, and laid upon it a sealed paper stating the minimum price that he would accept: Baron James de Rothschild laid upon the table a sealed tender; there was a pause of half an hour; no other tender was made, and the Baron's paper was opened. It offered to provide the money in the in- stalments stipulated (in round numbers, at 10,000,000 francs a month for two years) at the price of 75 francs 25 centimes. Stating that this price exceeded the minimum fixed by himself; the Minister declared M.de Roths- child's tender to be accepted.
On the Bourse, the same afternoon, the loan opened at 76 francs 90 can times, and closed 15 centimes above that price.
A Reform banquet was held at Lille, on Sunday. The guests numbered eleven hundred; among them M. Odilon Barret, and seven other Deputies of the "Gauche," The first toast in the list was "Electoral and Par- liamentary Reform ": to this M. Barret and his colleagues insisted upon adding, "-and to the truth and sincerity of the institutions of July." The majority were indignant at the proposal, as signifying approval of the Royal part of that settlement in 1830; and much confusion ensued. At length M. Barret and his few supporters withdrew; the Chairman, M. St. Leger, also resigning his functions, and retiring with about fifty of the company. A still larger body, however, remained to dine. They elected M. Bente Pullet, the Radical lawyer and Deputy, and principal writer in the Re- forme, into the vacant chair; and became exceedingly Democratic, break- ing up with the " Marseillaise."
Meanwhile, the Government is unremitting in its preparations for any more forcible demonstration on the part of the Radicals: the Refortne states that 1,850 pieces of artillery, intended for the armament of the detached forts round Paris, are stored in the Castle of Vincennes and in the fort of Alfort.
Count Mortier, Peer of France, and French Ambassador to the Court of Sardinia, has attempted to kill his children, in a fit of madness. The Count had been residing in Paris on leave of absence. The principal delusion ?atter which he laboured was that his wife was unfaithful to him; but it is universally agreed that there was not the shadow of a reason for such a notion.
"For some time past,* says a French journal, " M. Mortier had exhibited symptoms of this terrible malady, and committed, without any motive, acts of the greatest violence. On Sunday morning he fastened himself up with his two children in the apartments which he occupied at the Hotel Chatham. He then wrote letters to his wife and to one of his friends, announcing that in some seconds he and his children would have ceased to exist. The Prefect of Police, who vras immediately informed of this hastened to the hotel, as did also the President of the Chamber of Peers. M. Mortier remained in his chamber, which WAS barri- caded. He was armed with a razor, which he brandished over his children, and threatened to plunge into his person; whilst, at the same time he uttered the most frightful language. He was spoken to in a friendly way, but replied only by incoherent phrases about death and blood; and then, addressing himself to Ina son, who was on his knees, he said that he must die. The poor child, who is aged only eleven years, cried that he would not die, and wept and struggled. The Count then asked his daughter, who is aged only eight years, if she would follow him, and die with him. The poor little creature replied in sweet childish accents, that she would willingly die with her father, and it was believed that he was pre- paring to accomplish this horrible design. The persons who heard these dread- ful words were chilled with terror. A word or a movement on their part might rause to descend the arm which madness agitated and retained at the same time. This dreadful scene lasted nearly three hours; and the Countess Mortier, the Chancellor, and the Prefect of Police, were at the door during the time ic a state of indescribable dismay. At length access was obtained to the room through a condemned door, which was opened without noise. The Chancellor and the Prefect entered, and were fortunate enough to drag the poor children from the room, and to give them to their mother. M. Monier still kept his razor in his hand, and nothing could induce him to quit it: he made at times the gesture of cutting his throat, and this scene continued for three-quarters of an hour. He then complained bitterly of the persecution of which he said he was the object; he accused the Prefect of violating his house, the Chancellor of depriving bun of his liberty, and threatened to complain to the Keeper of the Seals. The Prefect recommended him to write to the Keeper of the Seals, and undertook to deliver the letter; his hope being that he would lay aside the razor, which it would have been dangerous to attempt to take by force. The Count consented to write the letter, but on the condition that the Prefect should remain at the other extremity of the chamber. The Keeper of the Seals having been sent for, begged M. 'Horner to go and talk with him on the matters of which he had to complain. This he consented to do, and left the room. In descending the staircase, he closed his razor and ;ant it in his pocket. In the court-yard of the hotel he was seized and secured in the presence of the Chancellor, and immediately conveyed to a rnaison de sante."
