14 JANUARY 1843, Page 4

intria an ebina.

The fuller accounts brought by the overland India mail arrived on Monday. The delay which occurred in the receipt of the mail was caused by bad weather in the Mediterranean ; as the vessel which bore it to Marseilles had been obliged to put into Toulon. We proceed to fill up the hasty outline which we gave last week.

General Pollock left Cabul on the 12th October with the British troops in three divisions ' • two consisting of his own force, and the third of General Notes. Before their departure, however, the mark of vengeance was set upon the place. This kind of retribution had been begun at Istalif, respecting the sack of which we have now some further particulars- " The place was carried," says the Bombay Times," and in possession of our troops within a couple of hours of the commencement of the attack. Upwards of 500 women, the only prisoners made by us, were captured : they were treated with respect, and afterwards set at liberty. So soon as a sufficiency of provisions for the service of the troops was taken from the inhabitants, the town was directed to be set on fire, and the fortifications to be blown up. For two days Major Sanders, of the Engineers, was engaged in directing the work of destruction, and for this space the place was given over to fire and sword; not a living soul was spared, whether armed or unarmed—the men were hunted down like wild beasts—not a prisoner was taken—mercy was never dreamt of! All the bitterness of hatred was shown by the soldiery, both European and Native : whenever the body of an Afghan was found, the Hindoo Sepoy set fire to his clothes, that the curse of a ' burnt father' might attach to his children. It is said, indeed, that the wounded, alive when found, were in this manner roasted to death. An immense quantity of plunder was secured, con- sisting chiefly of women's clothes, gold-laced shirts, embroidered trousers, and

shawls, of crnaments, wearing-apparel, horse-clothing, household utensils, and arms. In consequence of its bulkiness, comparatively little of this could be brought away ; the rest was piled in heaps and destroyed by fire." The scene was repeated at Cabul, on taking leave-

" On the 9th," says a writer at Bombay, " a party of Sappers and Miners, under Captain F. Abbott the chief engineer, protected by a brigade commanded by Colonel Richmond, was marched into the city for the purpose of effecting its destruction, together with the Chah Chatta, or Grand Bazaar—a splendid structure, erected so far back as the reign of Aurungzebe, by the celebrated Ali Murdan Khan. Two days were occupied in conducting these operations ; and by the morning of the 11th, the whole of the houses, with the exception of those in the Kuzzilbash quarter of that city, were laid in ruins, while the ba- zaar was utterly demolished, and a mosque which adjoined it levelled with the ground. The Bala-Hilmar, or citadel, was spared ; Shah Poora, a younger son of Shah Sujab, haviug mounted the throne of Cabul, and taken possession of this place, and it being considered advisable to leave him with the means of defending himself against any force that might be brought against him on our departure. A Calcutta paper states that, with this view, a supply of ordnance, ammunition, and military stores, was made over to him."

" It appears that, during the operations of Captain Abbott's party, our troops were fired on once or twice. Nhether owing to this cause, or, as stated by one

writer, to the feelings of cement under which they still laboured from the sight of the skeletons c toeir comrades on the march to Cabul, they became exasperated, and attacked the helpless populace; who,it seems, were not Afghans, but Plindoos, and had remained in the city on the flight of the Afghans resi- dent, in the hope of receiving our protection. On these unhappy wretches, guiltless, in all likelihood, of any participation in the insurrection, the vengeance of the soldiers was indiscriminately wreaked ; and some such a scene as that which took place at Istalif must have been the result. This unfortunate oc- currence was quite contrary to the whites of General Pollock, and indeed alto- gether unexpected on his part." It is computed that 80,000 souls, at Istalif and Cabul, were rendered honseless.

