furtign gull Colonial.
Faswea.—The Constitution has been brought forth. As the only re- maining charter of a famous and once great nation, we give it entire. It was preceded in the Moniteur which contained it by a dissertation, in which "Mr. Bonaparte," as M. Emile Girardin persists in calling the Usurper, explains the political conceptions embodied in the formal document.
Proclamation of Louis Napoleon, President of the _Republic' to the French People, promulgating the Constitution of tlw 2d Decernber 1851. "Frenehmen—In my proclamation of the 26 of December, when I loyally explained to Flu what, according to my ideas, were the vital conditions of
government voir) in France, I had not the pretension, so common in
these days, o substituting .a personal theory for the experience of centuries.
On the contrary, I sought in the past the examples that might best be fol- lowed, what men had given them, and what benefits had resulted. I have thought it rational (logigue) to prefer the precepts of genius to the specious doctrines of men of abstract ideas. I have taken as models the poli- tical institutions which already, at the commencement of this century, under analogous circumstances, have strengthened tottering society and raised France to a lofty degree of prosperity and grandeur. I have taken as models those institutions, which, instead of vanishing at the first breath of popular agitation, were only overturned by the might of all Europe coalesced against us. In one word, I said to myself, since France makes progress during the last fifty years, in virtue alone of the adminis- trative, military, judicial, religious, and financial organization of tho Con- sulate and the Empire, why should not we also adopt the political institu- tions of that epoch ? Created by the same thought, they must bear the same character of nationality and practical utility. In effect, as I recalled to mind in my proclamation_, it is essential to aver that our present state of society is nought else than France regenerate by the Revolution of 1789, and organized by the Emperor. Nothing remains of the old regime but great souvenirs and great benefits; all that was organized under it was destroyed by volution, and all that since the Revolution has been organized, and I exists, has been the work of Napoleon. We no longer possess pro- or states, or parliaments, or intendants, or farmers-general, or va- ustoms, or feudal rights, or privileged classes holding exclusive pea- of civil and military employments, or different religious juriadie- To all these things, so incompatible with its spirit, the Revolution d a thorough reform; but it founded nothing definitive. The First I alone reestablished unity, hierarchy, and the true principles of go- ent. They are still in vigour.
" Thus, the administration of France, intrusted to Prefects, Sub-Prefects, and Mayors, who substitute unity in the place of Directing Commissions (the decision of affairs, on the contrary, being confided to Councils, from that of the commune to that of the deportment) ; thus, the magistracy, ren- dered firm by the immoveability of the judges and by the hierarchy of the tri- bunals—justice rendered more easy by the clear definition of attributions from those of the Justice of the Peace up to those of the Court of Cessation—all this is still standing. In the same manner, our admirable financial system, the Bank of France, the establishment of the Budget, the Court of Accounts, the organization of the Police, and our military statutes, date from the above. mentioned epoch. For the last fifty years it is the ade Napoleon that has adjusted the reciprocal interests of citizens it is still the Concordat that re- gulates the relations of the State with the Church. Lastly, the greater por- tion of the measures which concern the progress of industry, of commerce, of literature, of science and of the arts, from the statutes of the Theatre Francois to those of the Institute of France, from the institution of Prud' homMea to the creation of the Legion of Honour, have been fixed by the de- crees of that time.
" It may then be affirmed, that the frame of our social edifice is the work of the Emperor ; which has stood firm, resisting his fall and the shocks of three revolutions.
" Wherefore, since they have the same origin, should not his political in. stitutions have the same chance of duration ?