This occurrence has created the most painful interest in Paris.
SWITZERLAND.—The Federal Diet took their final resolve against the Sonderbund on the 4th instant; a decree equivalent to a declaration of
On the same day, the first blood was shed. The troops of Uri entered- the Canton of Tessino; and there was a skirmish, thus described by the Bale Gazette—
"The men of Uri, being 400, had occupied with four guns the heights of Goth- ard, on the Tessino territory; the battery had been raised near the hospitaL Three artillery officers having perceived a patrol of Tessino, they attempted to reconnoitre it; the patrol fired, and two officers of Uri fell dead; it is said that the third was slightly wounded. The officers who have been killed were, as is said, of Lucerne, and to have commanded the Uri artillery. In consequence of this occurrence, and the news of Tessin() having mustered more troops than was expected, 500 Valaisians, who were to embark at Fluren for Lucerne, have beea ordered to return to the St. Gothard."
General Dufour's address to the Federal army professes a most forbear- ing spirit. He calls upon the troops to remember, that it is their most sacred duty to defend the national banner with all their energy and at the expense of their blood. But he adds- " Soldiers, we must get out of this struggle, not only victorious, but also with- out reproach. People must say of us, They fought valiantly when necessary, but they showed themselves everywhere humane and generous.' I therefore place under your safeguard the children, the women, the old men, and the ministers of religion. He who lifts his hand against an inoffensive person dishonours himself and soils his flag. The prisoners, and especially the wounded, merit your atten- tion and compassion, and that the more as you have frequently found yourselves with them in the same field. You will do no useless damage in the country, and you will know how to support the momentary privations which the seasons may produce in spite of the care that will be taken to supply your necessities." On the morning of the same eventful day, the 4th instant, Mr. Peel hail an interview with M. Ochsenbein. The object of the visit was not known, but it was rumoured that the British Envoy had offered the mediation of England, to prevent the effusion of blood. The subsequent proceedings of the Diet, however, show that if any such offer was made it had not been accepted.
The Austrian Observer, the semi-official organ of the Austrian Govern- ment, has at length broken silence on Swiss affairs-
" This war," it says, "is one in which the political existence of Switzerland is at stake. It is also a religious war, but not in the sense of religious wars of former centuries, between parties of different religious confessions; it is a war waged by unbelief and blasphemy against religion in general, and against the pious customs of a pure-minded people?' The Austrian organ attributes the civil war prin- cipally to Switzerland's having afforded refuge, for the last seventeen years and more, to "the dregs of all the Revolutionary parties in Continental Europe."
BELGIUM.—The Belgian Legislative Chambers were opened on Tues- day, by King Leopold in person. The Royal speech contains nothing very striking. It mentions the conclusion of a treaty of commerce with the King of Naples, and the efforts of the Government to enlarge the external outlets for Belgian commerce. A postal convention has been concluded with France, on the basis of reduced rates. The attention of the Cham- bers is directed to internal subjects; and as the ordinary resources of the treasury are insufficient, extraordinary provision will have to be made by the Legislature.
The King, who appeared on horseback, was well received both in going and returning.
ITALT.—Accounts from Genoa, to the 5th instant, narrate the most gratifying acts of liberality on the part of King Charles Albert. He had promulgated a new law on the press, which provides for a censorship on the score of morals only; and the newly-appointed censors are all distinguished Liberals. The direction of police affairs had been transferred from ther military to the civil administration. Other measures were to follow, in- • eluding a reduction of the salt-duty, a customs league with Tuscany and Roma and it is said the formation of a Civic Guard. When these reforms were promulgated, at the end of October, the King was at Turin; and on the 31st the city was illuminated. The Jews did not forget a tried friend of their race—they inscribed the gate of their quarter, Ghetto, with these words, in letters of light, "Long live Cherie', Albert! Long live Massimo d'Azeglior On the 3d instant there was a
great outburst of loyal gratitude at the theatre, which was crowded with the &he of Piedmontese society: the opera was to have been Semiramide; but immediately after the overture, the audience called for the hymn to the King written by Guidi and composed by Gaetano Magazzari; again they demanded its repetition, until it was sung eight times, and was in fact the only performance of the evening. The ladies in the boxes decorated the theatre with an impromptu "chain of union," formed of their scarfs in a quadruple chain from one end of the boxes to the other.