Major-General Sale was detached on the 12th, with a light brigade, by the Gost Pundurrah Pass, which lies to the right of the Khoord Cabul Pass, so as to turn the latter and crown the heights from the farther side, by which they were more accessible. By this means, the main body passed through the principal defile without a single shot being fired. The army regained the Tezeen Valley on the 14th : not -without a little skirmishing; which is described by a writer with the troops- " On the 14th, we passed over the Huft Kothul, (the scene of our former glo- rious fight,) and through the Tezeen Pass, encamping in the valley. The fourth brigade, under Brigadier Monteath, C.B., formed the rear-guard, and did not effect their march as scatheless as yesterday. Owing to the badness of the bullocks yoked to the captured guns, very great delay was occasioned, and finally the bullocks were taken out and the soldiers of her Majesty's Thirty- first Regiment supplied their place : the labour was excessive, and they did not arrive at the narrow pass leading to the TezeeniValley until dark. The enemy, taking advantage of this, commenced a sharp fire into the column, and masses of baggage collected there, causing great confusion among the latter. Parties were immediately sent up to the heights on the right to dislodge these marauders; the brigadiers, staff-officers, leading the party: but, owing to the darkness, little could be done beyond checking their descents into the Pass; nothing but the flash of their jos= could be seen. Finding themselves checked on the right, they tried the left and rear of the column ; and annoyed them much, killing some six, and wounding an officer and about eleven men. However, the guns were safely deposited in camp, at a quarter past ten o'clock, and all the bag- gage, with the exception of that destroyed when the cattle fell on the march."

General Nott's division suffered more severely. It was attacked on the 14th in the Huft Kothul by large bodies of Ghilzies, and sustained considerable loss ; owing, it is said, in a great measure to the neglect of the General to crown the heights commanding the Pass. Captain Jervis, of the Forty-second Native Infantry, Lieutenant Chamberlain of Christie's horse, and Dr. Serrell, of the Forty-second Native In- fantry, were wounded in this affair, and twelve men were killed and forty-nine wounded.

The first division, under General Pollock, reached Jugdulluck on the 17th, and marched through the Pass without encountering the slightest opposition. The second division, under General M'Caskill, however, was not so fortunate- " The marches to Lehbaba, Kutturgung, and Jugdulluk, on the 15th, 16th, and 17th, were accomplished with but little annoyance. The enemy followed up the rear-guard each day, and made several attempts upon the baggage of the second division, but without success. On the 18th, the most decided attack yet evinced was sustained by them. Rarely have the Afghans shown more courage or daring than was displayed by the Ghilzies on that day. Sword in hand, they more than once rushed towards our retiring parties, when recalled from the heights by the rear-guard ; but each time a shell or shot thrown from the guns, placed in a position most judiciously by Brigadier Monteath at the top of the Pass, sent the Ghilzies to the right-about and saved our men. Not- withstanding their obstinate attacks, and their following close upon the rear- guard for five or six miles beyond the Pass, I am happy to say that the Ghilzies had their labour in vain, not a particle of baggage falling into their hands, whilst their loss must have been considerable; for besides many that fell from our skirmishing-parties, several round shot dashed directly through the gun- gahs behind which they were esconced, killing numbers; and our shell scattered many a group, who little calculated on such unwelcome visiters. Their attack upon Major-General Nott the following day was much tamer from their thrashing on the 18th; but they managed to annoy his force greatly ; showing them the wide difference between the Kandahar and Peshawar routes to Cabul. Every day from this to Gundamuck, where the three divisions arrived on the 19th, 20th, and 21st successively, our rear was followed pretty closely by the Afghans ; chiefly in expectation of plunder, which, I am glad to say, they were disappointed in." The route to Gundamuck had been, according to the Bombay Times Marked by continued cruelties— "They laid waste the country and burned the strongholds of the chiefs, and villages of the peasantry, everywhere within their reach ; showing no mercy, and giving no quarter. Impartial slaughter was dealt on friend and foe—on those who sued for pardon as well as those who bade us defiance; armed and unarmed—professed allies and open enemies—were alike destroyed."

The divisions halted each one day at Gundamuck, and arrived at Jellalabad, without any occurrence "beyond Nott's forces having made an example of some men in the Nemla Valley," on the 22d, 23d, and 25th. A writer from Jellalabad ascribes very bad conduct to some troops at Jugdulluck-

"Of course you have heard of the conduct of a company of the Sixtieth Re- giment at Jugdulluk : they regularly bolted, and left their officer, Ensign Hay, a gallant young officer, and who stood his ground under a heavy 6re, till the companies of the Thirty-third and Sixteenth came up. I heard it said they did not bring up till Lieutenant Watson, of the Thirty-third Native Infantry, threatened to shoot the first man who moved on. This, with the Khyber affair, has damned them in the opinion of all here." The troops were employed on the 25th and 26th in destroying Jella- labad ; and having blown up the fortifications, burnt the houses, and destroyed the gardens and vineyards of the inhabitants- " The fort of Jellalabad is in perfect ruins : the work of destruction was commenced on the 24th, and finished last night, in good style, by blowing up the principal bastions and the whole front. The interior of the fort was fired in all quarters, and is now only a habitation for jackals."

