The vacancy in the representation of Great Britain at the Court of Florence, caused by the death of Mr. Shell, into be filled by Mr. James Hudson, now Minister at Rio Janeiro. Mr. Henry Southern; now Ministes at Buenos Ayres, is to succeed Mr. Hudson at Rio de,Jaileire. -Captainthe Honourable Robert Gore, R.N., now Charge d'Affaires at Monte Video, is appointed in the same capacity at Buenos Ayres. "The' Honourable Frederick Bruce, now Charge d'Affaires in the Republic of Bolivia, is to succeed Captain Gore at Monte Video. The Globe has stated that it has "reason- to believe" that last week's announcement of the judicial appointments under the new act was "pre- mature."
Lord John Russell arrived at Pembroke Lodge, Richmond Park, on Thursday, from Hickkton Hall, near Doncaster.
An Ambassador from the Shah of Persia to Queen Victoria has ar- rived at the Court of London ; and, as bad luck or bad manage- ment would have it, he met the same scurvy treatment, and must have received the same bad impressions of our barbarian manners, or diplo- matic ignorance, which were given to the Nepaul Princes when they landed among us last year. The Ambassador came by way of Constanti- nople, in the Oriental Company's steamer the Milano, and therefore landed at Southampton. Either because the weight of governing all the dominions of the Queen single-handed is too much for even Lord Palmer- ston, or because the arrangementaat Southampton are radically and perma- nently defective, there was nobody there ready to receive the Ambassador with the observance due to him as the first direct representative of his sove- reign who has ever come to this country ; and no instructions had been given to facilitate his progress by those Customhouse civilities which are due to the representative of every crowned head on his landing. The Southampton correspondent of the Daily News gives the local reports on the matter. "As an accredited Ambassador direct from the Court of Teheran has never been known in this country, some considerable interest was excited inSouth- ampton by the arrival of his Excellency. He is a fine handsome man, about forty years of age. He was dressed in the costly and picturesque costume worn by the highest ranks in Persia. The sleeves and collar of his cloak were ornamented with gold embroidery, the clasp of his girdle was studded with diamonds, and a brilliant star was suspended on his breast. He wore the high conical cap of the Persian country, He was accompanied by a dra- goman and a servant. An extensive suite had accompanied him from Persia to Turkey, nearly the whole of which he took leave of at Constantinople. On arriving at Southampton, the Ambassador claimed from the Government authorities the courtesies invariably accorded to the accredited representa- tives of foreign countries. Unfortunately, however, the Customhouse au- thorities had received no notice of his anticipated arrival, nor any Trea- sury order to pass his baggage, consisting of about thirty packages, with- out examination. His Excellency stated that Sir Stratford Canning, our Ambassador at Constantinople, was aware of his mission to England, and had engaged to acquaint the English Government with it. It appears that the Persian Ambassador was stopping with Sir Stratford during his stay in Constantinople. Of course, all the courtesy which the authorities at South- ampton could show the Ambassador consistent with their imperative duties were shown him ; and telegraphic announcements to the Government de- partments in London were sent by them, stating the arrival of the Ambas- sador, and soliciting immediate instructions how to act. Although the Shah of Persia is independent of the Sublime Porte, the Ottoman Vice-Consul at Southampton, Ili.. Jourdain, telegraphed to the Turkish Embassy, and al- most immediately received instructions from M. Mussurus, the Turkish Am- bassador, to pay the representative of the Shah every respect and attention : but unfortunately these instructions came too late, for his Excellency had left Southampton for London by an early train' apparently displeased with his reception in Southampton, and leaving all his baggage in possession of the Customhouse authorities.
"The Ambassador reached Constantinople by way of Trebisond and the Black Sea. During his voyage in the Euiune, he sat at table in the saloon with the other passengers, and was not more particular in his diet than liberal Mussuhnans usually are. He drank his tea out of a glass tumbler, making it sweet and hot, without milk or cream. He rigorously abstained from wines and spirituous liquors. He smoked much. His manners on board during the voyage were extremely gentlemanly, and he is evidently a man of education and refinement.' He cannot speak inglish. His secretary, who acted as dragoman, is a true-born Persian, and was educated in India. "After the departure of his Excellency from Southampton, orders were re- ceived there from the Government to allow him all the rights and privileges accorded to ambassadors of the highest rank."