" My own conviction has been formed for a long time • and therefore it was that I submitted to your judgment the principal base; of a Constitution borrowed from that of the year VIII. Approved of by you, they are to be- come the foundation of our political Constitution. Let us now examine its spirit. " In our country—for the last eight hundred years monarchical—the central power has always existed by increasing. Royalty destroyed the great vassals ; the revolutions themselves caused to disappear the obstacles which opposed the rapid and uniform exercise of authority. In this country of centralization, public opinion has invariably referred everything, good and evil, to the chief of the Government : so that to write at the head of a charter that the chief is irresponsible, is to lie to public feeling. It is to endeavour to establish a fiction which has three times disappeared at the sound of revolution. The present Constitution, on the contrary, proclaims that the chief whom you have elected is responsible to you ; that he has the right of appeal to your sovereign judgment, in order that in grave circum- stances you may always be able to continue your confidence in him, or to withdraw it. Being responsible, his actions must be free and without hinderance. Hence arises the obligation of his having Ministers who may be the honoured and powerful auxiliaries of his thought, but who no longer form a responsible council, composed of jointly responsible members--a daily obstacle to the special influence of the chief of the state—a council the expres- sion of a policy emanating from the Chambers, and for that very reason exposed to frequent changes, which render impossible a continuous policy or the ap- plication of a regular system. "Nevertheless, in proportion to the loftiness of position in which a man is placed, and in proportion to his independence and to the confidence that the plc place in him, is his need of enlightened and conscientious counsel. enee the creation of a Council of State for the future the real Council of the Government, the first wheelwork of our new organization—a reunion ; a practical man elaborating projects of law in special committees then dis- cussing them with closed doors, and without oratorical ester:talons, in general assembly, next presenting them to the acceptation of the Legislative Body. Thus the Government is free in its movements and enlightened in its progress.
"Now, what will be the control exercised over the Assemblies? A Chamber which bears the title of the Legislative Body, votes the laws and the taxes. It is elected by universal suffrage, (sans scrntin de kite). The people, choosing each candidate singly., can the more easily ap- preciate his merit. The Chamber is composed of about two hundred and sixty members • a first guarantee of the calmness of its deliberations, for too often it has been seen that in assemblies the mobility and ardour of passions increase in proportion to the number of members. The account of the de- liberations, which is to inform the nation of its affairs' is no longer, as for- merly, abandoned to the party-spirit of each journal. An official publica- tion, drawn up under the surveillance of the President of the Chamber, will alone be authorized. The Legislative Body freely discusses the laws—adopts or rejects them • but does not introduce those unforeseen amendments which often derange the whole economy of a system, and the ensemble of the primi- tive project; and, for still stronger reasons, it does not possess that Parliament- ary initiative which was the source of such grave abase, and which permitted every Deputy to substitute himself at every turn, in place of the Government, and to present projects, however unstudied or shallow. The Chamber, being no longer in presence of the Ministers, and projects of laws being advocated by the orators of the Council of State, the time will not be lost in vain inter- pellations, in frivolous accusations, and in passionate struggles, whose sole object was to upset ministries in order to replace them. Thus, then, the de- liberations of the Legislative Body will be independent ; but the causes of sterile agitations will have been suppressed and salutary delays introduced into any modification of the law. Tlae delegates (manda(aires) of the nation will maturely accomplish things of importance. "Another assembly bears the name of Senate. It will be composed of those elements which in every country create a legitimate influence; such as an illustrious name, wealth, talent, and services rendered to the country. The Senate is not, what the Chamber of Peers was, a pale reflection of the Chamber of Deputies, repeating at a few days interval the same discussions in another tone. It is the depository of the fundamental compact, laud of the public liberties, compatible with the Constitution ; and it is solely with regard to the great principles on which our society is based that it examines all laws, and that it proposes new ones to the Executive power. It inter- venes either to resolve any grave difficulty which may arise during the absence of the Legislative Body, or to explain the text of the Constitution, and to secure whatever may be necessary to its operation. It has the right to annul any illegal or arbitrary act ; and thus enjoying the consideration which attaches to a body exclusively occupied with the examination of great interests or the application of great principles, it fills in the state the inde- pendent, salutary, and conservative office of the ancient Parliaments. The Senate will not be, like the Chamber of Peers, transformed into a court of justice. It will preserve its character of supreme moderator ; for disrepute always falls on political bodies when the sanctuary of legislation becomes a criminal tribunal. The impartiality of the judge is too often questioned, and it loses all prestige with public opinion, which sometimes goes so far as to accuse it of being the instrument of passion or of hatred.