The army proceeded on the 26th for the Khyber Pass ; which General Pollock traversed without serious molestation ; experiencing no loss beyond that of some of the baggage belonging to his division, which unfortunately fell into the hands of the enemy. General M`Cask- ill's force did not escape without a fierce onset, at Sir-i-Chusm, near Ali Musjid : " the rear-guard was attacked in the dark, among bushes and ravines, very nasty ground" ; the troops were thrown into confu- sion ; the cavalry started off, and became mixed with the infantry ; and in the melee, two officers, Lieutenants Christie and Nicholson, were cut down, and a great number of men were killed and wounded. Two guns were left on the field, and an immense quantity of luggage and stores fell into the hands of the enemy. One of the guns was recovered the next day, but the other had been dismounted and carried off. A heayy waggon, one of the Afghan trophies. with which the rear-guard had been encumbered, was likewise left behind, in the expectation that General Nott would destroy it as he passed. The fort of Ali Musjid was demolished on the 6th November ; and while the troops remained at this place, a good deal of skirmishing occurred ; in which Lieutenants Terry, Chamberlain, and Corsar were wounded. The brass gun left behind by General M'Caskill's division was passed untouched by General Nott ; who, it is reported, said he would have nothing to do with it ; but afterwards destroyed by a corps of irregular troops, under Captain Thomas. The last of the force got out of the Pass on the 6th November, and encamped at Jumrood. " Thus, at last, all are out of the trap." A despatch from General England to the Government Secretary, dated " Camp near Dadur, 10th October," announces the withdrawal of the Scinde force, through the Kojuck and Bolan Passes, into the valley of the Indus. The rear was attacked by the Kakurs on the steep ground which commands the upper extremity of a narrow zigzag at Sir-i-Bolan ; but they were replused without much difficulty. The loss of the British was 2 killed, 11 wounded, and 4 missing.

The Governor-General was on his way to Ferozepore ; having reached Mumehmajra on the 14th November. Before leaving Simla, however, he had issued the following notification-

" Secret Department, Simla, 25th October 1842.

" The advance of the British armies to Ghuznee and Cabul having led to

the restoration to freedom of the British prisoners in the hands of the Afghans, Dost Mallocned Khan, his wives and family, Mahomed Akhbar Khan, and many Afghan chiefs, remain in the absolute power of the British Government, without having any means of procuring their liberation.

" To this condition of disgrace and danger has Mahomed Akhbar Khan re-

duced his father, and his wife, and his family, and the chiefs his countrymen, by making war upon women, and preferring the continuance of their captivity and suffering, for objects connected only with his own safety, to the general exchange of prisoners, which was offered by the British Government, and the consequent restoration to liberty of those whose honour and whose happiness should have been most dear to him.

" But the British Government is desirous of terminating at the earliest

period all the evils which have arisen out of the Afghan war ; and the Gover- nor-General, enabled by the recovery of the British prisoners who were in the hands of the enemy to follow the course most in accordance with clemency and humanity, declares that when the British army, returning from Afghanistan, shall have passed the Indus, all the Afghans now in the power of the British

Government shall be permitted to return to their country.

"The Afghan chiefs who are thus released will, befire they pass the Sutlej, present themselves at the durbar of the Governor-General, in his camp at Fe- rozepore.

" The wives of Dost Mahomed Khan and Mahomed Akhbar Khan, and all the ladies of the family and household, will be conducted with all respect to the frontiers of Afghanistan. "By order of the Right Honourable the Governor-General of India, " T. H. ltisonocn, Secretary to the Government of India, with the Governor-General.

(True copy.) "J. P. WILLOUGHBY, Secretary to Government."

