15 JANUARY 1831, Page 1


THERE is not much of positive intelligence from Warsaw since our last publication. The feelings of the people and the power of the chiefs are portrayed in the various private letters wh:ch reach this country, directly and indirectly, according to the wishes and hopes of the writers. The corresporidents of the French and Engl'sh journals would make us believe that everywhere, throughout the revolted provinces the utmost enthusiasm is felt ; and that death or victory' is,.not only the watchword, but will be practically exemplified when the shock of the encounter comes. The Berlin letters report that even in Warsaw the spirit of resistance is not so powerful as it was—that the Dictator is by no means so popular—that the national excitement extends to but a few miles round the capital. Perhaps the truth lies between these extremes. Five-and-twenty years ago, Poland was a land of slaves. The ass in the fable; when urged to fly from the enemy, wished to know if he used two pack-saddles instead of one. The Polish people probably cared little about the domination of Rtissia so long as it did not impose an additional pack-saddle. The nu- merous nobility, the real freemen of the country, have something at stake, and they are now fairly committed with the Czar. The Emperor has issued a manifesto, which we subjoin. It is stern enough ; but the influences of freedom have penetrated even the furs of the Imperial mantle. With all NICHOLAS'S loftiness of resolve, he is not in words, and much less do we believe will he be found in fact, averse to a compromise, which would leave his late Polish subjects in a better condition nominally than they have hitherto been. We say nominally, for under a despot all ap- proaches to freedom of government are but nominal. Poland had, it is well known, a Constitution' and yet it was subjected to every caprice of a brutal and ignoranttyrant, without the possibility of redress.

The following is the new proclamation.

"We, Nicholas, by the Grace of God, Emperor and Autocrat of' all the Russias, &c. &c., to all our faithful subjects, greeting :— " A terrible treason has convulsed the kingdom of Poland, which is united to Russia. Evil-minded men, whom the benefits of the Emperor Alexander, the magnanimous restorer of their country, had not disarmed, and who, under the protection of the constitution which he had granted them, enjoyed the fruits of his solicitude, plotted the overthrow of the order of things introduced by him, and marked the outset of their crimes on the 17th (29th) November, by rebellion, bloodshed, and criminal at- tempts on the life of our beloved brother, the Czarowitsch and Grand Duke, Constantine Paulowitsch. Taking advantage of the darkness of the night, a furious multitude, instigated by them, attacked the palace of the Czarowitsch ; while, at the same time, by spreading, in several quer- .tatfigthe city, false reports that the Russian troops were massacring the Pear-4111e Citizens, they succeeded in gaining the people, and filling the City withealtthe horrors Of anarchy. The Czarowitsch then resolved to take up a position in the environs of %trim, with the Russian troops that he had with him, and the Polish troops that remained faithful to their duty, and not act offensively, in order to avoid all occasion for the effusion of blood; to shew clearly the absurdity and the falsehood of the reports that were spread, to give the authorities of the city time and means, with the aid of the well-disposed citizens, to recall to their duty those who had been led astray, and to keep the evil-minded in check; but this expecta- tion was not fulfilled. The Council of Administration could not succeed in restoring order ; incessantly menaced by the rebels, who had formed illegal meefings, and who had changed its composition, by removing the members named by us, and establishing others forced on it by the chiefs of the conspirators. There was nothing left for us to do but earnestly to entreat the Czarowitsch to send back the Polish troops who had left War- saw with him, in order to preserve public and private property from fur- therpillage. Soon after this council was totally dissolved, and the whole town placed in the hands of a general. At the same time a report was spread of a similar insurrection in all the provinces of the kingdom of Po- land; the same means were everywhere employed—seduction, menaces, falsehoods, the object of which was to subject the peaceable citizens to the power of some rebels. In these serious and deplorable circumstances, the Czarowitsch thought it necessary to follow the advice of the Council of State ; and he permitted the small number of Polish troops, Who had re- mained faithful; to return to Warsaw, in order, if possible,. to protect per- tun and property. He himself, with the Russian troops, quitted the

kingdom of Poland, and on the 1st (13th) December arrived at the village of Wlodaw, in Volbynia. In this manner, a crime, which had been long meditated, was consummated. After so many calamities, the Polish

nation was enjoying peace and prosperity under the protection of our go- vernment ; again it precipitates itself into an abyss of revolt and misery,

and troops of these credulous men, though struck with fear of approach- ing chastisement, dare to think of victory for some moments, and to pro- pose conditions to us, their legitimate master. " Russians, you know that we reject them with indignation. Your hearts, burning with zeal for the throne, comprehend what ours feel. At the first news of the treason, your answer was a new oath of unalterable fidelity, and at this moment we see, in the whole extent of our vast empire, only one impulse in the hearts of all—only one sentiment—the desire of sparing no effort for the honour of their Sovereign, the inviola- bility of the empire, and to sacrifice to it their riches, property, and even lives. We have contemplated with emotion this generous transport of the love of the people to our person and to the country ; and we consider it as a sacred duty to answer to it by words of moderation.

" New sacrifices, new efforts, will not be necessary. God, the defender of the legitimate cause, is with us ; and powerful Russia is able, in a single decisive battle, to reduce to obedience those who have dared to disturb the peace. Our faithful troops, who have very recently distin- guished themselves by numerous victories, are already assembled on the western frontier of the empire. We are ready to punish the treason ; but at the same time, we will distinguish between the innocent and the guilty, and pardon the weak,. Who, through inability to resist, or through fear, followed: the torrent of rebellion. No, all the sub- jects of our kingdom of Poland, all the inhabitants of Warsaw, have not taken part in the conspiracy, and its deplorable consequences. Several have shewn, by dying gloriously, that they knew their ditty; others, as we have seen by the reports of the Grand Duke, were obliged to return, with tears of despair, to the places occupied by the rebels : they form, with the victims of fraud and seduction, the greater part of the army, and of the kingdom of Poland. We addressed them in a proclamation of the 5th (17th) of this month, in which, expressing our Just displeasure at the violation of faith, we gave orders to put an end to all usurpation of power, illicit armaments, and to replace everything on its former footing. By doing this, they may still repair the fault of their countrymen, ancr save the kingdom of Poland from the disastrous conse- quences of a criminal infatuation. In pointioe out this as the only means of safety, we make known to all our faithful subjects this effect of our clemency : they will see it in our, resolution to maintain untouched the rights of. the throne, and to protect the country, as well as the equally firmietolution to excuse those who have been led astray.- "Russians !—The example Of your Emperor Will serve you as a guide ; justice and not Vengeance' unshaken ffrmness in the combat for the ho- nour and welfare of the state, without hatred towards infatuated adverse- • .ries—love and respect for those Subjects of our kingdom of Poland who have remained faithful to the oath taken to us—a prompt reconciliation - with all those who return to their duty. You will fulfil our hopes as you have already done. Persevere in your peace and tranquillity, in firm re- liance upon God, the eternal benefactor of Russia, and in a monarch who knows the greatness and the sacredness of his vocation, and will know how to maintain unimpaired the dignity of his empire and the glory of his Russian name. " NICHOLAS. "At St. Petersburgh, 12th (24th) December 1830, in the sixth year of our reign."

It is said in the Paris Papers that disturbances have broken out in Persia, and that there is an insurrection in the Caucasus, which, it is conceived, may effect a diversion in favour of Poland, by withdraw ing the attention of the Czar from the west to the south. The Crown Prince is, it seems, in arms against his father, who is supported by ABBAS MIR3A, the second son. This is not very like a patriotic struggle. So remote a danger will hardly turn NICHOLAS from the pressing call of the revolt at Warsaw.