"A High Court of Justice, chosen from amongst the high magistracy, and having, as jury, members of the Councils-General of all France, will alone repress all attempts against the Chief of the State and the public safety. "The Emperor said to the Council of State—' A constitution is the work of time : it is impossible to leave in it too large a margin for ameliorations.' Accordingly, the present Constitution has only settled that which it was im- possible to leave uncertain. It has shut up, within insurmountable bar- riers, the destinies of a great people. It has left for change a margin
sufficiently large to allow in great crises other means of safety than the disastrous expedient of revolution. The Senate can, in concert with the Government, modify all that is not fundamental in the Constitution ; but es to any modifications of the fundamental bases sanctioned by your suf- frages, they can only become definitive after having received your ratifica- tion. Thus, the people remains master of its destiny. Nothing fundamental is effected without its will. "Such are the ideas, such the principles, that you have authorized me to apply. May this Constitution give to our country calm and prosperous days ; may it prevent the return of those intestine struggles, in which victory, however legitimate, is always dearly bought; may the sanction which you have given to my efforts be blessed by Heaven. Then peace will be as- sured at home and abroad, my ardent hopes will be fulfilled, my mission will be accomplished.
"Louis NaroxioN Bomarairre. "Palace of the Tuileries, January 14, 1852."
A preamble recites the plebiscite of December 2, and that "the people has responded affirmatively by 7,500,000 votes." Then follows the Con- stitution.
" CHAPTER I.
"Art. 1. The Constitution readmits, confirms, and guarantees the great piinciples preclaimed in 1789, and which are the bases of the public right of the French:.
"CHAPTER H.—FORNS OF THE GOVERNMENT OF THE REPUBLIC.
"Art. 2. The Government of the French Republic is confided for ten years to Prince Louis Napoleon Bonaparte, the present President of the Republic. "Art. 3. The President of the Republic governs by means of Ministers, the Council of State, the Senate, and the Legislative Body. "Art. 4. The Legislative power is exercised collectively by the President of the Republic, the Senate, and the Legislative Body.
"CHAPTER THE PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC.
. "44 5. The President of the Republic is responsible to the French people; to whom he has always the right to make an appeal.
"Art. 6, 7, 8, 9, 10. The President of the Republic is the chief of the
state: he commands the land and sea forces declares war, makes treaties of peace, alliance, and commerce, appoints to ;11 employs, and makes the regu- lations and decrees necessary for the execution of the laws. Justice is ren- dered in his name. He alone has the initiative of laws, and the right of granting pardon. He sanctions and promulgates the laws, and the senatus consults.
"Art. 11. He presents every year to the Senate, and to the Legislate Body, by a message, the state of the affairs of the Republic.
"Art. 12. He has the right to declare the state of siege in one or several departments, on condition of referring it to the Senate within the shortest possible delay. The consequences of the state of siege are regulated by the law.
"Art. 13, 14. The Ministers depend only on the Chief of the State : they are only responsible for the acts of the Government as far as they are indi- vidually concerned in them ; there is no joint responsibility among them ; and they can only be impeached by the Senate. The Ministers, the members of the Senate, of the Legislative Body, and of the Council of State, the officers of the land and sea forces, the magistrates, and public functionaries, take the following oath= I swear obedience to the Constitution and fidelity to the President.'
"A4 15. A senatufraonsultum fixes the sum allowed annually to the President of the Republic during the whole continuance of his functions. "Art. 16, 17, 18. If the President of the Republic dies before the expira- tion of his term of office, the Senate is to convoke the nation in order to pro- ceed to a fresh election. The Chief of the State has the right, by a secret act deposited in the archives of the Senate, to point out to the people the name of the citizen whom he recommends in the interest of France to the confi- dence of the people, and to their suffrages. Until the election of the new President of the Republic, the President of the Senate governs with the co- operation of the Ministers in functions, who form themselves into a Council of Government, and deliberate by a majority of votes.
