The Commander-in-chief has issued the following General Order on the qualifications which every Staff-officer must possess in future. "Horse Guards, 8. IV., 9th April 1957. "His Royal Highness the General-Commanding-in-chief, having had under his serious consideration the question of Army education, especially as relating to qualifications for Staff appointments, is pleased to promulgate, for general information, that from and after the 1st of January 1858, the undermentioned acquirements will be considered indispensable before appointment to the situations annexed. "Every officer, before appointment, will be required to undergo an examination on the subjects mentioned, in each a manner as shall be hereafter announced.
"This regulation is not intended to affect officers now on the Staff. "Qualifications of StaffOfficers.—To write a distinct and legible hand, and compose English correctly. To have a good colloquial knowledge of one foreign language. To have a good eye for a country, and to be able to produce an intelligible sketch of it. To know the use of the sketchingcompass, or pocket-sextant, in order to lay down and protract the leading features of a country to be described. To have a thorough knowledge of regimental duty, and tactics and field movements on an extended scale. Also a knowledge of field-fortification, both as regards construction and correct description on reconnoissance. To have all the qualifications of a good Adjutant, the same acquirements as are exacted from an Aide-de-camp, and a thorough knowledge of military law, and the Army and War Office regulations. 'The following further acquirements will be required to qualify for Deputy Assistants Adjutant-General, and Deputy Assistants Quartermaster-General: viz.—Practical sketching, both on horseback, called 'flying sketching,' as well as correct and finished plotting ; practical trigonometry and geometry, with knowledge of logarithms : to write, read, and speak at least one foreign language ; to judge of ground and its proper occupation by all arms; to have a perfect knowledge of castrametadon, and the principles of permanent fortification : and to be thoroughly acquainted with geography and military history, especially as relates to the campaigns of ancient and modern commanders. "To the whole of the foregoing will be added for Assistants Adjutant and Assistants Quartermaster-General, the elements of mechanics, hydrostatics, and geology ; the construction of military bridges, dams, Ake. ; an acquaintance with the principles of stategy ; and statistics of the Army.
"All Staff-Officers should be able to ride well.
"By command of his Royal Highness the General-Commanding-in-chief, "G. A. WETRERALL, Adjutant-General."
Some surprise is felt at the delayed departure of Lord Elgin for China. The Manchester Guardian states that he will be accompanied by his brother. the Honourable Frederick Bruce, by Mr. Oliphant, as his private secretary, by Mr. Fitzroy, and by a gentleman to be selected from the Foreign Office.
It was confidently stated last week that the new Bishop of Norwich would be the Reverend J. T. Pelham, Rector of Marylebone. The statement met with a qualified denial. It was correctly remarked that there could not have been an appointment, because the resignation of Bishop Hinds a-as not technically complete.But there seems no reason to doubt the accuracy of the first announcement, which has been repeated in the most positive manner by the Ministerial organs—namely, that Mr. Pelham is to be the new Bishop.
It is pretty confidently stated that Mr. Horsman has resigned the office of Secretary for Ireland ; and that Mr. Osborne, the present Secretary to the Admiralty, will succeed him. A son of Sir Francis Baring is spoken of as the successor of Mr. Osborne at the Admiralty.
A correspondence on the subject of Welsh Episcopal appointments has been made public. The Reverend It. W. Morgan, pointing out that the Welsh Bishops are the only Bishops in Christendom who cannot preach the gospel or administer the sacraments in the language of the people of their dioceses, asks Lord John Russell and Lord Derby, whether they "will be prepared in Parliament to advocate the recommendation to the Crown of such clergymen only to fill the fem. Episcopal sees in Wales as are practically conversant with the language and feelings of the Welsh people." Lord John replies, that he thinks it desirable that Bishops in Wales should understand Welsh ; and for that reason he had recommended the present Bishop of Landaff. But he adds " I cannot agree that the choice of the Crown should be restricted to natives of Wales, all other qualifications being made subordinate. I fear it would be necessary, in order to a complete identity of language, to confine the choice not only to Wales, but to the diocese ,in which the vacancy happened. However, I should beglad to see any Welsh clergyman of learning and ability appointed to a Welah see."
Mr. Morgan replies to Lord John, that the Welsh people do not desire any restriction of choice to the natives of Wales ; they only desire " competency in the individual" appointed. Lord Derby says
" I do not think that the present state of affairs is such as to render it necessary or desirable that I should give any pledge as to the advice which, if differently situated, I might tender to the Sovereign on the subieet to which you refer. But lean have no hesitation in expressing my opinion, that a knowledge of the Welsh language is a very important, if not an absolutely essential, qualification for the due discharge of the episcopal functions in those dioceses in which it is extensively spoken."
