FUNERAL OF KING GEORGE THE FOURTH.
THE LYING IN STATE.
Tire- preparations for the exhibition of the remains of George the Fourth to the vulgar gaze of those whose scrutiny when living he was so averse from- enixiuntering, were barely completed an hour before the period appointed- for the opening of the doors of Windsor Castle to ad. mit:the crowds that beset them. So late as nine o'clock on Wednesday morning, the hammers of the upholsterers-had not entirely ceased, and the carpenters engaged in forming the scaffolding, on which the funeral; procession.was to,move forward, were still busy, when the ceremony of the lying in state was in progress'. The numbers who visited Windsor kern the numerous towns and villages around, as well as from the Metro- polls, were considerable, but not greater than the splendour of the pa- geant might have been supposed capable of attracting. Twenty thou- sand is calculated to have been the utmost amount ; which forms a very small proportion of the population within five-and-twenty miles of Windsor. When we hear, therefore, of every vehicle, costly or common, being in requisition on the occasion, we must receive the account with some grains of allowance. Still the bustle of twenty thousand people crowding to one spot was not small ; and many, who had gone far to see the sight which the Castle presented on Wednesday and Thursday, were fain to trudge home ungratified. The visitors to the lying in state were divided into two classes. The aristocracy, with the proper regard for rank which obtains in our free and commercial country, were indulged with ready and easy access ; and in the chamber where the coffin lay, they were judiciously screened, by a railing, from the vulgar contact of the unticketed many. The latter had to wind their way amidst numerous obstructions, and to attain their object by repeated attempts and a more circuitous route. As, however, the purpose of both classes was pleasure, it is asserted, with much of plau- sibility, that the select, with all the advantages of their briefer and less tortuous passage, saw less and enjoyed less than their more humble and apparently less favoured brethren, whose transitions from gay to grave and from light to shade were made less abruptly, and whose patient waiting on only added to the zest of their ultimate admission. The exterior arrangements for the gradual and decorous approach of the public are described as exceedingly good. The entrance for the no- bility and carriage visitors was by the way of the temporary gate oppo- site the Long Walk, and up the ascent to George the Fourth's Gate, into the great Quadrangle. The public were admitted by Henry the Eighth's Gate, through the lower ward, to the North Terrace ; and thence, by a temporary stair, to the state apartments. Across the path- way several barriers of strong quartering were erected ; and at each barrier were stationed parties of the Thames Police, under the control of Sir Richard Birnie, assisted by Townsend, Sayer, and other principal officers of Bow Street. These precautions, however, were almost unne- cessary ; for, though the throng was considerable, it was by no means overwhelming. In order to admit the public, it was necessary that the platform, which occupied a considerable portion of the Lower Court, and by which the coffin and its attendants were to pass to St. George's Cha- pel, should be crossed : for this purpose a part of it was railed off, so as to keep the visitors distinct from the workmen, who were still in active employ about various portions of the necessary preparations.