"CHAPTER IV.—OF THE SENATE.
"Art. 19. The number of Senators shall not exceed 150; it is fixed for the first year at 80. "Art. 20. The Senate is composed-1. Of Cardinals, Marshals, and Admi- rals; 2. Of citizens whom the President of the Republic may think proper to raise to the dignity of Senators.
• "Art. 21, 22. The Senators are appointed for life. Their functions ars gratuitous ; the President of the Republic may. grant to Senators, on ac- count of services rendered, or of their position with regard to fortune, a personal dotation which cannot exceed 30,000 francs per annum.
"Art. 23. The President and the Vice-President of the Senate are named by the President of the Republic, and chosen from among the Senators. They are appointed for one year. The salary of the President is fixed by a
decree. • "Art. 24. The President of the Republic convokes and prorogues the Se- nate. He fixes the duration of its sessions by, a decree. . The sittings of the Senate are not public.
"Art. 25. The Senate is the .guardian of the fundamental compact and of public liberties. No law can be promulgated without being submitted to it. "Art. 26. The Senate may oppose the promulgation, i. Of laws which may be contrary to or be an attack on the Constitu- tion, on religion, on morals, on freedom of worship, on individual liberty, on the equality of citizens in the eye of the law, on the im- mobihty of property, and on the principle of the immoveability of the magistracy: ii. Of those which may compromise the defence of the territory. "Art. 27. The Senate regulates, by a senatus consultum, 1- The constitution of the Colonies and Algeria :
All that has not been provided by the Constitution, and which is
necessary for its march : .
iii. The sense of the articles of the Constitution which give rise to different interpretations.
Art. 28. The senatus consult& will be submitted to the sanction of the President of the Republic., and promulgated by him. "Art. 29. The Senate maintains and annuls all the acts which are re- ferred to it as unconstitutional by the Government, or denounced for the same cause by the petitions of citizens. "Art. 30. The Senate may, in a report addressed to the President of the Republic, lay down the bases of great national interests. • Art. 31. It may also propose modifications in the Constitution. If the proposition is adopted by the Executive power, it must be stated by a • senatus consultum.
"Art. 32. Nevertheless, all modifications in the fundamental bases of the Constitution, such as they were laid down in the proclamation of the 2d of December, and adopted by the French people, shall be submitted to uni- versal suffrage.
"Art. 33. In ease of the dissolution of the Legislative Body, and until a new convocation the Senate, on the proposition of the President of the Re- public, shall .provide by measures of urgency, for all that is necessary for the progress of the Government.
"CHAPTER V.—OF THE LEGISLATIVE BODY.
"Art. 34, 35, 36, 37, 38. The election has the population for basis—one deputy for every 35,000 electors—elected by universal suffrage, without the scrutin de lists—without salary—named for six years. "Art. 39. The Legislative Body discusses and votes the projects of law and the imposts. "Art. 40. Every amendment adopted by the Commission charged with the examination of a project of law shall be sent, without discussion, to the Council of State by the President of the Legislative Body. If the amend- ment be not adopted by the Council of State, it cannot be submitted to the deliberation of the Legislative Body. "Art. 41, 42. The ordinary sitting of the Legislative Body lasts three months : its sittings arepublic ; but the demand of five members is sufficient for its resolving itself into a secret committee. The seebtmt of the pro- ceedings of the sitting of the Legislative Body given by the journals, or any other channel of publication shall consist only of the reproduction of the minutes drawn out at the close of each sitting by the care of the President of the Legislative Body. "Art. 43. The President and Vice-President of the Legislative Body are named by the President of the Republic for one year; they are chosen from amongst the delegates. The salary of the President of the Legislative Body is fixed by a decree. • "Art. 44. The Ministers cannot be members of the Legislative Body. "Art. 45. The right of petition is exercised as regards the Senate. No petition can be addressed to the Legislative Body. "Art. 46. The President of the Republic convokes, adjourns, prorogue; and dissolves the Legislative Body. In case of dissolution, the President of the Republic is bound to convoke a new one within the term of six months.
