furrigu nIA fro IlIP.—The Mon iteur of Saturday published the
following article on the operations of the French in Syria. "The affairs of Syria have entered on a new phase, and to the moral action hitherto exercised by the presence of the French troops in that oountry is about to succeed the still more decisive influence of force of arms.
Operations concerted between the general in command of the expeditionary corps and Fuad Pacha have commenced ; the Commissioner-Extraordinary
of the Ottoman Porte left Beyrout on the 21st ultimo for Saida, where jie had assembled four battalions of Turkish infantry, with whom he was to march on Deir-el-Kamar. General de Beaufort was ready to make a move-
ment in the direction of Kefer-Nabsaek, on the Oued-Basault, above Deir- el-liamar, in order to establish himself in a position which would enable him to protect the Christians, who are about to reinstal themselves in their
villages, in the rear of the French camp, and to advance promptly on the
Druses if they should endeavour to resist or to fly. Other Druse chiefs were arrested on the 21st ultimo, and sent by order of the Pacha to be tried
before the Tribunal Extraordinary, which has been instituted at Beyrout.
The Cainmean of the Druscs is among the number of the prisoners, as are also several of the most influential men of the Mountain. This measure has produced a considerable effect on the Christians, who see in it a com- mencement of satisfaction for their wrongs, and also on the Muses in the Mountain, who labour under a kind of panic which renders more undeaided the attitude which they wished to assume. As to confidence, it does not yet exist in that, unfortunate country, except under the shelter of the French bayonets ; all the Christians are preparing to follow the expeditionary corps into their villages as soon as it shall make a forward movement. The general in command has adopted all the measures necessary for the security of the French workshops and spinning-mills establcd in the country. Events arc now about to proceed in a more decided manner; the intelligence and vigorous energy of the chiefs who command the French and the Otto- man troops lead us to hope that the moment approaches when a solution, very dearly bought, will at length be the reward of so many efforts."
Three strange rumours were afloat in Paris on Thursday. One was, that the Auatrians had crossed the Po at Borg° Forte, and that they had crossed the Mineio ; the second and third are thus stated- " A private letter from Turin, through Marseilles, announces that large armaments have been ordered by the Piedmontese Government, and that the
day before the departure from Paris of the Sardinian Minister, a supply of 50,000 muskets and 11,000,000 percussion caps was granted by the French Government to its ally. It is further said that the French army at Rome is to be increased to 60,000 men, and the garrison of Lyons put on a com- plete war footing."
A funeral service in honour of the late Marquis de Pimodan was per- formed yesterday week iii the Cathedral of .Notre Dame, by Cardinal Morlot, Archbishop of Paris-
" A rather touching incident occurred at the close. When the service was over and the people leaving the church, a fine boy between four and five years old, in deep mourning, and accompanied by a lady also in black, who
held him by the hand, was observed moving towards the door. It was the child of the Marquis de Pimodan, for whom the ceremony had been just cele- brated. The people have friendly instincts. The moment it was known
who the child was, the crowd at once made way and left a free passage to the carriage, which was standing near the door. They not ordy made way re- spectfully, but followed him to the carriage with heads uncovered. Many
people took the child in their arms and kissed him ; several men of the working classes, with cap in hand, shook him by the hand, and others who
could not come near enough, contented themselves with touching his clothes. Some time elapsed before he could be got into the carriage, and when he did enter it those about kept their hats off until he drove away. There were several who shed tears. A service was also performed at twelve o'clock at the church of St. loch, of which Madame de Fimodan is a parishioner."
The Emperor inaugurated the new Zoological Gardens in the Bois de Boulogne, which have been long in preparation by the Parisian "So- ciety of Acclimatization" on Saturday afternoon. This most charming addition to the attractions of the grand public park of the empire is situated 'between the Porte Maillot and the Avenue de l'Imp6ratrice. It is called the "Acclimatization Garden ;" and if the question be asked in what this collection of animals differs in principle from those of the Jardin des Plantes and the Regent's Park, the only answer- that occurs to me is, that the society exclude wild beasts, noxions reptiles, and, in short, every living thing which it does not desire to see " acclimatized " in France. The grounds are very extensive and laid out with admirable taste. On entering and turning to your right, the first thing that strikes you is a lake on your left hand, something like that in St. James's Park, on the surface and on the grassy margin of which are seen a large collection of various species of geese, ducks, and other aquatic birds. In a building on the right are specimens of Japan silkworms, in various stages, from the chrysalis to the butterfly, some of which are producing a newly-introduced variety of silk, called ailante, and have no other nu- triment than a villanous weed, which is the pest of French gardens.
pal II.—Queen Isabella and her Consort have arrived at Saragossa. They are not unmindful of Bourbons in trouble. A royal ordinance de- crees the payment of an annual pension of 540,000 reels for life to the Duke of Parma. Soon there will be another of the race—Francis of Naples to provide for. The Official Correspondencia Autografa says that a statement of the English journals, that Spain had proposed the assembling of a Congress of the Catholic Powers at Gaeta is quite correct. The Progresista party is preparing for a struggle at the coming elec- tions.
