§orzign an Oolonial.
POLsino.—As our Political Summary embraces in as connected a form as the disjointed and contradictory details which have reached this country will admit of, all the prominent facts connected with the insurrectionary inovemant, it is needless to occupy space in this department with a repeti- tion. A brief notice, however, of some of the more interesting incidents reported, arranged in the order of time may be useful. , On the 22d February, the Austrian droops, under the command of General Cohn, were driven from Cracow by the insurgents; and a Provisional Govern- ment was installed, in an old mansion hallowed by many national associations, known by the name of Krystofory. A manifesto was then issued, setting forth in energetic language the cruelties and oppressions inflicted upon the Pollsh na- tion, and calling upon every member of it to join the standard of revolt. On the 23d, a decree, signed by Louis Gorzkowsky and two others, required, under pain of death, obedience to the orders of the Provisional Government; commanding all persons capable of bearing arms to place themselves under the orders of the local authorities,- forbidding pillage and violence, the establishment of illegal clubs, &c. Another decree appeared on the 24th; and among the names attached was that of Count Potnlicki, one of the richest citizens of Poland.
It is stated that the insurgents found plenty of arms and ammunition in Cra- cow; and that in number they were nearly 20,000. On the 24th February, two days after the evacuation of the city by the Aus- trian troops and authorities, the victorious insurgents resolved to commence a campaign. They crossed the Vistula at Siespolomize—where they were joined by numerous partisans; and then marched to Wieliczka—where they seized the money-box of the Mining Administration of the Austrian Government. General
Collin was not prepared to meet this movement, and fell back on M4tuii and Wadowice—where he expected reinforcemeuts. A fall of snow rendered military communication difficult The insurgents next advanced into the circle of Tarnow; where fortune seems to have deserted them. According to the Journal des Debats, writing from Aus- trian documents, the nobles of that circle had made an unsuccessful attempt to induce the peasantry to join the revolt. The peasantry remained faithful to the Austrian Government; and, rising upon the nobles, massacred upwards or two hundred of them- Colonel Benedetti, one of the principal officers of the army of Galicia, finding that the peasants could be trusted, organized them into military array; placing them under the command of officers of the regular army. The first engagement took place at Gdow, and terminated in the retreat of part of the insurgents in the direction of Wieliczka and Podgorze. General Collin, who had received some reinforcements, took advantage of that circumstance' and on the 27th marched upon Podgorze, which is opposite Cracow, on the right bank of the Vistula. The insurgents, organized in haste, and badly armed, made an attempt to retain possession of Podgorze. The combat on both sides was obsti- nate and sanguinary, although the Austrians state that they had only one man killed and seven wounded. After two successive attacks, the Austrian troops ob- tained possession of the town, the insurgents taking refuge in Cracow.
In the mean time, the forces of the three Powers began to concentrate on Cra- cow; and the persons who still remained in the city, finding that further resist- ance was hopeless, opened up a communication with General Collin on the subject of surrendering Cracow; but while it was going on, the Russian corps moved for- ward, and marched into the town, without striking a blow. The town, however, was found to be nearly deserted; none remaining but old men and women and children, the young and able having gone into Galicia. The fate of some bodies of the insurgents which had crossed the Vistula and shared in the engagements is not known.
The Paris National says—" The march of the Prussians upon Cracow has been arrested by the troubles in Silesia, and by the spread of the insurrection in Lithuania. Samogitia and Ukraine have commenced their movement. Every- thing appears to indicate that Russia will be attacked to the very core." The Reforme adds—" The report of an insurrection in Samogitia has been confirmed. This is an event of the most vital importance, in consequence of that province having some ports upon the Baltic. It was to Polanger that the Polish Com- mittee in Paris sent a vessel laden with arms and ammunition during the insur- rection of 1830."
The maseaere of the nobles in the circle of Tarnow is attributed by some au- thorities, not to the patriotism of the peasantry, but to the barbarous policy of the Austrian Government in offering a reward for "every noble, dead or alive, de- livered to the Government" Some well-informed persons, again, impute it to personal motives—revenge seizing the opportunity to repay old tyrannies.