The first barrier was opposite to the Poor Knights' houses, about half- way up the Lower Court ; the second was a few yards short of the plat. form, and almost immediately under the mound which forms the founda- tion of the Round Tower ; the third was the iron gate, which on com- mon occasions forms one of the passages from the Lower Court to the Castle Terrace. The escape from between the barriers to the freedom
of the Terrace, seems to have inspired one of our contemporaries, from whom the particulars of our description are partly taken, with a fit of similitudinizing, of a very intense character. " While in the Court-yard," be says, " the feeling (as the fact) was that of being pent up between two walls with a cloud of dust to be inhaled proceeding from the con. stant motion of persons pushing forward for their earliest opportunity ; but when the terrace was attained, the whole of that splendid view which its commanding situation affords was at once thrown open : Oxford, Berkshire, Hertford, Bucks, Middlesex, and Surry presented their well- cultivated landscapes in turn, and the even-running Thames—the same which Pope so sweetly wooed, and Denham so smoothly sung—was to be traced through its sinuous course. Nature's philosopher, as it were, splitting meadows as logicians split hairs, and ever and anon, where fancy suited, running in a circle, as metaphysicians argue." After ascending a temporary stair from the North Terrace, the visitors passed through a long, circuitous, and dimly-lighted room, the -walls and ceiling of which were covered with black cloth, into the King's Guard-chamber. In this chamber, which was narrowed into a passage by black draperies, stood a number of the Horse Guards ; the dim light of the sconces, scattered here and there along the walls, faintly gleaming on their helmets and cuirasses. The Presence Chamber, which was the next in the ,suite' was hung with black in the same way, and lined by the Yeomen of the Guard, their partisans clothed with black crape. Having passed through this apartment, the company came at once to the King's Drawing-room—the room in which the mortal re- mains of George the Fourth were reposing. The Royal coffin, partially exposed to view by the turning back of the pall with which it was co- vered, stood upon a raised platform beneath a canopy of purple cloth. At the bead sat Lord Strathaven, as Lord of the Bedchamber in Wait- ing, supported by General Sir William Houston, and the Honourable Mr. Townsend, as Groom of the Bedchamber. On the coffin were de- posited the Imperial Crown of the United Kingdom, and the Royal Crown of Hanover ; at the foot stood two Pursuivants bare-headed, in their emblazoned tabards ; and on each side were arranged the Gentle.. men Ushers, and members of the band of Gentlemen Pensioners support- ing the Union banner, and the banners of St. George, of Scotland, of Ireland, of Hanover, and of Brunswick ; and, pendant, beneath the canopy, above the coffin, was displayed the royal standard of England. The apartment was draped in black ;—the ceiling with gussets diverging from the centre in the manner of a marquee, and the walls were festooned in columns extending from the floor to the ceiling. On each side of the coffin were three stupendous wax-lights in massive candlesticks of silver, (one authority says gold); and on the walls were numerous silver sconces, intermingled with heraldic emblazonments. On the left hand of the avenue was a raised platform, part of which was occupied by the Pages and officers on guard ; and the centre of which was so arranged as to form a promenade for those who were admitted by the Lord Cham- berlain's tickets, and whose ingress and egress were ina different part of the building. Through the chamber of deceased sovereignty, the public passed on in one continuous stream, from ten in the morning until four in the-afternoon ; at which hour the ceremony closed for the day.
The heat, throughout the whole of Wednesday, was very great; and in passing through the different apartments it was almost insupport- able.
On Thursday, as might have been expected, the number of candidates for admission was considerably greater, and the pressure was prow. tionably increased. No accident, however, happened, nor did it appear that much inconvenience was suffered. The weather was fortunately cool. The pageant, of coarse, differed in no respect from that of the former day, unless in the attendants ; Lords Glenlyon and Fife having been substituted for Lord Strathaven and Lord Howe.
At a late hour on Wednesday night, a party of Artillery, with twelve nine-pounders, had arrived from Woolwich, and bivouacked under the trees of the Long Walk. At four o'clock on Thursday morning they commenced firing, and continued to fire every five minutes during the day. At the same hour the hells in St. George's Chapel and in Windsor Church began to toll, and thus gave notice to Windsor and its visitors, that the preparations for the last ceremony were all but completed.
From nine o'clock in the morning till the hour of closing the apart- merits, the road leading from the High Street of Windsor to the Castle was filled with a dark moving mass of persons, either going to or return- ing from it. About one o'clock, the crowd had become so dense, that it was deemed advisable to place a company of the Cohistream 0 uards loosely across the road, in order to prevent the occurrence of accidents from the severity of the pressure. At three o'clock the Castle gates were closed; to the great disappointment of many persons who had come from the country to gratify their curiosity, but who failed in their object, owing to the late hour of their arrival. During the whole of the day, fresh arri. vals were taking place every minute, the town was in a complete bustle, and the High Street was filled with carriages of every description. Ac- commodation was difficult to obtain; and in several instances parties who had not been able to procure sitting-room in the inns, were seen regaling themselves as well as they could in the vehicles which had brought them to Windsor. The horses were as badly off as their masters, for the stables were all occupied, and thus they were obliged to stand in the street and devour in their harness the scanty provender which their drivers could find for them.