The Agra Akhbar of 10th November describes great preparations for the state rejoicings at Ferozepore- " We learn from Simla, that immense preparations are being made for the approaching spectacle at Ferozepore, on the occasion of the Governor-General's visit to that post. According to what is given out, this will certainly be the most splendid show of the kind that has ever taken place in British India ; rival- ling in magnificence any display ever made by the Grand Mogul, and outshining any thing he could command in the shape of military splendour ; for we question if a finer body of men than will be collected there could be found in any army. There is to be a splendid pavilion erected, capable of accommodating from 600 to 700 guests. The army of the Indus will enter India through a triumphal arch to be erected for the occasion ; and the whole period of his Lordship's stay at Ferozepore will be one of festivity and rejoicing. A general invitation has been sent to Native princes and chiefs to be present on the occasion, to add to and partake in the triumph of India on the return of its armies from the con- quest and humiliation of its ancient foes." The following more remarkable notification had also been issued by Lord Ellenborough : translated into the Flindoo language, it had been transmitted to the several princes and chiefs to whom it is addressed, and circulated generally throughout India—


" My Brothers and my Friends—Our victorious army bears the gates of the temple of Somnath in triumph from Afghanistan, and the despoiled tomb of Sultan Mahmood looks upon the ruins of Ghuznee. "the insult of eight hundred years is at last avenged. The gates of the temple of Somnath, ;so long the memorial of your humiliation, are become the proudest record of your national glory, the proof of your superiority in arms over the nations beyond the Indus. " To you, Princes and Chiefs of Sirhind, of Rajwarra, of Malwa, and Guze- rat, I shall commit this glorious trophy of successful war. " You will, yourselves, with all honour, transmit the gates of sandal-wood through your respective territories to the restored temple of Somnath. "The Chiefs of Sirhind shall be informed at what time our victorious army will first deliver the gates of the temple into their guardianship, at the foot of the bridge of the Sutlej. "My Brothers and my Friends-1 have ever relied with confidence upon your attachment to the British Government. You see how worthy it proves itself of your love, when, regarding your honour as its own, it exerts the power of its arms to restore to you the gates of the temple of Somnath, so long the memorial of your subjection to the Afghans. " For myself, identified with you in interest and in feeling, I regard with all your own enthusiasm the high achievements of that heroic army ; reflecting alike immortal honour upon my native and upon my adopted country. " To preserve and to improve the happy union of our two countries, neces- sary as it is to the welfare of both, is the constant object of my thoughts. Upon that union depends the security of every ally, as well as of every subject of the British Government, from the miseries whereby in former times India was afflicted : through that alone has our army now waved its triumphant standards over the ruins of Ghuznee, and planted them upon the Bala-Hissar of Cabal.

"May that good Providence, which has hitherto so manifestly protected me, still extend to me its favour, that I may so use the power now Intrusted to my bands, as to advance your prosperity and secure your happiness, by placing the union of our two countries upon foundations which may render it eternal. (Signed) "ELLE:SIMROUGH."

Lord Ellenborough had abolished the Political Agencies in Scinde, and placed the whole care of the province under Sir Charles Napier. A treaty had been concluded by General Napier with the Ameers of Hyderabad, by which they consented to the establishment of British military posts around a portion of their frontier. If no difficulty arise to thwart the intentions of Lord Ellenborough, there would be a line of posts extending from Kurrachee at the mouth of the Indus, by Sukkur, to Bhalwulpore on the Sutlej, which would be garrisoned by British troops ; to whom would be intrusted the task of protecting our commerce, and compelling the observance of all treaties entered into with the native states bordering on those rivers. A lighthouse at Kurrachee, and an extensive steam flotilla for the transport of merchandise, as well as for military purposes, were to be supplied. The Governors had also announced a measure to improve the state of the roads between the Sutlej, the Ganges, and the Jumna.

Active steps were taking finally to quell the disorders in Bundelcund.

The intelligence from China comes down from the 13th of October ; but all the news is conveyed in the following extracts from the Hong- kong Gazette of September 20th-

" The Hong merchants monopoly is at an end. Musters of tea from 'Nankin have been forwarded to Hong-kong by her Majesty's Plenipotentiary; the price is moderate, and the report on their quality generally favourable. The Calliope has gone to Formosa to bring away the crew and passengers of the Ann. On the 15th September, 6,000,000 dollars, the first instalment of the 21,000,000 dollars, had been paid. The Blonde takes 3,000,000 dollars, the Modeste and Columbine about 800,000 dollars each, home ; time Herald, 1,000,000 dollars, and Clio, 1,000,000 dollars to Calcutta. The Endymion proceeds to Bombay, the Calliope to Hong-kong. The Imperial Commissioners have offered to accompany her Majesty's Plenipotentiary to the newly-opened ports of trade. T' captured junks have been restored, and trading between the English and Chinese has commenced in the Yang-tae-Kiang."