It is understood that the present reading-rooms of the British Museum will not be used for the purposes of study after the 30th instant. During the first week in May, when the Museum will be closed as usual, the library of reference will be removed from its present locality to the new reading-room ; and in order to avoid unnecessary interruption while this operation is being carried on, no strangers will be admitted to the libraries for any purpose whatever. On the 8th of May the new reading-room will be thrown open to the public generally, who will be allowed to visit it freely until the 16th, after which day it will be devoted exclusively to the use of the readers. This arrangement will involve the loss of a few days to students, but it is anticipated that it will afford much gratification to multitudes who would otherwise have little chance of seeing a building of which competent judges say the nation ought to be proud. As the entrance to the new reading-room is through the front hall, it will be necessary that readers should bring their tickets of admission with them until they have become known to the doorkeepers.—Daily Papers.
A letter from Cobourg to the Kreuz-Zeitung says—" According to our fundamental law, Prince Alfred of England is destined to succeed to the united sovereignty of the duchies of Cobourg-Gotha. His Royal Highness is now in Switzerland, but it appears will arrive at Gotha on the 6th of May, and after a short sojourn there will come to this place, and remain at the ducal country mansion of Itosenau. He will subsequently remove to Bonn, where his father, Prince Albert, completed his studies.
The Reverend Augustus Campbell, Rector of Liverpool, suggests, in a letter to the Archbishop of Canterbury, a mode of settling the Churchrate question, derived from a local example in full and successful operation.
"Liverpool," he says, "was a chapelry in the parish of Walton-on-theHill, and was formed into a parish by the 10th and 11th William III. c. 36. By that act, the Common Council et the borough were authorized to levy rites for the building of a new church (St. Peter's), in addition to the old chapel of St. Nicholas. No provision was made for the future maintenance of these two parish-churches, because the church-rate was deemed sufficient. But in process of time two more churches were wanted ; and two acts were obtained, 3d Geo. III. c. 68, and 7th Geo. III. c. 80, by which certain Commissioners were appointed as before to levy rates to build them : and by the 36th section of 26 Geo. III. it was enacted that they 'should be kept in good repair by the parishioners out of the parochial levies and assessments raised upon the inhabitants' ; it being provided, however, that no repairs costing above 5/. should be done till application had been made to the Commissioners, and until a report had been made to them by some able workman signifying that such repairs were necessary."
He proposes that the provisions of this local act should be made gene's ral ; that the church-expenditure should be limited to the necessary church-repairs and the essentials of Divine worship, as defined by the Royal Commission of 1832; and that the General Vestry should annually elect a Church-Expenditure Committee, including the Churchwardens, to defray the expenses thus limited and defined " out of the parochial rates and taxes."
In order to allay the alarm that has arisen from exaggerated statements respecting the apprehended cattle murrain, the Board of Health has published a report made to that body by Dr. E. Headlam Greenhow, Lecturer on Public Health at St. Thomas's Hospital, and specially employed to inquire into the subject. Dr. Greenhow says " The disease at present or recently prevailing in Holstein and the adjoining countries is the 'pulmonary murrain,' and is identical with the lung disease' that ha a proved so destructive among the herds and dairies of Great Britain and Ireland, during the last fifteen or sixteen years. Although possessed of infectious properties in a moderate degree, the lung disease' is known to arise spontaneously under certain ill-understood conditions of food and season, and is not usually believed to have been imported hither from abroad. It is almost universally diffused throughout this country; having from time to time broken out in an epidemic form in particularlocalities, and again disappeared, svithoutany very obvious cause. Being already quite as prevalent here as on the Continent, no danger exists to our cattle from the importation of foreign cattle suffering from the disease.
"Notwithstanding this, all animals suffering from this or any other serious disease that arrive from abroad are detained by the professional inspectors of the Board of Customs, and, if necessary, immediately slaughtered, their bodies being effectually destroyed if found to be unfit for human food, or, if otherwise, then delivered to the owner. The lung disease' is the only epidemic disease at present prevailing among the cattle in countries from which horned cattle are imported into Great Britain. "There is, however, another much more contagious and fatal disease, called in Germany the Rinder-pest ' or Steppe murrain, which appears to have been confounded with the lung disease, but which, with one or two trivial exceptions, does not at present exist in any part of Germany or the West of Continental Europe. Ibis 'Steppe murrain' is a totally different disease from the Pulmonary murrain ; and is spontaneously developed only in Bessarabia, Podolia, and other countries of Southern Russia, from which it is never absent, and whence it frequently spreads by contagion into Poland, and sometimes into Prussia and Austria.
" The most stringent measures are employed by the Russo-Polish authorities, and by the Governments of Austria and Prussia, to exclude this form of murrain from their respective territories. A regulation was published in Poland on the 9th of May 1856, ordering the indiscriminate slaughter of all
beasts that should exhibit any symptoms of the disease ; under which, according to a recent return, 20,000 animals have already been slaughtered.