13r 11S5I11.—The Prince Regent has taken a bold step—he has added by nomination, eighteen new life members to the Chamber of Nobles, and has granted to several towns the right to be represented in the Upper Chamber—which has produced a considerable sensation in the country. The organ of the feudal party, the Kreuz Zeitung, denied only the day before the decree was issued that there was any question of such a measure. The nominations which have been made are, however, not
sufficient to assure to the Government a majority III the Upper
Chamber, but they will weaken the opposition, and give greater force and authority to the Liberal party. The chief importance of the mea- sure is that it will dissipate the illusions which the retrograde party have always entertained, that at heart the Prince Regent shared its opinions. It is a good preliminary to the meeting at Warsaw.
lustria.—The news from Vienna and Frankfort rings with Austrian preparations for war. The Frankfort Journal says that a movement of troops is proceeding on a vast scale in Austria, but with as little noise as possible, so as not to excite suspicion. Heavy trains full of soldiers and war materials are forwarded by night, and pass through the capital with- out stopping. The Universal Gazette says that 20,000 men have been forwarded to Italy since the invasion of the Marches by Piedmont, and that orders have been sent to the directors of the Southern Railway to make preparations for the transport of 15,000 per day during the week.
From Vienna, we learn that reinforcements, artillery, and ammuni- tion are continually sent to Venetia, in which province there must be an army of about 120,000 men, as the four corps d'armee are on a full war-footing, though the officers and men do not get war-pay. There is also a powerful force concentrated in Styria, Carniola, Carinthia, and Istria, but the exact number of men is known but to the supreme mili- tary authorities.
From Trieste, we hear that "all the Austrian ships of war which were in the Neapolitan waters have returned to Pole where they are
concentrated under the command of the Archduke Pole, The Austrian Government has ordered all the lights on the coasts of Istria and Dalmatia to be extinguished. The garrisons in these provinces are being considerably reinforced.".
augarip—" The accounts which reach us from Hungary," says the _Leipzic Gazette, " are still very serious. The pubic mind in that coun- try is much agitated, and this feeling extends every day more and more to the provinces which formerly constituted part of Hungary. The col- lection of the taxes begins to be attended with serious difficulties, and has already given rise to several regrettable incidents. The arrests to which it was found necessary to have recourse at Temeswar arc of a very serious character, as twenty persons among them belong to the higher classes of society. Incendiary proclamations are said to have been found in their possession."
The Emperor of Austria is making up to the Greek sectaries. Their bishops are to hold a Synod to trensact a variety of business of import- ance to them. This access of anxiety for the rights and privileges of the Greeks bodes no good to the Roman Catholics, who are all national- ists, and who have suffered under the Concordat.
1111155i S.—Great preparations are on foot at Warsaw. All the palaces have been fitted up for the reception of the Emperors and the Prince Regent, their Ministers of State, and personal attendants. We are now told that the Emperor of Russia, accompanied by Prince Gortschakoff will reach Warsaw on the 20th, and that the Emperor of Austria and Prince Regent of Prussia will arrive there shortly after. The Russian Ambassadors at Berlin, Vienna, and Turin have been summoned to War- saw, whither, in consequence of a formal invitation from the Russian Cabinet, Baron Schleinitz and Count Rechberg will also proceed. Count Thun and Baron Bismark Schoenhausen, the 'ambassadors of Austria and Prussia at the Russian court, will proceed to Warsaw to be present at the interview of the Sovereigns.
It is worthy of remark that the French journals have been strenuously denying almost everyday a report that the Emperor had been invited to Warsaw. He is curiously omitted. Two subjects of discussion at this Warsaw meeting have already been guessed at by the purveyors of news—the neutrality of Switzerland, and the basis for a Congress on Italian affairs.