Early in the week, memoranda from the Arctic expedition through Davis's Straits in search of Sir John Franklin and his companions were brought home by Captain Parker, of the Truelove whale-ship, which ar- rived at Hull on the 6th instant. These memoranda were communicated by Mr. E. K. Kane, the surgeon to the American portion of the expedi- tion. The interesting portions of them were what follows— • " 1. On the 26th of August 1850, traces were found to Northward of Port Innis, Wellington Channel, confirming those previously found at Cape Riley by Captain Ommanney. These consisted of fragments of clothing, preserved meat tins, and scraps of papers, one of these bearing the name of M'Donald, medical officer in the expedition. "2. On the 27th, Captain Penny's parties reported graves. These were at once visited by Captain De Haven, [of the American expedition,] Mr. Penny, and Dr. Kane. They bore respectively the names of W. Braine, R.M., and John Madison, of the Erebus, and John Torrington, of the Ter- ror; the date of the latest death being the ad of April 1846. Added to these sad but unmistakeable evidences, were the remains of the observatory, carpenters' shop, and armourers' forge. Upon the hill-side and beach were fragments of wood, metal, and clothing, stacks of empty meat-tins. Every- thing indicated permanency and organization. There can be no doubt that the cove between Cape Riley and Beechy Island, facing Lancaster Sound, was the first winter station of the missing vessels."
Yesterday, the Admiralty sent to the journals for publication documents showing the "detailed proceedings of the expedition under Captain Penny, whose ships have just returned, bringing despatches from Captain Aus- tin." The Admiralty documents are two letters from Captain Penny. dated respectively Assistance Harbour,. Cornwallis Island, April 12, 1851," and "At Sea, Sept. 8, 1851 "; and of a report of proceedings, drawn Am by Captain Austin, in charge of the expedition and dated "Her Majesty's ship Resolute, off the winter-quarters of Captain Penny's Expedition, between Capes Martyr and Hotham, Aug. 12, 1851." These documents are of great length, and are highly interesting to those who are well versed in the minute features of the Arctic geography, and in the historical progress of the exploring and searching expeditions. But all that is interesting in. them to the general reader is briefly told. The memoranda communicated by Dr. Kane are correct. Captain Penny per- sonally examined the additional traces discovered at Beechy Island, and found them to be those of "the quarters which had been occupied by the vessels of Sir John Franklin's expedition in the winter of 1845-6." No document of any kind could be found. Radstock Bay and its vicinity were fully explored, but no further traces were found.
Captain Penny prosecuted his searches in the course of last winter throughout Wellington Channel; and Captain Austin, having been unable to penetrate further Westward; than Cornwallis Island, prosecuted his stearche.s by tt most perfect organization of sledge-parties from that centre towards Cape Walker and Melville Island. Neither of them discovered one further trace of the missing expedition. The ships were unexpectedly set free from the ice in the beginning of last month ; and the commanders immediately held a conference as to the results they had achieved, and on the.best future course. Captain Austin reports the resolutions he came to—
"I have now the honour to state, that having maturely considered the directions and extent of the search (without success) that has been made by this expedition, and weighed the opinions of the officers when at their ex- tremes, I have arrived at the conclusion, that the expedition under Sir John Franklin did not prosecute the object of its mission to the Southward and Westward of Wellington Strait : and having communicated with Captain Penny and fully considered his official reply to my letter, relative to the search of Wellington Strait by the expedition under his charge, (unhappily without success,) I do not feel authorized to prosecute (oven if practicable) a further search in those directions.
"It is now my intention to proceed with all despatch to attempt the search of Jones's Sound ; looking to their Lordships' intention, and to the impres- sion that may now become strengthened with reference thereto. I have at the last moment the satisfaction of stating that we are proceeding under fa- vourable circumstances."
After the publication of the proceedings in the Yon Beck case, " W- rites" wrote to the Times, asking " how is it that not one of the chiefs of the Hungarian emigration came forward to unmask Racidula, alias Ba- roness Von Beck ? " and he quoted a letter of Mr. Francis Pulszky, to prove that Mr. Bentley the publisher accepted her book in consequence of what Mr. Pulszky said.