"CHAPTER VL—OF THE COUNCIL OP STATE.
"Art. 47, 48. The number of the Councillors of State in ordinary service is from 40 to 50—named by the President of the Republic, and liable to re- moval by him. - "Art. 49, 50, 51. The Council of State is presided over by the President of the Republic, and in his absence by the person whom ho indicates as Vice- President Of the Council of State. It is charged, under the direction of the President of the Republic, to draw up projects of law, and regulations of pub- lic aihninististion, and to resolve the difficulties that may arise in matters of administration. It maintain; in the name of the Government, the discussion of the projects of law before the Senate and the Legislative Body. The Councillors of State charged to speak in the name of the Government arc ap- pointed by the President of the Republic. "Art. 52. The salary of each Councillor of State is 25,000 franca. "Art. 53. The Ministers have rank, right of sitting, and a deliberate voice in the Council of State.
CHAPTER VU—OF THE HIGH COURT OF JUSTICE.
Art. 54, 55. A High Court of Justice judges without appeal, or recourse in caasation, all persons who shall be sent before it as accused of crimes, at- tempts or plot against the President of the Republic, and against the internal and external safety of the State. It cannot be convened but in virtue of a decree of the President of the Republic. A senatus consultum shall deter- mine the organization of that High Court.
CHAPTER VIM—GENERAL AND TRANSITORY PROVISIONS.
"Art. 66, 57, 68. The provisions of the codes, rules, and regulations now existing, which are not opposed to the present Constitution, remain in vigour until they be legally abrogated. A law shall determine the municipal or- ganization. The Mayor shall be named by the Executive power, and shall be taken from without the Municipal Council. The present Constitution shall be in vigour to date from the day when the great powers of the state organized by it shall be constituted. The decrees issued by the President of the Republic, to commence with the 21 December to the present period, shall have all the force of law.
"Done at the Palace of the Tuileries, the 14th January 1852.
"LOUIS NAPOLEON BONAPARTE. "Seen, and signed with the Great Seal,
"The Keeper of the Seals, "E. Rounea."
The Paris correspondent of the Standard wrote on Thursday evening- " The Government must certainly have expected that the Constitution would be well received, for it is amply placarded over the city, while several newspaper)] have struck off supplements, which are allowed public sale. To judge from appearances, the act is not liked for its own sake • but it will be accepted nevertheless, partly for sake of novelty, partly for :aka of its author, who is popular, and partly, nay principally, out of fear of the Red Republic. At the Bourse, a successful attempt was made to work up the funds in the first instance ; but the reports which came in of the remarks generally heard operated unfavourably, and at one moment the decline was equal to 2} per cent. The appearance of Cardinals among the new Senators is not liked. I should mislead you if I said that here in Paris the Constitu- tion has been received with satisfaction."
The Manikin. of Saturday contained decrees of proscription against three classes of persons, "whose presence in France mik,ht impede the re- establishment of tranquillity."
The first decree banished to French Guiana, for taking part in the re- cent "insurrection," the ex-Representatives Mare Dufraisse, Greppo, Miot, Mahe, and Richardet. The second decree, "as a measure of general safety," banished "from the territory of the Republic, from Algeria, and from the French Colonies," the following ex-Representatives, "whose residence in France would be calculated to foment civil war."