A letter from Warsaw, dated the 2d instant, says-
" The news we have learned of the interview of the Sovereigns in this city are, that the Emperor of Russia will not, or rather cannot, accept the conditions proposed to him. The Russian Government has not made any considerable armaments, and when it begins it will require two years' pre- paration before the Emperor could undertake a great war, inasmuch as his army, which suffered immense losses in the Crimea' is further reduced by death and by the number of men absent on leave. The recruiting, whioh has been suspended for six years, and which, according to some newspapers, was to recommence in autumn, cannot be accomplished this year, as the necessary orders have not yet been given. Moreover, independently of
military reasons, the Russian Government cannot undertake a foreign war, having immense interior reforms to accomplish, both urgent and perilous."
Brumark.—The Diet of the kingdom of Denmark was opened at Copenhagen on the 2d by M. Monrad, one of the Ministers, in the name of the King ; and the Landsthing afterwards elected M. Brunn, Judge of the Supreme Court., its President, and the Follcething, M. Bregendahl.
A letter from Copenhagen, of the 1st, states that on the previous day the King paid a visit to the capital for the first time since his return from Schleswig. His Majesty was present at.the inauguration of the Garrison church, recently rebuilt.
Sgrifi.—Advices from Beyrout give some account of the mode of ar- resting the Druse chiefs adopted by Fund Pasha.
" The proceedings by means of which Fund Pacha arrested them were al- together Oriental. They came down without any guarantee, either implied or expressed, regarding the future, many no doubt thinking that they would be very lightly dealt with as regards the past. Fuad Pacha would not speak to or see them until they had all assembled in one of his large tents. The Christian sheiks and others, who had also assembled at Fuad's call, were or- dered into another tent. Every one—even those in the Paoha's confidence —was under the idea that a grand conference between the two sects was to take place ; but not so. When all were assembled, the tent containing the Druse sheiks was quietly surrounded by a battalion of Turkish troops under Ismael Pacha (Kmety, of Kars), and the inmates were told by an official that they must at once proceed under the guard into the barrack square, about thirty yards off. It was a ticklish moment, for the sheiks had all brought down large bands of armed retainers with them, so much so that there must have been some three hundred fighting men standing with their horses close to the barracks, between the latter and the tents ; but not a hand was moved. Kmety had under him one of his tried battalions, and the very look of his own long moustache shows he is not the sort of man to be trifled with. Once that the retainers had seen their chiefs marched into the square, they were told to betake themselves off to the mountains, one servant being allowed to remain with each chief. The Christian sheiks and chiefs were then told they might go, but that they must remain in or near Beyrout, so as to be within call when wanted. Altogether the affair was admirably managed, and reflects the greatest credit upon both Fuad Pacha who planned, and Kmety, who carried out the scheme, without the slightest disturbance or bloodshed."
The French papers publish accounts from Damascus, stating that since the departure of Fuad Pasha from that city the Mussulmans have re- sumed their misdeeds, and killed Christians. The remainder are emi- grating, and their number so increases at Beyrout that they are crowded together like sheep. At Latakia the Mussulmans are furious against the Christians, and load them with curses and insults. Some of them recently threw a letter before the door of the Russian consul, couched as follows—" Cursed consul ! Do,g that you are ! We will soon make you perish, with all the Christians of this town." The consul com- plained to the Pasha of Tripoli, but lie obtained no redress, and he then laid thematter before the Pasha of Beyrout. A recent letter furnishes some details of the operations of the French army in Syria-
" The Turkish column, which left Beyrout on the 24th, went by sea to Saida, whence they marched on Rasbeya and Rascheya, while other Turk- ish troops, starting from Damascus, were to have combined their movements with thews. A French column, about 2000 or 3000 strong, at the same time marched from Beyrout on Deir-el-Kamar. These three corps, when pro- perly divided, would hem in the Druse country in a quadrilature, of which the sea forms one of the sides. As to the programme of the operations, they are to be as follows Detachments will be directed on all the Druse villages most seriously compromised in the late events ; the inhabitants will be as- sembled, either of their own free will or by force and, after being assured that the Sultan's army is pursuing a work of justice and not of extermina- tion, they will be called on to deliver up certain guilty parties named to them. The spirit of solidarity which constitutes almost alone the religion, tho morality, and the code of honour of the Druses, will satisfy their scruples on the necessity of sacrificing some for the interest of all ; and after the de- nunciation and delivering up of the guilty, and the infliction of a heavy fine —a punishment most severely felt by onentals—and the confiscation of the property of the offending Sheiks, which, With the fines, will forn the prin- pal fund for the indemnity, all will be over."