Mr. Pulszky replied, that though he "had strong suspicions "—" which he always expressed as often as he was asked as to her character "—it was "but since a very short time" that he "got some proofs of her guilt." "I never recommended a person who was a common spy in our army." With reference to the recommendation of her manuscript, three sheets of it were sent to him, "not more" : he read them, and "gave the opinion that it promised to be amusing, and would probably sell well.'" "Publishers do not want an opinion on other questions."
Mr. Bentley, feeling hurt at the imputation that "his motive in pub- lishing the book was no other than mercenary," gives his history of the transaction, also in a letter to the Thnes. " At the commencement of June 1850," writes Mr. Bentley, " the Baron- ess Von Beck called upon me to propose the publication of the narrative of her adventures in the late Hungarian revolution ; which she assured me would be countenanced by Lord Dudley Stuart, from whom she added that she had received permission to dedicate it. That this representation was correct I could have no reason to doubt, as within a few days after this in- terview, (in which I confess her earnestness of manner So favourably im- pressed me as to lead me to accept the proposed work,) his Lordship's secre- tary called to satisfy himself, on her behalf, that the agreement she had en- tered into with nie was advantageous to her • and after examining the me- morandum, expressed his satisfaction at what he termed my liberality. "I was still further desirous, however, of ascertaining whether the publi- cation was one which with propriety I could undertake ; and for this pur- pose I applied, through a mutual friend, for the advice of Mr. Pulszky, as the best authority I could refer to. The reply I received was favourable, and was not based on a commercial estimate of its value,—a point on which I should not have ventured to trouble Mr. Pulszky. Indeed, I had no rea- son for seeking such an opinion, as I had in the first instance agreed to pur- chase the manuscript, mainly with the view of assisting the authoress, who appeared to be in great distress. "It is therefore not without surprise and regret that I now find. Mr. Pulszky has for some time entertained strong suspicions against the character of Madame Von Beck, whose work he had thus far recommended, without ever conveying his opinion to me. "That the unfortunate lady was not an impostor I still firmly beli
. . . . I am promised in a few days a full statement of the case based u
documentary evidence ; and recommend the public to refrain ?vim deciding that the Baroness was an impostor until the appearance of this statement."
On the share that Mr. Pulszky really had in countenancing the " im- postress," the most satisfactory information has been volunteered by Mr. Francis Newman' in a letter to Mr. George Dawson of Birmingham. Alluding to Mr.Dawson's discomfort "at not having been warned by Mr. Pulszky," Mr. Newman commences—
"If it were possible for these whispers of dissatisfaction to be expressed as plainly to Mr. Pulszky himself as they are to others, and if he knew that friends as well as enemies make them, he would himself say all that could be needed. And yet not all ; there are things which friends can say for him, but which he would not say for himself.
"I wish, then, to tell you, not for your information solely, but for that of other friends of Hungary who have been deceived, that early this year some charitable ladies applied to me for the character of this Yon Beck, whom they discerned not to have ladylike manners, and suspected not to be a baroness. I consulted Mr. Pulszky, and received in substance the following reply- ' The Baroness Von Beck has made herself my calumniator ; therefore, as she has injured me, my testimony against her would seem to be that of an enemy. I wish not to be in the position of avenging my personal injury, and I heartily desire to keep aloof from her. Yet, when asked, I must reply, that my knowledge of her gratuitous attack on me is enough to destroy confi- dence in her truth. As to her book, I dare say she tells truth as to what she saw herself; but I regard it, as a whole, a mere made-up story, quite untrustworthy. Whether she is or is not a baronies, I do not know : that she is in great pecuniary distress I have no doubt; and if any ladies will waive the question of her honesty and moral goodness, and will see in her only an indigent Hungarian exile, and will relieve her as such, I think they will perform a great act of charity. Yet I advise that they should not give her much money at a time ; for she seems to lavish all she has with unthinking generosity on bad persons around her.' In consequence of this reply, the ladies engaged a resident Hungarian (not a refugee) to dole out small sums to the Baroness. It was not then suspected that she was a spy, in receipt of pay from Austria, much less from our own Ministry. (Oh, shame and disgrace to England ! ) But it is now impossible to doubt that her liberality to the bad men round her was a mere spending. of Austrian and English monies given for the purpose. Mr. Pulszky's insight into her position no doubt grew clearer, when his convictions arose that some of these bad men' were Austrian spies ; and,. beset as he is with hired calumniators, who misinterpret every action of his in order to breed discord among the refugees, he has an ex- tremely delicate part to play. It was necessary to his safety to say nothing that might be a pecuniary damage to the Baroness or her faction, unless he could promptly and cheaply justify it in a court of law • for if he had laid himself open to an action, the Austrians would have instigated a prosecution, and have sup- plied her with unlimited funds for conducting it. They would pay thousands to entangle him in difficulties. Their hirelings have done thew utmost (not unsuccessfully) in discrediting Mr. Pulszky with the refugees, by the outcry that he does not raise money enough for them' ; and it was morally impos- sible for him to step forward and say, Do not give money to such persons,' until he had full legal proofs of imposture. When, after the arrival of Mr. Paul Hajnik, it was at last discovered who the pseudo-baroness was, and proof was gained that would insure prompt conviction, Mr. Pulszky acted decisively; for I presume I may take for granted that the recent prosecution conducted by his friend Mr. Toulmin Smith was in fact his doing.