E. Valentin, Boysset, , Belin (DrOme), P. Racouchet, Duche, A. Perdiguier, Ennery, E. Cholat, L Latrade, M: Renaud, J. Benoit (du Rhone), J. Burgard, S, Colfavru, I. Faure (du Rhone), P. Co. Gamboa, C. Lagrange, M. Nadand, B. Terrier, V. Hugo, Cassal, Signore', Viguier, Charrassin, BatIdseet, Savoye, Jely, Bancel, Combier, The breach of this decree to be punished by transportation. Guilgot, liochstuhl, Michot, Boutet, Baune, Bertholon, Schcelcher, De Flotte, Joigneaux, Laboulaye, Drily; Esquires, Madier-Montjau, N. Parfait, E. Peen, Pelletier, Rasped', T. Bac, Besse, Bourzat, Brive; Chavoix, Dula°,
Dupont (de Bussac),
G. Dussoubs, Guiter, Lafon, Lamarque, R. Lefranc, J. Leroux, F. Maigne, italardier, , Mathieu (Damn), Milotte, Roselli-Mollet, Charms, Saint Terreol, Sommier,
Testelin (Nord). •f
The third decree, "as a measure of general safety, banished tempora- rily from the French territory, and from Algeria," the following ex- Representatives, "who have made themselves remarkable for their vio- lent hostility to the Government." Generals Messieurs De Lamoriciere, Duvergier de Hauranne, Chang,arnier, Creston, Leflo, Base, Bedeau, Thieve, Laidet, Chambolle, De Lasteyrie, E. de Girardin, P. Duprat, E. Quinet, A. Thouret, V. Chauffeur, De Remusat, Yersigny. No penalty was attached to the breach of this decree.
The Maniteur of Monday decreed the dissolution of the whole National Guard of France, and its reorganization upon such bases and in such districts of France as the Government should deem necessary. In the reorganization of the dissolved body, the President of the Republic is to nominate the Commander-in-chief, the Colonels and Lieutenant-Colonels, and to nominate the officers of every other rank on the presentation of the Minister or the Prefect of the department. At the same time that the National Guard is dissolved as a popular institution and remodelled as a Government engine, it will continue to be maintained at the cost of the respective municipalities.
The President has appointed General Lcewestine to be Commander-in- chief, and M. Vieyra to be Colonel of the National Guard of the depart- ment of the Seine.
The correspondent of the Morning Chronicle has stated that another pro- scribed list, of upwards of sixty more eminent persons, was also written out by the President with his own hand, and submitted to M. de Morny for sig- riature ; but that M. de Moray found so many of his own personal friends on it, that he remonstrated, and at last declared that he would rather resign than sign. Several names were struck out, and yet he objected ; and on several other names being struck out, he consulted his colleagues, and then objected on their behalf; only seventeen names were at last unerased, but objections being still made the matter was postponed by M. Bonaparte. It is stated that the second of the two decrees ac- tually published was drawn up with such blind malignity that it has been relaxed in specific cases; the interest of friends obtaining the under- standing that the particular victim shall not be banished so long as he is obedient to the Usurpation in act and speech. The execution of the third decree seems to have been carried out immediately. M. niers and Generals Chargarnier and Leib) were reported to have arrived on our -own shores ; and others are in Belgium, Prussia, &c.
Lamoriciere was taken to Brussels. Immediately on arriving at a hotel, he entered his name in the guest. book as Lamoriciere, " proscrit Francais." Changtunier behaved with his usual sarcastic sang-froid. It seems that the Police agents who conducted him and M. Base across the frontier were arrested by the local agents, as conspirators favouring the escape of the political prisoners. The Parisian officials showed their authority, and protested against binderance ; but the locals were inex- orably incredulous : Changarnier himself was appealed to, but he de- clared that for his part he Should remain neutral—it did not become him to take part in a dispute about the possession of his own person. It is stated that he bad the offer of proceeding to England; but he declared that he was both too poor for the style of living there, and too proud to go and endure there the shame of what bad occurred in France. M. Base, the advocate feels the tyrannical cruelty of his proscription with all the weight of Vital ruin : he has no private fortune, and no means of earning a day's subsistence in a foreign land.
Four hundred and fourteen prisoners taken from the fort of Joni left Paris on Saturday morning for Havre ; to bo shipped off thence to Cayenne.