The King, escorted by numbers of the inhabitants, set out on the 3d for 'Genoa; and his progress was a continued triumph. At the gates of Ge- noa he was met by an immense crowd, stated at 50,000 persons, and es- corted in procession to his palace. In the procession were to be seen members of the first families—such as the Doria, the Balbi, and the Du- razzi. Some of the banners were remarkable: one, borne by the Abbate --di San Matte°, a scion of the Doria family, was inscribed Viva Gio- berth! "—Gioberti being the great writer on reform, the publication of whose book the King had sanctioned: the printers bore a banner inscribed -" Liberty of the Press"; which they afterwards presented to the King, and he accepted it. In the evening, the King promenaded the city on horse-
back, with a renewal of the joyous demonstrations. He was now greeted with loud cries of "Amnesty! amnesty!" The King, it is said, was af- fected to tears; and, extending his hand, he uttered these words- " My people! my brethren! what you ask shall be done. You shall be satis- fied. I will accord all that can make you happy."
There are reports that Fivizzano and Pontremoli have been ceded again by Modena to Tuscany, for a large payment of money.
The news from Rome is to the 30th October. Cardinal Ferretti had finally retired from office; and had been succeeded by Cardinal Amati.
Some minor reactionary officials had been dismissed, and Liberals appointed in their stead. Signor Morandi had resigned the Governorship of the city, -and Signor Lavelli had been appointed in his place. Profound tranquillity prevailed in the capital.
The political circles of Paris have been astounded at the intelligence of the death of Count Bresson, at Naples, by his own hand.
Bresson had only arrived at Naples on the 231 October; he had presented his credentials on the 31st, and had been graciously received by the King. On the let instant he paid a number of visits; went in the evening to the Opera; and throughout the day had shown no sign of insanity, or even of excitement. On reaching home, however, at night, he was observed to be agitated; his excitement increased, and he was heard to ince his room until the morning. A heavy fall was then heath; and on entering the room, the Countess Bresson found her hus- band lying with his throat cut, and a razor close to him. He died before medical aid could be obtained. The Count is understood to have been deeply mortified at being sent to Naples: he had tried to obtain the British or the Russian Embassy ; and, it is said, wrote from'Icaples immediately on his arrival there, requesting in very earnest language that he might be sent back to Madrid. In short, he ap- wer:e to have felt degraded. He had made his will, and arranged all his affairs his departure; which occasions a surmise that he contemplated destroying himself even then. Nevertheless, he appeared perfectly collected throughout his journey, and, it was understood, transacted important business at Turin en route.
_Spans.—The mutability of Spanish affairs has received more than its natal illustration. Senor Pacheco has been superseded by Senor Martinez -de la Rosa as Ambassador at Rome. Senor Res de Olano and General -Cordova have been dismissed frern the _Cabinet; and Narvaez has assumed the War portfolio. Senor Sartorius fills temporarily the post of Minister of Public Instruction, which was destined, it was believed, for Seiler Pida/.
General Espartero's refusal of- the London Embassy has given great offence to Narvaeg and the Queen-Mother. Espartero has in consequence ,been forbidden to return to Spain. • The municipal elections are all in favour of the Government, thanks to the careful castigation of the lists.
Mirall the bass-singer reached Marseilles on the 3d, under charge of an officer and a gendarme; by whom he was delivered over to the Spanish Consul, with instructions for his future disposal.
Guam:ie.—Violent measures are still used to keep the Greek Parliament in subjection. The Senate met on the 18th of October, several Ministerial members being absent. Heated debates took place on the address in answer to the King's speech; which was ultimately, through amendments, shaped by the Opposition. In language courteously veiled but sufficiently explicit, it called on the King to observe and enforce the laws, especially with regard to the elections; to provide for the regular payment of the loan, and reform She finances; and to settle the quarrel with Turkey. This address was voted by 23 to 16, votes. The King deplined to receive it, under the plea that it invaded the privileges of the Deputies; and on the 28th, nine new Senators were created, to swamp the majority.