The following report is curious, as showing the Chinese view of the late arrangements, or at least the gloss which they put upon them-

" //wort from the Imperial Commissioner and his Colleagues on the Requisitions of her Majesty's Plenipotentiary.

" The Imperial Commissioner and Great Minister, Keying, the acting Ad- jutant-General of Tsopoo, Elepoo, and the Governor of the two Keang pro- vinces, Newktea, take the articles of peace which have been decided upon with the English nation, and send up a duly prepared report of all the circum- stances.

" 1. The said barbarians begged that we should give of foreign money

21,000,000 of dollars. On examination it is found that the said barbarians originally wanted to extort 30,000,000 of dollars; but Hang-e and his col- leagues argued the point strongly again, and a third time ; and at length the sum was fixed at 21,000,000 dollars. They said that 6,000,000 was the price of the opium, 3,000,000 for the Hong merchants' debts, and 12,000,000 for the expenses of the army. The Showei, (an officer of the Emperor's body- guard,) Hang-e, and his colleagues, represented that the price of the opium had already been paid by the city of Canton, in 6,000,000 dollars; how could pay- ment be extorted a second time? And the debts of the Hong merchants should be liquidated by themselves ; how could the officers of Government be called upon to pay them ? As to the necessary expenses of the army—why should China be called upon to pay them ? And these matters were dis- cussed again and again. The said barbarians exclaimed, that opium was not produced in England, but that it was all sent forth from a neighbouring country ; that upwards of 20,000 chests had been destroyed, and it required no small sum to pay for them; the 6,000,000 dollars that had been paid did not amount to halt of the prime cost, and therefore the deficiency must now be supplied. As to the Hong merchants' debts, the Hong merchants, originally, should have discharged them; but as they delayed the payment for a long time, the accumulation amounted to a vast sum. On that account, therefore, they requested 3,000,000 of dollars,—whicb, however, did not amount to more than a tenth part of the original claims: and they particularly requested that a despatch should be sent to Canton, directing that a clear inquiry should be made into all the Hong merchants' debts, and to limit a time for their re- covery; but if they (the Hong merchants) had no funds forthcoming, then it will be necessary to require the Government to pay the debts.

" As to the item of expenses of the army, as peace has already been made, the soldiers and sailors should be rewarded before they are sent home. As to the amount of those necessary expenses, if it is not decided to pay, you must say nothing more to us about the retirement or not of the army and fleet ; but if hostilities do not cease, we apprehend that the expenditure of China, in future, will not stop at 12,000,000 dollars. Further, the men-of-war have al- ready taken Kingkow, and have blockaded the passages; and if we are soon enabled to order them to retire, the advantages to China will be very great in- deed ; and so forth.

"The said Shewei (Hang e) and his colleagues again authoritatively ques- tioned as to the difficulties; but the said barbarian only stared at him indig- nantly: the Shewei was not listened to.

" 1, your servant, have examined and found what are the unwarrantable de- mands of the said barbarians, which they so importunately urge; and they are deserving of the utmost hatred. But, considering that they have already at- tacked and laid in ruins Kingkow, and it is proved that not only the rivers but Chinkeang it will be difficult to recover speedily ; but I am apprehensive we shall be blocked up both on the North and South, which will be the heaviest calamity.

" The whips that formerly blockaded the entrances were far different from these, (in the Yang-tae-kiang,) and great expense is unavoidable. As yet, our reputation is nut lost. As to the extorted 21,000,000 dollars, they are to be reckoned at seven mace each of Sycee silver, which will amount to upwards of

11,700,000 tads; the Hong debts are 3,000,000 dollars, weighing 2,100,000 taels, which must be recovered from the Hong merchants of Canton when a clear examination has been made. There still remains 12,600,000 taels. This year the first payment of 6,000,000 dollars has been made, equal to 4,200,000 taels. Now, 1,000,000 has already been carried to the account of the people and merchants of Keaogsoo, which the officers must pay in the first instance; and in time money may be looked for, for the purchase of honours, (buttons and peacock's feathers.) The remainder is to be cleared off in three years; not requiring 3,000,000 taels for each year. Moreover, the duties that the said nation will pay should be taken into account, which will ship the expendi- ture of the Imperial Family, and disputances will be prevented. Comparing one year's expenses of the army with the sum paid to the English, it is as three to ten ; and there is only, the name of fighting, without the hope of victory : it is better to adopt plans in accordance with circumstances, and put an everlast- ing stop to war.