There have been rumours of intended severities on the one hand, and intended benefits on the other hand, to the Orleans family; that their property is to be confiscated—that the decree of banishment against them is to be repealed. In the last shape of these reports they are blended to- gether : it is announced that an edict is already drawn up by which all the Bourbons are to make election between immediate return to France, submissively, and the sequestration of their possessions.
The Daily Hews gives evidence that "there is not a commune in France that could not tell what an aggregate lie must have been the vote."
"We have had letters from the Var, that important department of which the population turned out against Louis Napoleon, and in which the soldiers have laid waste by fire and sword beyond any cruelties known in the Revo- lution, or even in the dragonnades of Louis the Fourteenth. The commune or parish of Luc, in the Var, comprised 1100 eleetore, that is, males above twenty. Of these 1100, certainly 1000 turned out against Louis Napoleon. The result has been, that upwards of 500 have been dragged off from prison to prison, some shot, some to be transported. Upwards of 200 are fugitives, hiding in the surrounding woods and parishes. Knowing this, judge of the surprise of every one, on learning, from the official returns, that of the 1100 electors of Luc, 650 voted for the full powers demanded by Louis Napoleon! Ex uno disce omnes."
Pnussu.—The Liberal members of the Second Chamber of the Prus- sian Legislature have determined to ascertain experimentally whether it possesses any real authority. To this end, notice was given lately of a motion to declare illegal the conduct of Ministers in withdrawing the licences of booksellers and printers without trial, and prohibiting the con- veyance of certain newspapers by post. When the day arrived for the discussion of this motion some of the more timid Liberals and moderate Ministerialists attempted to avert a collision between the Chambers and the Government by moving amendments, to the effect that the conduct of Ministers had indeed been irregular, but that the Chamber, confident that they would of themselves rectify the irregularity, proceeded to the order of the day. M. Manteuffel, however, scorning all compromise, attended the sitting, and moved the simple order of the day, admitting that the le- gality of the conduct of Government was doubtful, but denying that the Charter gave the Chamber any authority to entertain or pronounce a de- - eision on the question. This haughty tone was too much for the en- durance even of a chamber at the election of which a majority of the voters abstained from exercising the suffrage, and which is composed in great part of Government employes. The proposal to pais to the order of the day "pure and simple" was negatived: five Cabibet Ministers were present, and voted for it. Here matters rested when the latest de- spatches were sent off from Berlin.
SPAM. —Some time before the Queen's aecouchement, it was officially announced that bountiful largesse would be distributed to the private soldiers of the army, along with the promotions for officers. But when the Gazette of the 7th instant appeared there was no mention of largesse, and it proved that the Treasury was not in condition to dis- burse any. The consequences were serious, and perhaps were not far from being momentous. Several of the regiments broke into such ex- cesses that the officers were obliged to invest them by other regiments ; shots were actually exchanged before the rioters were captured. On the 8th, the men seized were tried by court-martial, and on the 9th three of the men condemned were shot. It is said that the discontent of the troops had been fomented by emissaries.
ITALY. —An Englishman has been grievously maltreated in Florence by the Austrian military. Mr. Erskine Mather, a young Irishman' was listening to the band of an Austrian regiment that was relieving guard at the Pitti Palace, and as the troops marched off he accompanied them to continue in hearing of the music. To avoid a cart in a narrow street, he walked between the band and the head of the column. As he was walk- ing he received a blow from the flat of a sabre, and turning round indig- nantly, he found that the officer of the column had taken that polite means to admonish him that he must not keep his place. Remonstrating, in as good Italian as he could utter, he was insulted by threatening ges- tures; and becoming energetic in manner, another officer stepped forward and at uck him down with an edge blow on the head. His hat was cut through, and a deep wound was given him through the scalp to the bone of the skull. Mr. Mather called on his brother to dog the officers to their station, if he himself should be left to die on the pavement : the brother obeyed, and the inhabitants conveyed the wounded young man to the hospital of Santa Maria Nuova. Numbers of bystanders prove the atro- city of the conduct of the officers. Our Secretary of Legation, Mr. Scar- lett, has applied for redress both to the Tuscan Government and to the Prince Lichtenstein, the Austrian commandant of the Grand Duchy.