About two o'clock, Sir Hussey Vivian, to whom the command of the troops in the town was intrusted, left the Castle, and went .along with Colonel Macdonald to Frogmore to meet his Majesty. At half-past two, his Majesty and his Royal Consort, who had been escorted from Bushy Park by a troop of Lancers, arrived at Frogmore.
At six o'clock, a body of cavalry began to line the streets leading to the Castle, keeping a space clear for the convenience of those who had tickets of admission to the funeral. Shortly afterwards, the different regiments of Foot Guards took their position upon the platform in the Lower Court. At the same time, the individuals who had tickets for the North Aisle and the Lower Court began to arrive in great numbers. The Eton boys marched in a sort of procession from their College to the Castle, accompanied by their tutors and masters, and seemed almost nu- merous enough to take the place by storm ; and they ultimately con- trived to obtain, by dint of importunity and some small violence, one of the best places in the Chapel.
About seven o'clock, a battalion of the Foot Guards was marched into the Lower Court, and placed in close file along the sides within the platform. The strangers were allowed to stand close to the platform on. the outside. There were no horsemen, as was the case at the funeral of
• George the Third, except a few of the Horse Guards, who were placed at distant intervals outside the line occupied by the spectators; and they did not in any way incommode those who came to witness the procession. About half-past seven o'clock, the Duke of Wellington, and in a short time afterwards the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Bishops of London, Chester, Lincoln, and Winchester, Sir Robert Peel, and the Earl of Radnor, passed up the platform on their way to the state apartments. Sir Robert Peel wore the Windsor uniform. His Majesty King Wil. Liam had previously arrived, escorted by a detachment of the Life Guards and Blues ; the Queen did not, as it had been announced she would, accompany him. His Majesty was dressed in black.
At half-past eight, the trumpets and kettle-drums announced that the preparations for the movement of the procession had commenced. A band
of trumpets and drums was stationed at that part of the platform which
enters the Lower Court. They played the " Dead March in Saul," and continued playing until the procession had advanced to the place where they were stationed. It was now getting dusky, and lighted flambeaux were given to every fifth soldier along the line. From the moment the trumpets and drums began, every voice was hushed, and nothing was heard but the music, and occasionally the tread of some officer passing along the platform. It was originally intended that the procession should move exactly at nine o'clock ; but the preparations being ready some time
before, the period was hastened by nearly half an hour. When the pro- cession began, two rockets were let off as a signal to the Artillery in the Long Walk, which then commenced firing minute-guns, and continued until another rocket announced that the ceremony was concluded. The appearance of the procession, as it entered that part of the platform which . was situated in the Lower Court, was imposing. The slow and solemn - music, the silence of the spectators, and sombre appearance of the troops leaning on their reversed muskets, and the stillness and serenity of the evening, all contributed to give effect to the spectacle.
About half-past nine, the head of the procession made its appearance in the interior of St. deorge's Chapel. From the greater number of lights, the glitter and occasional disarrangements were there more ob. vious ; and the narrow space, while it was injurious to the pageant as a whole, aggravated the defects of its parts. There was little solemnity observable among the spectators ; and in so miscellaneous a group,
whom motives of curiosity alone had brought together, it was not to be expected that there should be any marked display of grief. The actors
in the procession were huddled together; and portliness of person was for its possessor a distinction that neither rank nor dignity could attain to. His Majesty walked on unseen, and the Duke of Wellington was
quite passed over in the crowd of taller and more consequential persons that surrounded him. The Times complains strongly of the want of management in this part of the ceremony. " It seemed as if the ser- vants of the Household, the' friends of the carpenters and upholsterers,
the petty tradesmen of the town, had been admitted, to the exclusion of all those who, from public character and official situation, ought to have
been allowed a free access to the funeral, of the Sovereign. We never saw so motley, so rude, so ill-managed a body of persons. They who first entered, not only seized the best places, but prevented others from taking any. As far, therefore, as regards the North Aisle, there was
nothing to attract the attention of the discerning spectator, but the noble appearance of the Life Guardsmen, who lined the two sides of the avenue, from the door of the aisle to the entrance of the choir. Without them, and the beautiful music, the procession would have been not merely a tedious but a paltry pageant.'' Perhaps all that we are fairly
justified in inferring from this querulous description, is that the party who sketched it was inconveniently placed. In the country, where realities have still a place in men's thoughts, the advantage of the press is not so very obvious as in London ; and people who go to see sights are more anxious to gratify them-elves and their friendS than to accommo- date the important persons whose business it i .,s to tell what was seen.