" The 4,200,000 taels, the first payment made of this year, has been collected from the funds of the Treasurer and Salt-Commissioners of the three provinces of Che-keang, Keangso, and Ganhwuy; which will be repaid by the duties on the merchants and people. " We wait to receive the Imperial will, that we may send post-haste orders (to the Treasurers and Salt-Commissioners) to be respectfully obeyed. "2. The said barbarians begged that Hong-kong might be conferred on them as a place of residence. They also requested to be allowed to trade at Kwaugchaw, Funchow, Heamun (Moy), Ningpo, and Shanghae. The Shewei Hauling and his colleagues, as the barbarians had already built houses on Hong- kong, and yet could beg for favour, granted that they might dwell there. With reference to Kwangchow and the other four places, they must be considered too many. As to the regulations of the trade, as well as the duties, they should early be consulted and decided upon.

" When clear and explicit questions were asked, it is authenticated that the said barbarians answered, ' We consider Hong-kung as our dwelling-place, and we must have Kwangchow and the others, in all five places, as ports of trade ; but if it cannot be allowed, then neither Moy, Ningpo, llirshoe, Tioghae, To- poo, Paoyshan, nor Hekeang, will be delivered up, neither will our forces retire. As we want to trade at all these places, it is absolutely necessary that resident Consuls should be appointed to superintend affairs, to restrain the bar- barians and prevent disturbances. The duties shall be paid according to the regulations of China; and when the duties are settled, there shall be no delay in the payment.

"'Further, when we traded at Canton, the whole trade was in the bands of the Mandarin Hong merchants, and we were exposed to their extortions, and the injuries we suffered were not small. Hereafter, we desire to choose our own merchants, that trade may be conducted equitably ; and the entire duties are to be paid through the Consuls to the Hoppo, and not to pass through the hands of the Hong merchants, in order that their extortions may be prevented ' ; and so forth.

" The said Shewie again represented, that from the five places, Kwangchow, &c. some should be deducted ; but the said barbarian obstinately refused. I, your servant, have examined and found, that with reference to the said foreigners dwelling on Hong-kong, and going to trade in the provinces of Fokien and Hekeang, the Imperial will has already been received, with per- mission as to what they have requested about trading at the five places named, although the comparison is great , but, as they have taken and kept possession of Amoy and other places, which are not yet given up ; and as they still hold Hong-kong, Golongsoo, and have not retired, it will be a difficult matter to get them back.

"If we again prepare our armies to maintain those places, it is a difficult matter to engage with them on the waters. Though near to each other, we have been idle (there has not been any fighting) for many days; and as to those places which they have taken and keep possession of, will it not be allowed them to return to us our territory, and allow them to trade, since they are willing respectfully to pay the duties? Just now they are sensible, and repent of their errors, and are as obedient as if driven by the wind; and when again united in mutual friendship, benevolence, and truth, all things will go on well. And since they will guard their own market and surround and protect the sea- boundaries, there will not be any necessity for recourse fur our interference, which will be to the advantage of our country.

" We request the Imperial will may be sent down to the Governors and Lieu- tenant-Governors of each of the three provinces, to examine clearly into the duties and trading regulations of the Comptroller of Maritime Customs in the provinces of Canton; and consult about the management of affairs, and fix them on a secure basis.

"3. That which the said barbarians have requested with reference to the officers of China—to have ceremonial intercourse upon an equality, and the barbarians who have been made captives, and the Chinese traitors who have been seduced, (into the service, &c. of the English,) the release of all these they moat earnestly solicit.

" I, your servant, have examined, and found, that with reference to equal official intercourse, it may be unreservedly granted ; and as the affairs with the foreigners are finished, (the war ended,) the prisoners may also be released ; by which harmony and good understanding will,be strengthened, for a state of peace will bring repose and gladness, and overthrow factions parties. These matters may be allowed to proceed; and 1 have left them to the Shewei, without discussing them."