NEWS FROM NEW ZEALAND.
Intelligence of the safe arrival of the Tory—the beautiful ship which carried out Colonel Wakefield and his exploring staff to New Zealand, five months prior to the emigration of last autumn—reached London on Wednesday. The Tory had one of the shortest passages ever known — ninety-six days from Plymouth, which port she left on the 12111 of May ; and, without touching land anywhere, anchored in Ship Cove, Queen Charlotte's Sound, on the 17th of August ; having hove in sight of the land of Cape Farewell, in the Southern Island, on the 16th at noon. We have been allowed to make extracts from Colonel Wake- field's despatch to the Governor and Directors of the New Zealand Com- pany'. It is in the form of a journal ; and presents not only a vivid and striking picture of external appearances, but a great variety of new, re- liable, and useful information. Thus far the progress of the enterprise is most encouraging. Colonel Wakefield dates his journal-despatch " on board the Tory, Teawaiti, Queen Charlotte's Sound, Cook's Straits ;" and it commences on the let September 1839. We begin our, extracts with a description of the appearance of the country, and the anchorage-
" On making the land a little to the south of Cape Farewell, the chain of Alps running down the centre of the Southern Island, capped with snow, rs the most prominent feature. The land, however, near the coast, is very high, gradually lowering towards the strait; and about forty miles south-west of Cape Farewell is a most remarkable white cliff, or oblique fissure, perhaps the opening of a harbour, which presented to us, at twenty miles: distance, the appearance of a huge tail of white smoke as left behind by a steam-vessel under way. " A spit of sand on which is very shoal water runs out twenty-five miles off Cape Farewell. We therefore stood to the N.B., and hove to for the night 10 the middle of the strait, opposite Blind Bay, where the soundings are excellent at 45, 49, and 32 fathoms, deepening from the land. At daybreak we made all da and stood on down the strait, 'sassing successively within ten miles of rsirville's Island, Stephen's Isle, Admiralty Bay, Point Lambert, and Port Gore, bearitos the appearance given in the accompanying sketches. The first impearance of the Southern Island is unpromising—a succession of apparently barren mountains stretching away from the coast till they reach those covered with snow in the interior ; but on nearing the land you find that the whole is covered to the very highest points with timber and brushwood, which not till then betray their perpetual verdure. s The strait is extremely open and easy of access. Entry Island and the highlands of Terrawitte, with a volcanic mountain emitting clouds of smoke, are plainly distinguished from Stephen's Island ; but Mount Egmont has not been seen by us. " Passings Port Gore, Point Jackson, which divides that harbour from Queen Charlotte's -Sound, has a reef of rocks, partly out of water, partly sunken, run- ning out from it two miles. Giving tine a berth, we entered between the head- lands of the Sound, formed to the N.E. by Cape Kolmaroo; but the wind eelleg suddenly, and the tide setting at the rate of five miles an hour towards the reef, we were for a short time in doubt whether we could make our port. Just as we had resolved to stand off, a breeze sprung up, With which we ran in, and in an hour after entering the bay, anchored in the mouth of Ship Cove, nightfall, a calm, and the ebb tide, preventing our taking a berth at the bottom
of it." They were soon joined by some natives- " As we entered the Sound, we saw four canoes sidling from the north-west, allif with a view of coming up with U8; and before we were at anchor, one from one of the coves at the entrance, containing eight natives, came alongside. It had at some distance the appearance of its owners hesitating to venture near us; but it turned out that they only stopped occasionally to bale out their canoe, which was very frail and shabby, consisting of a single tree hol- lowed out for the bottom, and a few rough planks,:ill put together, for its sides. " As the canoe ran alongside the ship, then scarcely making way through the water, it was lashed to the main-chains, and the men from it were on our deck in an instant. As they were unarmed, no precaution had been used to prevent such an occurrence; and at first sight their savage appearance, wild expression of countenance, and energetic movements, might have led to be- lieve that their intentions were any thing but friendly. They quickly, how- ever, shook hands with every one coming in their way on the deck, and seemed to consider that their appearance on board, in the way described, was a matter of course, and that we were very glad to receive them. They all spoke more or less English, inquired where we were going to anchor, telling us that their cove was the best place, and assumed an air of authority such as a pilot deco who steps on board a vessel entering a strange port. They brought on board a small quantity of fish and potatoes, which were afterwards bought for a little tobacco.
" These men are of the Nyatiinhatrigh tribes, whose chief lives here, and is tributary to Ranpero, the head of the Capiti tribes, who lives at Capiti or Entry Island. This part of the sound, however, is owned by Hike, Raupero's nephew, who inherited it from Tipalu, and who will probably succeed Raupero as chief of the Capiti tribes. One of them recognized Nayti, the interpreter, as an old acquaintance."