"It now remains for Englishmen to insist on tearing off the mask from our abominable secret-spy system, and endeavour to show the Hungarian and Hungaro-Polish refugees who are deluded by the spies, that Pulszky is hated by Austrian and feared by English despots, because he is trusted by
Kossuth, and that factious attack on an honourable, wise, and energetic man, is doing the work of a perfidious and implacable enemy. '
Intelligence from Johannisberg announces that the Prince de Metter- nich is so unwell as not to be able to leave his room. His state causes some uneasiness, particularly when it is remembered that he is now in his seventy-ninth year.
One strong manifestation of vitality in the Great Exhibition, is the continued forwarding from abroad of national contributions, and the con- tinued endeavour by home inventors and contributors to get the fruits of their intellect or industry placed in the departments even at this late and disadvantageous hour of exposition.
Of the first class is the cargo received this week of productions from Sweden. The collection is miscellaneous: a gigantic bomb-gun, leading at the breech ; a huge porphyry urn, weighing six tons ; skilful works in metal and wood, and rare furs. The whole is sent at the King of Swe- den's personal expense. Among the home contributions, is an invention of unpretending ap- pearance but of excellent promise for real value, by Mr. Dick, of Ayr ; numbered 431 in Class X. It is a protective casing for the wires of the electric telegraph, especially meeting and obviating the mis- chief to which the wires are liable from the beating of the chafing sea on a rocky shore. It will be recollected that the telegraphic communication opened last year as an experiment between Dover and Calais was interrupted, a few hours after it was made, by the cutting in two of the telegraphic cord, on the rocks forming the French shore : the rolling sea chafed it asunder in more than one place, on the sharp edges of the stone. A cheap and effective protection of the rope has been a desideratum for which inventors have much cudgelled their brains. Two very opposite qualities must be combined—extreme hardness, with perfect flexibility. In the invention of Mr. Dick these two qualities are completely blended. The material is east-iron—at least hard enough ; and the form adopted to secure flexibility is that which Nature herself has selected for protecting the most delicate and powerful telegraphic apparatus yet known to man—the cord of nerves which radiates from the brain to the extremities of the higher animals, through their spine or vertebral column. The backbone of a man or that of a more flexible creature, the snake or eel, might have been taken as a pattern ; but in that case there would have been a complication of "processes" and interlocking projections to imi- tate : Mr. Dick has taken a simpler form, and has thus unconsciously hit on the form selected by Nature for the backbone of the shark,—an apparatus at once powerful and more almost than any other flexible. A large bead of iron is threaded on to the cord of electric wires, (which is previously encased, as at present, in a thick tube of gutta percha) ; then a perforated cylinder, like a "bugle," is threaded on to the string next to the ball ; then another ball is threaded, and then another cylinder, and so on. The two ends of each cylinder are made concave, so as to receive the convex surface of the two balls on each side of it. Thus the whole string of iron "beads and bugles" makes an iron tube, which protects the elec- tric cord on which they are threaded, and is at the same time so flexible that a rope of it massive enough to weigh thirty or forty pounds to the lineal yard, (without the telegraphic cord,) will double up in a loop that will lie round the rim of your hat. The merits of the contrivance is its perfect simplicity and effectiveness : it consists but of balls and cylinders, the chief cost of which must be only that of their cheap material, cast- iron. With such a protection, one would think that the wires of the sub- marine telegraph would be safe against the beating of any sea, on any coast.