The gradually increasing. swell of the trumpets, and the hollow sound of the muffled drums, had ffir some time reached the ears of the visitors in the Choir ; and about ten o'clock the funeral train entered.
The Choir, under the direction of Sir George Smart, aided by Messrs. Knyvett, Vaughan, Sale, Salmon, Hawes, Welsh, Goulding, and Clark, took part in the service as the coffin entered. The Dean, Subdean, and Canons of St. George's Chapel were at the south door to receive the procession. The choristers of the Chapel Royal were stationed at the entrance with wax tapers. The music was from Handel, Purcell, and Croft. While the Choir were singing, the procession advanced through the great door of the organ-loft, and the Heralds had marshalled it upon the floor of the Choir. The Kin; was immediately behind the coffin : he walked to the edge of the aperture which led to the tomb, where a chair, covered with black velvet, was provided for his Majesty's use. The Dean and Canons advanced within the rails of the chancel, filing off right and left before the communion-table, which was covered with massive plate. The Dukes of Devonshire, Buckingham, St. Alban's, Beaufort, and other Knights present, took their seats in the stalls in the body of the Choir. The Earl Marshal stood near his Majesty ; the Duke of Wellington, who was in his Field Marshal's uniform, remained behind the Royal chair during the service ; their Royal Highnesses the Dukes of Cumberland, Sussex, Gloucester, and Prince Leopold, sat on stools covered with purple velvet on each side of the King. Their mourning cloaks were richly embroidered, and Prince Leopold wore a General's uniform. A dense body of noblemen and gentlemen filled the body of the Choir ; and there was a gloom and duskiness from the smoke of the tapers and flambeaux, which, while it did not prevent the principal actors in the solemnity from being seen, increased the effect of the picture by the mass of shade which it cast upon the inferior groups.
The general arrangement was as follows, but the line was frequently broken :
Trumpets and Kettle-drums, and Drums and Fifes of the Foot Guards. Drums and Fifes of the Royal Household. Trumpets and Kettle-drums of the Royal Household. Knight Marshal's Men, two and two, with black staves. litiila Marshal's Officers. The Knight Marshal. Poor Knights of Windsor. Pages of his Majesty. Pages of his late Majesty. Apothecary to his Majesty.
Apothecary to his late Majesty. Surgeons to his late Majesty.
The Curate of Windsor. The Vicar of Windsor. Gentlemen Ushers Quarterly Waiters to his late Majesty. Pages of Honour to his lute 31ajesty. Grooms of the Privy Chamber to his late Majesty. Gentlemen Ushers Daily Waiters to his late Majesty. Sergeant Surgeon to his late Majesty. Physicians to his late Majesty. Household Chaplain to his late Majesty. Equerries to his Royal Highness Prince Leopold of Saxe Coburg. Equerries to his Royal Highness the Duke of Gloucester. Equerries to his Royal Highness the Duke of Cambridge. .Equerries to his Royal Highness the Duke of Sussex. Equerries to his Royal Highness the Duke of Cumberland. Equerries to her Royal Highness the Duchess of Kent. Aides-de-camp to his late Majesty. Quarter-Master-General. Adjutant-General. Equerries to his late Majesty. Clerk Marshal and First Equerry to his late Majesty. Gentlemen Ushers of the Privy Chamber to his late Majesty. Grooms of the Bedchamber to his late Majesty. Master of the Robes to his late Majesty. The Members of the Royal Hanoverian Mission. The Lords of the Admiralty, attended by their Secretaries. Solicitor-General. Attorney-General. Barons of the Exchequer. Justices of the Court of Common Pleas. Justices of the Court of King's Bench. The Lord Chief Baron of The Lord Chief Justice of
the Exchequer. the Common Pleas. The Vice-Chancellor of England. The Master of the Rolls.