The ship was moored in Ship Cove on Sunday the 18th of August, as nearly as possible in the same spot that Captain Cook occupied. in his three visits to the island. The appearance of the country was beauti- ful, and the water teeming with fish- " Nothing can exceed the beauty of the situation. The water, tranquil as an inland lake, has ten fathoms' depth within a ship's length of the shore, which is covered to the water's edge with an evergreen forest, consisting of every variety of indigenous tree and shrub, so thick- as to be scarcely peneira. ble, and presenting to the eye an undulating carpet of verdure reaching to the summit of the surrounding mountains, the highest of which is from 1,200 to 1,500 feet. The birds, as in the time of the immortal English navigator, fill the air with their notes, the mingling of which he has aptly likened to the tinkling of small bells ; and the sea teems with fish, of which we caught enough with hooks and lines for the whole ship before we dropped anchor. These Con- sisted of hake, eole-fish, spotted dog-fish, gurnet, flounder, anal joe-fish, all of
which are eatable. * * * * 'It being Sunday, after the ship was moored and the decks cleared, I dis- missed the natives, with a request that they would come early to-morrow with what they had for sale, and went on shore with the naturalist and other gentle- men of tlte expedition. The little beach, with its spines and rivulets, retains, at the distance of nearly seventy years, vestiges of Cook's visits, in the timber cut down but not used by him, the wild radishes and cabbages, and the space cleared for his forge and workshop. " The wood is almost impenetrable on the sides of the hills front the web of supplejacks and creepers ; but for a hundred yards front the beach there is a swampy that, through which run three rivulets of delicious water, which flowing from the heights, here assumes a shape before mixing with that of the bay. " The soil here and on the hills is very rich, being, its fact, the decayed vege- tation of centuries, and in the fiat producing a thick carpet of weeds and herb- age; but even were the land cleared higher up, which would he a work of tune, it is doubtful whether the great acclivity would not prevent cultivation for the purposes of husbandry, thought there cast be little doubt that the vine and Indian corn might be grown up to the summit."
They bartered a pipe for a basket of potatoes weighing 20 pounds, and a blanket which cost 8a. in London fetched three pies weighing 80 pounds each. Some particulars of Nayti in his native landare very interesting-
"Nayti is delighted at the reception by us of his friends, who treat him with great respect, always addressing him by the title of Eriki,' or Chief. There was some doubt in England as to his caste • which, from all we see, stands as high as that of any one in the Strait. flis dress and apparent wealth has some share also in procuring deference front his countrymen. A striking change has taken place in his demeanour since our arrival in harbour. During the voyage he was at first moody, and regretted the life of visiting and amuse- ment he had left its London. At another time he took affront at a debating club which we held in the cabin twice a week ; at one of the meetings of which be supposed that he heard his own mime mentioned, and he accordingly ab-
sented himself front the cabin for some days, and declared that he would leavethe ship when she might arrive its port, and would go back to England and
get employment from another company, eve. The same uniform kind treat- meat he had received from all of us, with a little firmness on my part in for- bidding him to associate with the crew, quickly brought him round, however ; and fear of his countrymen at the first sight of them, made hint cling still more to his English friends. When the tirst canoe came alongside us, he be- gan to apologize to me for the naked state in which 1 should find the natives, in the manlier that one might excuse the appearance of a poor relation and was much relieved by our reception of them. The contrast between his own comfortable position and their wretched state then seemed to strike him forcibly, and made him sacrifice them to us, lie interpreted thithfully their words and intentions, and repeatedly cautioned me against either their attempts to steal from the ship, or to cheat us its our dealings.
"He has greatly gained also in our estimation by juxtaposition with his countrymen; amongst whom he assumes the bearing of a smartsiutelligent
Englishman—so much so, that in talking of him, they commou ly call him the White man."
A shooting-excursion, with a native for a setter-
" The naturalist and artist, with Euro, started early this morning and as- cended a hill to the South-east, front whence they had a view of the whole sound, with a distant glimpse of Cloudy Bay. * * * Their observations as to the character of thejand and its rroduvctions do not add any thing to what haul been previously gathered respecting them. The rest of the cabin party were engaged in washi»g clothes um shore ; in which they were eagerly assisted by the native womm ti-om the village, which bad to-day been deserted by nearly all its inhallitants, for our Cove. There were nearly one hundred per- sons busy abreast of the ship ; and I do not doubt that the Cove has not pre- sented so lively an appearance the time of Cook's visits. The most per- fect harmony prevailed, and not the smallest attempt at pilh:ring by the natives was observed. I went with my gall to the top of the first ridge of hills, accompa- nied by a nuttier, who answered t!io hurl se of a good setter-dog, by finding abundance of birds sitting in the high trees. Upon each occasion of finding a bird worth shooting, he squathtt himself in the peettliar position of which all his countrymen are so fond, and called to me to come up. After I had fired, he resumed his course, to wh;ch the impsdintents of supple-jacks, fern, and underwood, which made my progress vcry low, seemed to offer no opposition. The woods abound in parrots, wattlebirds, and innume-able small singing-birds. The supply of potatoes exceeds our demand. Inure them five hundred baskets full being ranged along the boa AI to attract otu. notice. I intend to lay in a stock of them here, on account of their cheapness, and to prevent loss of time in barter at other places; and should recommend aby ship running through the Strait, in want of provisions of this nature, to look in here, in preference to supplying itself at Cloudy Bay. Pigs, however, are ecarce ; the natives being unable to catch those tat have been turnsd out on Mutuara."