"Independent of these measures in the interior of the country, quarantine-stations have been established on the Russo-Polish frontier, where beasts coming from the East are detained for three weeks. Similar measures for the exclusion and extirpation of the disease, should it show itself within those countries, have long been in force on the frontiers of Austria and Prussia. In Austria the infected cettle are immediately killed as soon as they show any appearance of the murrain, their companions being kept in quarantine ; and regulations still more stringent are enforced in Prussia, for both the diseased animals and all other beasts that have been in contact with them are there killed and buried eight feet under ground, quicklime being thrown into the pits.
" These regulations have been most sternly enforced ; and not only has the importation of cattle from Poland, where the murrain is at present believed to exist, been prohibited, but rags, hides, hoofs, hav, wood, and similar articles likely to have been in any war connected with cattle, and all persons suspected of having transactions with cattle, have been forbidden to cross the frontier. To enforce these regulations, detachments of troops have been stationed along the frontier at all the points of egress from Poland below Thorn.
" Notwithstanding these precautions, the murrain occasionally passes into Austria and Prussia ; and intelligence has been received by our Government that it has recently been imported into both those monarchies. It has been conveyed into Silesia, in the neighbourhood of Breslau and Oppeln, by 11101118 of diseased cattle said to have been purchased in GltliCift but has not spread into any other Prussian province, and has, in fact, thus far been confined to the oxen of the infected herd. Most effective measures have been taken to arrest the disease ; and, judging from the experience of last year, there is every reason to hope that its propagation will be prevented, and its extinction secured.'
"As soon as the murrain was known by her Majesty's Government to have reached Kowno, Tauroggan, and other places in the vicinity of the Prussian frontier, an order in Council was issued forbidding the importation of cattle, and of hides, horns, hoofs, fodder, or other articles likely to be vehicles for conveying the contagion into this country, from any port in the Baltic East of 'Denmark ; thus preventing all possible danger of the importation of this disease, so long as it shall be confined to the Eastern frontier districts of Prussia. In addition, however, to this precaution, the greatest watchfulness over the importation of cattle is maintained by the veterinary inspectors of the Board of Customs, both at London and the other ports of importation."
Tho report of the Registrar-General shows a decrease in the mortality of the Metropolis. In the preceding week, 1235 persons died ; last week, the deaths numbered 1059—or 186 below the preceding return, and 155 below the corrected average.
Lord Bloomfield has left Berlin for a visit of a month or two to this country : Lord Augustus Loftus transacts the business of the Prussian mission during his absence.
The Chamber of Commerce of Southampton intend to give a banquet next Saturday to Lord Chief Justice Cockburn, in commemoration of his former connexion with the town as one of its Members.
It is reported from Odessa that the Emperor of Russia will visit Bessarabia shortly.
General Todtleben is the lion of Paris at present. It is reported that ho admitted to the Emperor of the French that an immediate advance of the Allies after the battle of the Alma must have led to the capture of &badepol, as there were only two or three battalions in the place.
The Due d'Aumale on a recent visit to Naples purchased considerable property at Palermo.
The French Minister of the Interior has authorized the city of Colmar to erect a monument to Admiral Brunt, who was born at Colmar.
Lieutenant-General Sir Richard Hare Clarges died on Monday, at his seat near Grantham. He was a veteran of the Peninsula, and wore u silver medal with eight clasps, to commemorate his services from Corunna to St. Sebastian, and a gold medal and clasp for the battlisi of the Hive and Niyelle. His death places the Coloneley of the Twelfth Foot at the disposal of the Duke of Cambridge.
On the 9th, the ceremony of " the washing of feet" took place at the Austrian COurt. At nine o'clock in the morning, twenty-four old people-twelve men and as many women—who were dressed in the ancient German costume, were conducted to the " Hall of Ceremony" of the Palace. On their arrival, the men were placed on ono side of a long table, and tho women on the other. As soon as the seniors had taken their seats, their Majesties entered, and placed before them a great number of dishes, which were brought in trays by the Imperial servers. The Emperor handled the " crockery " in a masterly way, but the Empress required the assistance of her ladies. After the dishes had been set on the table, they were removed, and placed in twenty-four large baskets, which were sent to the rooms occupied by the paupers in the almehouse. At ten o'clock the washing of feet began, in the chapel of the Palace. The Emperor performed the ceremony on the above-mentioned twelve old men, and the Empress on the women. His Majesty received from the hands of his Lord Steward a gilt ewer, and poured from it a few drops of water on one of the feet of each of the men. After a towel had been pressed once or twice on each of the wetted feet, and a little bag containing thirty-two silver groats had been hung round the necks of the old people the ceremony was at un end. Her Majesty, who was attended by her Lord Steward, acted in exactly the same way as her Imperial consort. —Vienna Correspondent of the Timm The Bishop of Ripon recently consecrated a new cemetery, at Neighley ; after the ceremony be unexpectedly addressed the crowd who had assembled, delivering an extempore sermon, which seemed to make a deep impression on his hearers.