EGYPT.—A deputation from the meeting held in London on the 14th October to consider the crisis in Egypt, and secure to the Pacha his full powers, had an interview with the Pacha on the 27th December, and presented the address adopted by the meeting. The Pacha requested the deputation to be assured that his measures and policy were framed by him in-the hopes of cementing the interests of his own people with those of the British empire and its colonies.
Num—It is now stated that "the Nizam has not after all paid the re- mainder of his debt to our Government" Part of what he handed over to us was jewels, which he estimated at 250,0001.; but on the jewels being put up for sale, the highest bid made for them did not exceed half that sum ; so the jewels were returned.
Some undescribed cause of military movements has occurred in Upper Seinde. It is said that our former ally, Meer All Moored, has been de- tected forging documents of title to some of the land he claims to hold. Troops are in movement, possibly to depose him altogether.
The naval expedition against the King of Ava reached Rangoon on the 27th November ; and thirty-five days were given to settle our demands, —which are still unspecified.
TELE AUSTRALIAN CALLPORNIA.—New gold-discoveries have been an- nounced in the letters from Australia today by the overland mail. Port Phillip, it now appears, is likely to eclipse her sister colony of New South Wales. Dates from Melbourne to the 6th of October state that deposits had been met with at Buninyong, about eighty miles from that city and fifty from Geelong, apparently far exceeding in value any that have_yet been found within a similar space either at Sydney or in California. The whole population were moving towards the district, and it had already been ascertained that the creeks and rivers for many surrounding miles were likewise rich. The great production, however, had been at one par- ticular spot of limited extent, where the supply was such that the space of eight square feet to each man was considered by the Go- vernment Commissioner a sufficient allotment. The number of per- sons already at the place was upwards of two thousand ; and care- ful calculations seemed to show that the average to each man was at least an ounce a day. Many eases of individual success were most remarkable. One man had obtained 15001. in a week; and another, a biarkamith, had got 10001. A party of three men found 20 pounds weight in one day, while another before breakfast raised 13 pounds weight. The consequence was, a far greater desertion from all ordinary occupations than had been witnessed at Sydney. Hundreds of all classes were leaving daily, including labourers, mechanics, clerks, shopkeepers, merchants, and professional men. There was hardly any possibility of getting ships' crews ; and the Troubadour, which brought the present in- telligence to Bombay, was only enabled to sail by obtaining her comple- ment of men from among the seamen confined on short sentences in the Melbourne gaol. Even that, however, appears to have been attended with difficulty, since it is said only six would accept the offer, all the others preferring to remain their time for the sake of getting ultimately to the mines. Four or five large ships were ready for sea and detained for want.of hands. The salaries of the Government officers had been in- creased 50 per cent, and labour of all kinds had advanced in proportion. A Government escort had just arrived with 17,0001., and was to return for a further sum of 20,0001.-2Vmes, Jan. 16; City Article.
Uurran STATES. —The report that the Capitol at Washington was in flames, at the moment that the latest news of last week left New York, was correct. The whole of the library portion of the building was de- stroyed, and 35,000 out of the 53,000 volumes which constituted the library were sacrificed. The original Declaration of Independence was among the precious relics preserved. Original portraits of the first five Presidents were among the things destroyed. The loss to the State Go- vernment would be at least 250,000 dollars.
Kossuth had arrived in Washington, and been received by the Presi- dent, at a strictly private interview, from which he issued with an air of "gravity and disappointment." It was understood that on his introduc- tion to the Senate, the Committee would merely say—" We present Louis Kossuth to the Senate of the United States." The Senators would then rise, and the President would invite the distinguished stranger to to seated.