anititt Atli it5.—Mr. Lindsay, M.P., who has arrived in the United States, addressed the Board of Trade at Boston on the 24th of September. He ostentatiously disclaimed the character of a diplomatist, or the possession of an envoy's powers, and said he came to talk to men of business about commercial matters. His " idea " of a convention between the two countries is, that their ships should be placed on an equal footing in re- gard to loss of life, and personal injury in collision at sea. The States should have rules applicable to insurance similar to those of this country. Crimes of seamen, he thought, might be punished by the country where the seaman happened to be ; the authorities acting on the request of the Consul. He hoped the Americans would adopt our Foreign Deserters Act, the words "not being slaves" being omitted. He urged the ap- pointment of shipping offices. Coming to the Navigation Laws, Mr. Lindsay touched the real object of his mission- " When we opened the coasting trade to you, we expected that your Go- vernment would adhere to this great sound principle, as laid down by Abbot Lawrence and open your trade to us. I am sorry to say that you still retain your coasting trade ; and you do more you construe your coasting trade torn- elude the trade between New York aniCalifornia. I am at a loss to understand how you can call a trade that travels nearly round the world a coasting trade.' I will tell you what a British ship-owner says—' Why,' says he, the trade between Calcutta and London is quite as much a coasting trade as that be- tween California and Now York, because the distance is less.' Really, I am at a loss to see why, if the one is to be termed a coasting trade,' the other should not be so also. Then you call the trade to the West coast, via Pa- nama, a coasting trade. You land in a foreign country ; you transship your goods, carrying them over a foreign territory ; and really, on the prin- ciple of equity, it seems to me it would be very difficult for you to hold your ground there. If you were to give up your monopoly of the coasting trade, what would the 'British ship-owner gain, and what would you lose ? If my experience is worth anything, it leads me to think that you would lose little or nothing, and that the British ship-owner would gain much less than he supposes. I do not believe that you would lose any of that trade, because I believe that every nation can conduct its own coasting trade to the best advantage. It was said that the Swedes and Norwegians, eating black bread,' and working for low wages, would drive us out of our coasting trade ; but we have retained it, and for this simple reason,—that before the Swedes and Norwegians can engage in the coasting trade they must come and live in the pelts of England. They will there be subject to the same duties and burdens as British owners, and must feed and pay the men the same as British seamen are paid and fed, The ship-owners of Great Britain are con- stantly complaining about the people of America in regard to the coasting trade. You may not care a great deal about these bicker-ins, but anything that stirs up animosity between two great nations, especially two great com- mercial nations, such as England and America, must to a certain extent limit the trade between those countries more than it would be limited if this cause of grievance and annoyance were removed."
Mr. Lindsay also urged the discontinuance of letters of marque and privateers, and the propriety of declaring all goods, except contraband of war, free from capture. A committee of twelve Boston merchants wits appointed to consider Mr. Lindsay's suggestions.
On the question of disunion, the New York correspondent of the Times says, that the Southern Democratic orators are declaring their purpose to rise in rebellion in case Mr. Lincoln be elected President. In fact, Mr. Prior, a Democratic Congressman from Virginia, in a recent harangue, is reported to have said- " If a President of the United States should have the temerity to use force to prevent the secession of a Southern State or States from the Union, and no effort from any other quarter should be put forth to resist the exer- cise of Federal power, he, solitary and alone, would be the Brutus to plant a dagger in his heart.'
"This style of remark is rebuked, however, by the substantial Conserva- tive men of the South in the most emphatic manner. Amos Kendall, a member of President Jackson's Cabinet, emerges from long retirement to publish an impressive and able protest against the follies perpetrated by the Hotspurs of the party, of which he is one of the most venerable representa- tives at the South ; and in a similar strain Mr. Stephen Duncan, one of the wealthiest slaveholders in the country, denounces publicly the threats of disunion consequent upon the election of a Republican candidate for Pre- sident. These are only illustrations of the well-understood fact, that the cry of disunion is mere party clap-trap, and that the disunionists at the South as well as at the North, are not the exponents of public opinion."
Recent advices from New Orleans state that William Walker has not been shot. Both he and his lieutenant were reported to be on their way to the United States. It is stated that both would have been released immediately had they claimed American citizenship or British protec- tion; and furthermore, that the British had declared that they would not permit them to be executed. What are we to believe ?