The Lord Chief Justice of the King's Bench. Comptroller of his late Majesty's Treasurer of his late Majesty's
Household. Household. Privy Councillors (not Peers), attended by the Clerks of the Council in Ordinary. Pursuivant. Eldest Sons of Barons. Eldest Sons of Viscounts. Pursuivant. Barons. Pursuivant. Bishops. Pure uivant. Eldest Sons of Earls. Herald. Viscounts. Eldest Sons of Marquisses. Herald. Earls. Herald. Eldest Sons of Dukes. Herald. Marquisses. Herald. Dukes. Herald. The Minister of State of Hanover:
The Earl Marshal of England. The Deputy Lord Great Chamberlain. The Lord Privy Seal. The Lord President of the Council. The Lord Chancellor. The Archbishop of Canterbury. NorroY King of Arms. Lords of his late Majesty's Bedchamber. • . Gold Stick.
Captain of the Yeomen - -Captain of the Hod. Band of of the Guard. Gentlemen Pensioners. - Groom of the Stole to his-late Master of the Horse to his
Majesty. late Majesty.
Banners borne by Peers. The Banner of Brunswick. The Banner of Hanover.
The Banner of Ireland. The Banner of Scotland.
The Banner of St. George. The Union Banner.
THE ROYAL STANDARD.
Supporter, THE ROYAL CROWN OF HANOVER,
Gentleman borne on a Purple Velvet Cushion, by Blanc Coursier Gentleman Usher.
King of Arms. Usher.
Supporter, THE IMPERIAL CROWN OF THE UNITED KINGDOM, Supporter, Gentleman borne on a Purple Velvet Cushion, by Clarencienx Gentleman
Usher. King of Arms. Usher.
Master of his late The Lord Steward of his late Majesty's Keeper of his late
Majesty's Household. Household. Majesty's Privy Purse.
The Lord Chamberlain of his late Gentleman
to Usher. Majesty's Household. Usher.
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First Gentleman Usher Gentleman Usher of the Daily Waiter to His Garter Principal King of Arms, Black Rod, bearing
late Majesty. bearing his Sceptre. his Rod. The Cap of Maintenance, The Sword of Slate, Borne by the Marquis of Winchester. Borne by the Duke of Wellington.
THE comp MOURNER—TUE KING, ■^' in a long purple cloak, with the Star of the Order of the Garter em- 0abroidered thereon, wearing the Collars of the Garter, the Bath, the Thistle, St. Patrick, and the Royal Hanoverian Guelphic Order, attended %7 2 3 by His Royal Highness Prince George of Cumberland. Train Bearers—The Dukes of Buckingham and Beaufort. Sixteen Peers, Assistants to the Chief Mourner. PRINCES OF THE BLOOD ROVAL.
His Royal Highness the Duke of Sussex, His Royal Highness the Duke of Cum- in a long black cloak, with the Star of berland, in a long black cloak, with the
the Order of the Garter embroidered Star of the Order of the Garter em- thereon, and wearing the Collars of the broidered thereon, and wearing the Garter, the Thistle, and the Royal Ha- Collars of the Garter, the Bath, St. noverian Guelphic Order. His Train Patrick, and the Royal Hanoverian
borne by two Gentlemen of His Royal Guelphic Order. His Train borne by
Highness's Household. two Gentlemen of His Royal highness's Household.
His Royal Highness the Prince Leopold His Royal "Ugliness the Duke of Mon- of Saxe Co.sburg, in a long black cloak, cester, in a long black cloak, with the
with the Star of the Order of the Star of the Order of the Garter era- Garter embroidered thereon, and wear- broidered thereon, and wearing the
ing the Collars of the Garter, the Bath, Collars of the Garter, the Bath, and
and the Royal Hanoverian Guelphic the Royal Hanoverian Guelphic Order; Order ; his Train borne by two Gentle- his Train borne by two Gentlemen of men of his Royal Highness's House- Isis Royal Highness's Household. hold.