A description of the timber and the climate- " Sunday, August 25th.—We had no work on board to-day ; it being the first Sunday the duties of the ship have allowed any relaxatiun since leav- ing England. After I haul read prayers to all hands, iocluding our guest, Ngaruva, I went with some ssentlemen to climb a hill in the Cove. We as- cended the course of a rivulet which occasionally fell in c seades over the slate- stone rocks forming the suhstrattun of these mountains. With some labour we reached the reaion where the highest timber grows. There we found a species of elm, some of which were eighteen feet in girth, and other trees seventy or eighty feet high without a branch, which, it too heavy fur masts, would make excellent planking for shiphuilding. As specimens of all these native trees hays betat long since taken to England by the Dromedary and Buffalo, I do not send specirneas of the woods ; but from my own experience, and the information I have from the captain and an excellent ship's carpenter, I feel confident that, althoth4h the timber here may not be so valuable as that found in some districts of time North Island, it is still sufficiently valuable to deserve future attention. The Surveyor-General of the Navy of England might supply himself fier some years' consumption rononget the trees we saw in our ramble this morning." * * * "Monday, A eyed aulth.—The climate of this place very much resembles that of the North of Portugal ; the most lovely days bursting out in the middle of winter. The thermometer has ranged between 40 deg. and 3d deg in the shade during our stay."
Titles to hand— The laws of property, as known to our visitors, are very undefined in this part of New Zealand. 'Neither Reopen) nor Hike possess the power of abso- lute disposal of any portian of land in the Strait.
* * • " Great confusion exists reTectin:s- vestet1 rights. Many White men have established themselves amongst different tribes, and have occupied and culti- tion of rated land to any ex teut %sit hin tlicir power, without a question or exec ally kind from the netives ml it is probable that such is the value set upon European commodities end hshistry by the natives , and so uncertaiu the
right of ownership in land. i has Leen usurped by tribe after tribe.. during a series of wars, that a body of s!..ttlers might locate themselves without pur- chase in almost any part of the shores of the Strait, unmolested by anybody. One of the principal meals Of safety, at present, to wandering Europeans taking up their abodes here, is a ,/:,•!si marriage with a native female. Our two guests brought their wives with them as a nutter of course and of safety amongst any natives they might meet. Those are the netural consequences of irregular colonizathai. and would speedily give way to a better system, should this country be settled from Earspe lv ieseelatioLs of individuals, or occupied by a military fence, and apportioned as in our colonies."
Voyage from Ship Cove up the Sound to Teawaiti-
" At three o'clock we entered the rhannel, the entrance of which is rffiout mile wide.. The Sonnti i.revierasly had prosonted a time expanse of water of thirty or flirty fill seams depth evcn dose into the shore, and bounded on each Bide with hays and coves 1.011)1111g a collection et' as line harbours as any in the world one of flail, West Bay, is a large as PI; month Sound, and all of thew easy of access and safe in all ii immml,. At the Southern end of the Sound be' fore entering the channel which turns sharply to the East ward, and a few miles afterwards agein to the Northward, is a lare: arm or him: hay. at the bottom of which a river a mile it :do :It the mouth, 'enters. l•p this arm there is some line land and a grove it exeellent trees for shipbuilding and other purposes. A cutter of forty tons was Milt here tit o years ago by an 1 miglishl mmm,lmI resident in Teawaiti : near this river a few hour, i ilk across the hills t....ings you to the Pelorus river, in Admiralty Bay, the tatter rising to the South-west of its mouth. "The channel. me we proceeded fitrther. nerrowed to little more than half a mile, and reminded me of the Intone between Lyons and Avignon.Ihe tide ran at the rate of four or five miles an hour, and formed eddies near each shore—we hail no cvi el. hilt I.:Id not I jig tim tie) !Alt to keep llle hmip ill the middle of the ittssage. At -ix 0th e,'15 we anchored 11,1r 'I eawaiti :Ind 3 In B—, who is at the head of a vimlin- estal 'li-liment. came off to us in his boat. 'rime mountains through which tin; elmmul rims. are much less covert-4 with timber than those :it tie Nortlhin entrance of tile Sound, and less fertile. The bays, however. infer spots e tpalo... of cultivation for any purposes. Here
are many native senhani bear ail indifferent character for honesty." ('oil at 7tIangania-
" Mr. B— has been in his cutter to Mang:min, the plume near Cape FaTC- well I mentioned before. oilers, the coal Ic ffiund. lie brought away ten tons of it, which he ehumg mull mt high-water-mark on the beach. There is abundance of it to be had without sinking slats : and it burhs as well as any English coal."
" I hope that in my next commmIlL:.'.1::011 I shall have tee announce the pro- gress of negotiations for territory imm this part of New Zealand. Our quick passage out has given me a fort niglit to have the ship put into complete order, and provisioned for four mouths. beffire the time it was expected we should arrive here, and to obtain the :Move information : and nave thetefore nothing now to do hut to purmic lime object of snir voyage. ff The state of the natives having been so matorially altered be their contact with Europeans. and by the precepts of the Missionaries, otters facilities o't