A later report is that William Walker has been shot. It is now said that he surrendered to the Commander of the Icarus and gave up his sword; but that he then broke his parole, and escaped from Truxillo. He was pursued and captured, and shot by the Government of Honduras.
Two more slavers have been captured by the American squadron off the coast of Africa. An unknown brig, supposed to be the Storm King, had arrived at Norfolk, Virginia, from Monrovia. The slaves, 619 in number, had been landed at Monrovia. The other capture, the ship Erie, with 800 negroes on board, was likewise taken into Monrovia.
CO a.—Some curious intelligence from China has been received in the form of a telegram from St. Petersburg, Oct. 7.—They run thus- " Advices have been received here from Pekin to the commencement of July. The insurrection in China was gaining ground, especially in the eastern maritime provinces. The Militia had been called out in Pekin and its environs. Discontent prevailed everywhere. Provisions of all descrip- tions were exceedingly dear, and commerce was stagnant. The inhabitants of Pekin were favourably disposed towards the English, and desired their presence at Pekin. This was caused by reports that the English who dis- embarked at Peahen' had not ill-treated the natives. A corps of 6000 men had been despatched from Pekin against the English ; 10,000 soldiers had been sent in another direction. A report was current at Pekin that the Emperor would spend the winter at Moukden. The Emperor's 30th birth- day would be celebrated by festivals at Pekin."
NM %taloa—Mr. William Fox, a gentleman well known in the North of England, who before he emigrated, practised as a solicitor, and is, therefore, capable of giving an opinion upon the land dispute, writes a letter to the Wanganui Chronicle, explaining his reasons to his con- stituents for refusing to join in an address to the Governor. He says- " By the expression in the memorial, that the grounds on which his Ex- cellency has taken up arms are just and necessary, I presume it is meant that the war which he has commenced is a just and necessary war. Whe- ther it be so or not depends, in my opinion, on the question whether the purchase of the debateable land from E. Teira was a complete and valid purchase or not. The Governor informs us that E. Teira was competent to sell without the permission of W. Kingi; that he did sell, and the Govern- ment did purchase, in conformity with the principles on which other pur- chases from the Natives have been effected ; that if there were any other Joint owners, they either assented to the sale expressly, or acquiesced in it by their silence ,• and that W. Kingi, in particular, admitted E. Teira's right to sell, while declaring that he would not allow him to do it. Kingi's friends, on the contrary, assert that E. Teira had no independent or sepa- rate title to the land; that whatever interest he had in it he held in com- mon with at least fiftf other owners ; that his title, whatever it amounted Co, was derived through his father, who is still alive, who protested against the sale, and is now fighting in Kingi's ranks ; that several of the joint owners, being on the spot, protested against the sale; that many more who were residing at Port Nicholson, Queen Charlotte's Sound, and elsewhere, were never consulted; that Kingi, as head of the tribe, on behalf of these absentees and on his own behalf, did protest, in the manner usually adopted by Natives, by rising abruptly and leaving the meeting with his followers; and that the purchase was a loose and incomplete transaction—in fact, no purchase at all.
"For my own part, I have read the statements put forth by the Governor in reference to this matter ; I have also had the opportunity of discussing it with officers of the Land Purchase and Native Departments, and with three missionaries, each of twenty years' experience among the Natives. I hare also heard the line of argument which is being very zealously, perhaps not very oiscreetly, urged by Kingi's friends at Otaki, Wellington, and else- where, and I have been present at a large meeting of Natives, when the subject was discussed. The conclusion at which I have arrived is, that it is impossible, till the affair is sifted by the General Assembly, to say Whether the purchase from Teira was valid or not. I do not believe there is an individual of the European race in this province who knows the merits of the case; and I think it would be exceedingly presumptuous in me to prejudge a case on which I shall probably have to adjudicate in the House 'of Representatives, by expressing my belief that this war is either a just or a necessary war, when, in fact, neither I nor any other colonist in this pro- vince has the means of knowing the truth. 'The responsibility which rests upon the Governor for appealing to the sword for the settlement of this land difficulty., without apparently having attempted any milder method of adjustment, is great. Great, also is the responsibility he has incurred by plunging the colony into war with so little
preparation, and without any warning to large numbers of settlers, whose position was such as to place them abselutely at the mercy of tribes with whom Kingi was known to have intimate relations, and who might, if they had so chosen, have swept away the population of whole districts almost be- fore their victims could have heard that a war was impending."