A Royal Guard of Honour, composed of 1-10 rank and file, with officers and non- commissioned officers in equal proportions, from the King's Company, the Cold- stream, and 3rd Regiments of Guards, commanded by the Captain of the King's , Company.
Gentlemen Pensioners, with their axes reversed.
Yeomen of the Guard, with their partisans reversed.
Soon after the King was seated, the 30th and 90th Psalms were sung ; after which the Dean of Windsor read the Lesson ; and the first anthem, " Hear my prayer !" by Kent, was sung; and afterwards immediately before the Collect, " 0 merciful God !" the second anthem, by Handel. The " Dead March in Saul" followed. The Dean of Windsor read the first part of the service from the altar, and the conclusion from the right side of the vault. The performance of the psalms and anthem lasted nearly two hours. The fine anthem of " His body is buried in peace," was then chanted; and his Majesty, rising from his seat, retired by the door under the Queen's Closet.
When his Majesty rose to retire, he recognized and conversed fa. miliarly with the persons who were around him ; and expressed his thanks to the Earl Marshal, and the principal official conductors of the ceremony. After .his Majesty had retired, and at the conclusion of the service, Sir George Nayler proclaimed the titles of the deceased Monarch, and broke his wand of office into the grave. A solemn voluntary was then played by the organist : as it was concluded before the procession left the Chapel, it was followed by the " Dead March in Saul," which was continued until the procession had again returned into the open air.
The coffin was only lowered about two feet below the aperture of the subterraneons passage ; the splendid pall was removed, as the body was lowered, and the state coffin exposed to view. A number of per- sons crowded around the vault when the ceremony was concluded : among them were the Dukes of St. Alban's and Athol, the Marquises of Clanricarde, Salisbury, Hertford, and Conyngham, and the Speaker of the House of Commons. The Duke of Wellington left the Choir immediately after the King, and joined his Majesty in the aisle of Edward the Fourth's tomb. His Grace conducted the King to his car- riage in the Lower Ward, by the gate leading from the cloisters, and his Majesty drove off, escorted by a party of Lancers, to Frogmore. The Duke of Sussex accompanied his Majesty ; his Royal Highness slept at Frogmore. Beds were prepared at the Castle for the Duke of Gloucester, Prince Leopold, the Duke and Duchess of Cumberland, Prince George, the Duke of Wellington, and Sir Robert Peel.
It is not unworthy of notice, while closing our account, to observe on the singular tardiness which seems to have prevailed at the Castle, whether from the fewness of the workmen or the number of the masters
we know not. Though the King had been dead for nearly three weeks, the works in the Choir were hardly finished when the procession set out from the grand staircase of the State Apartment. The carpenters had barely finished the canopy over the vault, and the shavings were un- swept from the floor, when the minute-guns of the Park announced the funeral to be in motion Though the chief scene of interest on Thursday was Windsor, yet the appearance of the capital claims a few lines. of notice. Every shop and place of public business, the Bank of England and a few private bankers excepted, was closed, and in some instances the shutters even of private dwellings were up. The streets, however, were thronged with pas- sengers, the consequence of the cessation of all ordinary business ; and the suburbs Were occupied by numerous parties who seemed inclined to make the day any thing but a day of sadness. Indeed, more " tipsy jollity" was to be seen round London on Thursday than had been wit- nessed for many months. The various bells of the City tolled during the greater part of the day. and the monotonous sound at minute-inter- vals had a dismal effect on the ear. Divine service was performed in a few (very few) churches, besides Westminster Abbey. In the evening, the streets were more crowded than during the day, with persons who were attracted by the 'firing of the cannon at dm Tower and in the Park. Till a very late hour of the night, Fleet Street, the Strand, and the other great thoroughfares of the town, were unusually thronged. Sixty minute-guns were fired at the following places—at Gravesend, Purfleet, Woolwich, the Tower of London, and in St. James's Park. The firing at the Tower and in the Park commenced at nine and ended at ten o'clock.