The invention would also be useful in protecting wires under our street thoroughfares, where the vibration and crushing pressure caused by heavy vehicles rapidly, passing might be of evil effect to the cord of message- wires.
The sale of the Parliamentary reliques at Westminster, on Wednesday and Thursday, did not raise so much antiquarian curiosity, or tempt such enthusiastic bidding, as was expected. The age of sentiment is gone for ever : the seats of the great political leaders and orators were accounted but as old wood and ordinary stuffing, and the whole produce of the two days' sale was about what might have been expected as the mere market value of the materials—less than 2000/. was realized.
Mr. M'Cormick's American reaping-machine has had many trials in differ- ent parts of the country, and all successful. The last was at Mr. Gardner'a farm, at Much Wymondley, near Hitchin. The farmers present highly ap- proved the invention.
Hop-picking has commenced in Kent. The accounts of the probable yield and quality are not more cheering than hitherto.
The Great Northern Railway Company, instead of incurring an outlay in the shape of poatages, has registered a newspaper in the Stamp-office, called The Great .2Vorthern Railway Company's Reporter; and under this title, given in the smallest type, it issues all its documents, which pass through the post, whatever be their bulk, as a newspaper privileged by the penny stamp. The extensive shipbuilding-yard of the Messrs. Smith, of St. Peter's Quay, on the Tyne, is about to be entirely roofed with glass, after the manner of the Crystal Palace. Advises from Denmark mention the sailing of a party of English and Norse miners, to search for gold mines in the mountain regions.of Greenland, which are supposed to resemble those of the Ural. It is strange that Buffon, and other discoverers two hundred and fifty years ago, were led into the Arctic regionsby the hope of discovering precioua
Results of the Registrar-General's return af mortality in the Metropolis fer the week ending on Saturday lest.
of Tell Weeks 1841-50. Week of 1851.
Simone Diseases, 4,745 .... 362 Dropsy, Cancer, and other diseases of uncertain or variable seat, . 436 ....
Tubercular UMW. 1.820
Di.e"es of the Brain, SPinal Hamm, Nerves, and Selmer
1,067 ..., 100 Diseases of the Heart and Blood-vemela
Diseasesof the Lungs, and of the other Organs ofilesplration
71 Diseases of the Stomach, Liver, and other Organs of Digestion
60 Diseases of the XIdneya, Sc
Childbirth, diseaaes of the Uterus, fie 105
Rheumatism, diseases of the Boners. Joints, Sc
Diseases of the Skin, Cellular Tiasueolte
Malformationsi 38 .... 3 Premature Earth Atrophy... ............... ......,
Sudden 76 .... 8
Vilsolanar„Privation, Cold, andintemperance
24El .... 2$
-,-,.- Total (including unspecified causes) 11.327
Mr. Swinton, master of the Adeline, of Newcastle, has brought to this country an African prince to be educated here. Hie name is Thomas Canray Cselker, son of the King of Bompey, on the West coast of Africa, near Sierra Leone. The boy is five years and a half old, and is described by the Liver- pool Standard as remarkably intelligent. In a recent number of the Literary Gazette, it was atated that M. &me- nides, a Greek savant, had discovered in the old papers of a Greek convent an indication that the original MS. of the Acts of -the Apostles was buried in an island in the Sea of Marmora. We now learn that a search has been made in the spot pointed out, and that it has led to the discovery, not of the Acts, but of a copy of one of Aristotle's treatises, and a map of the islands. The things appear to have been interred by a monk, about the year 1204.—. Morning Post. Punch mentions, as an instance of "extreme delicacy of taste," that "an earthquake has refused to swallow the King of Naples !' Among the company at the Clifton House, on Saturday and Sunday, was Jenny Lind. A funny incident occurred onSunday evening. Jenny was singing in her room some little Swedish hymns. Of course at the sound of her voice, many persons, someof whom had never heard its delightful tones, assembled in the balls and upon the balconies to listen. Two enthusiastic gentlemen, anxious to be as near as possible to the person of the syren, leaned against the door of her chamber : suddenly the singing ceased, the door was opened from the interior, and the two amateurs made a rapid and desperate plunge, directly into the arms of the fair Swede, who was coming out in search of candle ! Jenny is but human; and those who saw her face at that moment say that never was rage more clearly