CAPE OF GOOD Horn.—Papers received from Cape Town, to the 7th September, communicate the renewal cf the Kaffir war. On the 27th Au- gust, the Governor issued a proclamation denouncing Sandilla as a "rebel," and ordering an immediate invasion of his country. The proclamation sets forth at great length Sandilla's various offences; and invites all classes and conditions of persons to give their aid by assemblingin com- mandos under leaders appointed by themselves. The inducement held -out is that the booty captured by them will be their individual property.
NEW ZEALAND.—The Times las devoted a " leader " to an explanation evidently on authority, of the events in New Zealand recently described in the despatches brought by the Castor. The disturbances arose out of the accidental shooting of a Native by a midshipman of the Calliope. The accidental nature of the casualty was explained to the Natives, but they persisted in asserting that the mall had been deliberately murdered; and in revenge they accomplished the murder of Mr. Gilfillan's family at Wangs-. nut The friendly Natives aided the authorities in arresting the murder- ers. Captain Saye of the Fifty-eighth Regiment directed an inquest to be held on the murdered members' of the Gilfillan family; and a verdict of
Wilful murder" was found against the Natives in custody; who were tried by a Court-martial, (the district being under martial law,) and hanged. This vindication of English lair roused the adherents of the culprits, who attacked the station, but were repulsed. On Captain Grey's arrival, he -defeated them in a skirmish in whioh they lost twenty men; and deeming the lesson anfficient, he then allowed them to retire unmolested.
The reason assigned for the liberation of Raupentha is, that he had been so completely degraded by his captivity in the eyes of his countrymen, that for the niture he could inspire no further dread. If kept longer in -confinement, the Natives would have thought that he had been secretly made away with, and that the British were afraid to avow the deed. He was therefore Waded ever to the guardianship of an old ally, divested of
his power, and presenting to his countrymen a signal example of British: clemency.
[A copy of a despatch from Governor Grey_ to Lord Gray, which we have just received, bears out the above explanatory statement.] • WEST INDIES.—The itrrival of the Medway, West India mail-steamer, has put us in possession of news from the different islands up to the early part of October. The accounts are untoward. The Jamaica Despatch of the 9th October speaks of the approaching "total abandonment" of Jamaica. Estates which a few years since could.
not be purchased for 30,0001. are either sold at any sacrifice or allowed sa- go to waste. Three plantations in Hanover, named Prosper, Bachelor's Hall, and Richmond, the property of a rich absentee, originally purchased
at a cost of upwards-of 40,0001., were sold, the first for 2,0601., while the two latter were bought in by the agent of the proprietor for 2,1901. and 1,2001. respectively.
At a meeting of the Chamber of Commerce of Jamaica, held on the 6th October, several communications were received from the Windward Islands, urging a combined agitation, with the view of bringing the depressed con- dition of these colonies under a free-trade system before the British public, and laying before Parliament the necessity of some immediate modification of the present sugar-duties, in order to save the West India Colonies from
ruin. As we have before mentioned, a plan has been promulgated from- Jamaica and Demerara for getting the different islands to send delegates to a general meeting at St. Thomas, to concert measures for the salvation of the West Indies. Trinidad, however' and Barbados, prefer the course of petitioning Parliament. Trinidad rusks mainly for unrestricted immigra- tion. Barbados claims a general measure of relief, without specifying the- particular form. The colonists of St. Lucia hold back.
As to the crops, the accounts are generally favourable. At Barbados there had been plenty of rain, and a corresponding improvement in the canes.
The provision crops were looking well, and the country was clothed with verdure. In St. Lucia there was the utmost success and activity. The. weather at Porto Rico was very unfavourable for the canes, and the grow- ing crops were in jeopardy.
From Dominica the accounts are gloomy in the extreme. The failure of Fraser, Neilson, and Company, it was feared, had ruined the whole island. Half the exportable produce of the place was annually shipped to this house, which was also the depository of the savings of the inhabitants. Nothing short of a miracle could save the finest estates from being aban- doned.