Feearen—In the Chamber of Deputies, on Monday, Ministers were left in a minority on the question of reducing the French Five per Cent Stock; but as this was foreseen, neither " crisis " nor sensation occurred. The proposition for reducing the stock was brought forward by the Count de Saint Priest; M. Gamier Pave taking a prominent part in the discus- sion, and exposing himself to much scandal, by asserting that the oppo- sition of Ministers was owing to the personal desire of Louis Philippe, who disfavours the reduction in order to stand well with the class of moneyed capitalists. Ministers recommended a postponement of the question. On a division, 145 voted for, and 241 against delay. A considerable majority appeared also in favour of taking the proposition into consideration. The same thing occurred last year; but the bill was rejected by the Peers.
The Duke d'Aumale left Paris on Wednesday, for Algeria; but it is re- ported that his absence is not to exceed a month. During his stay in Africa, the Duke is to place himself under the orders of Marshal Bugeaud. Accounts from Algeria state that Marshal Bueeaud set out on the 5th instant, at the head of an army, for the purpose "'counteracting any enter- prise that Abd-el-Kader might have in view. The Marshal had issued a proclamation explanatory of his objects.
The rising in Poland has excited a lively interest in Paris; and some of the newspapers have been calling upon the friends of liberty to step forth and assist the Poles in their struggle. The purity of the motive, however, in wishing to embroil France with Austria, Prussia, and Russia, has not passed without question. Eighty-four Deputies met and made speeches. M. Gamier Pages moved the appointment of a permanent committee to adopt and combine such measures as might promote the success of the Polish cause. M. Odillon Barrot recommended a more moderate course; and his advice was taken; the proceedings terminating in a resolution to appoint a committee to make an appeal to public charity in behalf of the insurgents. Subscriptions were opened, and about 5001. was subscribed.
UNITED STATES.—Accounts from New York, to the 21st Februasy. have been received by the packet-ship Rochester.
The news is of great interest, as conveying the feelings of the Americana on the measure of free trade proposed by Sir Robert Peel, full details of which were taken out by the Cambria. All the papers hail it as the greatest blessing, and more especially as tending to force on a peaceful settlement of the Oregon question. War seems to be scouted as a thing not to be dreamt of; and Mr. President Polk and his adherents were thrown overboard in the joyous outburst of feeling.
The Herald avows a strong opinion that the Oregon negotiations will remain in their present unsettled, open position, until the new Tariff Bill, prepared under the direction of Mr. Walker, and, slightly modified, per- haps, by the Committee, shall have passed both Houses of Congress, and become a law. The changes in the latter will be the addition of 5 per cent to the duties on cotton and woollen goods imported. By Mr. Walker's bill, cotton goods will pay 20 per cent, woollen 25. The bill amended by the Committee of the House may increase the former to 25, and the latter to 30, with some few other immaterial alterations. Mr. Walker and his friends believe that their bill will pass the House by 12 or 20 majority-, and the Senate by a similar one. Among the high tariff protection men a different result is anticipated. From Sir Robert Peel's speech upon Mr. Pakenham's rejection of the proposal of last autumn, the Courier and Inquirer infers that if Mr. Polka offer be again made to the British Government, it will lead to a settle-
assent; and the journalist contends that as the offer never reached the British Government, but was intercepted by Mr. Pakenham, it ought in fairness to be repeated. The Oregon question continued to be debated in the Senate; and from the eagerness of members to take part in the discussion, no opinion could be formed of the time at which the speaking would close.
NEW ZEALAND.—Governor Fitzroy still figures on the scene, playing his old antics. Our last intelligence of him is furnished by the West of England Conservative, in the following extract of a letter from the Queen's ship North Star, Captain Sir J. E. Home; dated from the river Kni-Kni, Piay of Islands, 6th October 1845— "We We have not lifted our anchor for ten tcks. inane goodness, we are still as happy and comfortable rz s sum can possibly be made, and likely to remain so. We are on the c.e ot a bad peace: the Governor is negotiating with the disaffected, just at a moment that strong reinforcements have arrived; and now that we are in *position to give them a sound drubbing, our hands are tied behind our backs. It puzzles me how they will convince the people of England that such a humi- liating alternative was wise. I don't know who takes the merit of planning the terms, but here they are. I have them privately; they are not yet promulgated.
" Conditions on which the Governor trill consent to a General Peace.
1. The treaty of Waitangi to be binding. 2. The British colours to be sacred. 3. All plunder now in the possession of Natives to be forthwith restored. 4. The following places to be given up to the Queen, and to remain unoccupied by any one until the decision of her Majesty be signified—Ports of Mare, Ohai- war, Taiaonia, Wangai, Kofow, Kaipatitu, and \Walken. 5. Hostilities to cease entirely between all chiefs and tribes now in arms with or against the Govern-