depicted upon human countenance. —Buffalo Courier. Three young ladies, described as "beautiful," have appeared at Bromp- ton in the Bloomer costume. "The dress consists of something between a gipsy hat and a wideawake' of straw; a white collar turned down upon a velvet coatee of Lincoln green, buttoning tight around the waist, but open, and showing a frilled shirt front at the bosom, the sleeves fitting the arm* closely and the skirts descending to the knee; the 'bloomers' are exceed- ingly full to the knee but tight from thence to the ankle, where they are drawn close. The hose of the ladies were splendidly chevined, and they wore patent leather half-ankle shoes, with silver buokles and brilliants." Two females have appearedin the costume in Piccadilly and its neighbour- hood, and distributed bills in favour of an association for "dress reform." They were attired in "short black silk petticoats, reaching below the knee, loose gray silk trousers, fastened at the ankle brown cashmere boots, with a short Jacket for the upper garment, over which was worn a scarf." They had ordinary bonnets. The _Down Recorder says that some of the ladies in that neighbourhood are evincing a strong disposition to sport the Bloomer costume ; but not be- ing as yet sufficiently nerved by practice to exhibit this Transatlantic garb. in the face of day, they decorate themselves thus at night, and show off amongst invited friends for the purpose within doom, and by moonlight, for practice on the by-roads without. The Reverend J. K. Marsh, minister ef Brimington, has lately, com- menced out-of-door preaching, on Brimington Common, and other places in his parish. The same practice is also observed in different parts of the county by some of the clergy; who adopt it as the best, and indeed the only means, of addressing such of their parishioners as absent themselves front church on the Lord's Day. The neglect of public worship is, we believe, very general in the mining-districts ; whilst beer-houses are increasing, and desecration of the Sabbath becomes fearfully prevalent amongst the working classes.—Derdyshire Courier.
John Swatter, a labourer, died a few, days since at Hollingbourne, in the ninety-third year of his age. His remains were interred in Hollingbourne churchyard on Saturday evening last; the funeral service being read in a clear, distinct, and impressive manner by the Reverend Edward Misted, Vicar, who has nearly attained the patriarchal age of ninety-one years.— Headstone Journal.
M. Arago stated in a recent paper read to the Academy of Sciences at Parks that the following is the annual average number of storms at the places men- tioned—Paris, 13; Toulouse, 15; Pithiviers, 29; Smyrna, 19; Buenos Ayres, 20; Guadeloupe,. 37; Rio Janeiro, 50; Calcutta, 60; Berlin, 18; Strasburg, 17; Utrecht, 16; Athens, 11,;, St. Petersburg, 9; London, 8,, Pelan, 5; Cairo, 3.
A rare visitor, a pemiS apivorus, or honey buzzard, has been shot: at Lazenby in Cumberland. The crop was.full of the larvie of bees and wasps.
During a heavy gale on Saturday night, the Spanish brig-Cervantes, bound from Christiiumand to Barcelona ran on the Long Sand. The crew, nine- in number, stood by their vessel till next morning; when, as she was going to pieces, they took to their boat. Two hours after, when the boat was nearly sinking, the stern having been stove in the Margate lugger Nelson saw a signal of distress, bore down to the boat, rescued the Spaniards, and lauded them at Margate. The four gallant boatmen of the Nelson have no legal clai m for remuneration for saving the men : had they brought corpses to. land they would have received 5s. for each,; and if goods, salvage. Several visitors at Margate have Commenced a.subscription to reward them.. The Apollo screw steam-vessel foundered on the Kentish Knock Shoal. She left Rotterdam for London on Saturday morning, with a valuable cargo of cattle, sheep, and provisions. There were seventeen.passengers, (including three ladies,) five drovers, and a crew of twenty-five. About two o'cloek-on Sunday morning, the weather very boisterous, she struck on the-shoal At daybreak a Dover sloop saw the disaster, made for the wreck, and took the passengers and some luggage on board; between seven and eight o'clock, on the change of tide the steamer began to sink. The crew took to the heats. and as they proceeded to the sloop they saw their ship go down. Tho ref"' cued people were taken to Dover. It 18 reported that one pawnbroker in. Leeds received "a bushel and rt. half " of watches on Saturday before the departure of an. excursion-train to Loudon.