The Bishop of Nancy has brought from the Pope a bull for the better organization of the Imperial Almonry at Paris: instead of the Imperial household and the Emperor being considered, as they have hitherto parishioners of St. Germain de PAuxerrois, a kind of special diocese is to be formed in the palaces, the Bishop presiding as Grand Almoner.
A letter from Berlin states that conversions from Popery to Protestantism are increasing rapidly in Austria proper since the last concordat; and that this religious movement is gaining ground in Bohemia, Moravia, and Cara
Letters from St. Petersburg say that the administration of Poland 'is likely to be separated entirely from that of Russia; and that the Grand Duke Michael, directly after his marriage, will be appointed Stadtholder of the kingdom.
The people of Novellara, in the Duchy of Modena, have sent a sum of money towards purchasing cannon for the fortress of Alessandria. The Austrian Government have removed the sequestration placed on the estates of Count Annoni, a Deputy to the Sardinian Parliament.
You must not sell your own property at Venice without official leave. Signor Pisani sold a noted Paul Veroncso--" La Tenda di Dario"—to the Britioh Government ; the Venetians were angry ; and the Civil Lieutenant has fined Signor Pisani double the sum he received for the painting, because the sale had been without the consent of the Venetian Government!
The Madrid correspondent of the Times makes assertions not very gratifying to Spanish pride. "To talk of establishing in Spain a constitutional government, worthy of the name, is quite ridiculous. The whole social spitem is rotten and corrupt. Among the lower orders only is virtue to be found ; the middle and higher are more profligate egotists and placehunters."
In a letter to Messrs. Butterworth, the law-booksellers of Fleet Street, Sir George Stephen gives some account of the state of his profession at Melbourne. "We have about eighty barristers and 260 attorneys. Perhaps fifty of the former and 200 of the latter get business—this may enable you to judge of our law market. Some of the attorneys make very large incomes—from 7000/. to 14,0001. per annum. There may be half-a-dozen who are thus prosperous. The bulk of them, perhaps, realize from 800/. to 18001., and some few scarcely earn a subsistence. Among the barristers there are three, perhaps four, who make 5000/. per annum, about a dozen who make from 2000/. to 3000/. and the rest who get anything vary from 10001. to 20001. Many, however, get little or nothing, and several have lately abandoned the profession as a hopeless case. You may rely on this as a substantially accurate report of our professional position, if any of your friends make inquiry of you on the subject. The large majority both of barristers and attorneys are Irish, but the leading men in either branch are English. We have none of the first class, either as lawyers or advocates, but there are many who would cut a respectable figure in Westminster Hull, though there is certainly no excess of forensic decorum."
The Agamemnon, which has been devoted to the peaceful service of laying down a part of the Atlantic Submarine Telegraph cable, is now undergoing the necessary alterations at Portmouth. Her armament of 90 guns is to be removed, the hold cleared, and her stowage-room increased. She is to be fitted with frigate's masts instead of her present rig of a line-of-battle ship. It will be remembered that this is the famous Agamemnon, the flag-ship which took up such a daring and perilous position right in front of the united fleet before Sebastopol. On the other side of the Atlantic, the Niagara is also undergoing preparations for the same object. She is the largest screwpropeller in the world, not even excepting the famous Himalaya. Her length is 345 feet, beam 55 feet, burthen MOO tons. There are already 1100 miles of the Atlantic cable completed, and upwards of 2000 miles of the gutta pereha covered wire has passed through the machines of the Gutta Pemba Company. The total length of the deep-sea portion of the cable will be 2500 miles; to this, at each end, will be attached the shore portions, each about thirty miles long, and consisting of a very strong and heavy able, calculated to resist a vessel's anchor, or any casualty.
The beards of the Crimean soldiers have been ruthlessly condemned by the authorities to be shaved off: the pioncera only are to be allowed to wear beards.
The Southern parts of Russia that suffered by the war are to be released from taxation for varying periods, and compensation is to be given to individual victims.
Sixteen ships out of the eighty sunk at Sebastopol have been raised.
' The Portuguese Government are preparing to send out a reinforcement of 300 men to Macao.
The uniform three-farthing postage has now been in operation in India for two years : the number of letters and newspapers conveyed has doubled, and it progressively increases. The loss of revenue at present is 30,000/. annually ; but that deficit is expected to he extinguished in another year.
The Bengal Hurkaru reports two marriages of respectable Blade° widows at Calcutta.
The revenue of Canada last year was 1,497,3851.; the expenditure 1,309,438!,; surplus, 187,952/., to be added to the large balance to the credit of the province which has accrued in former years.
No loss than 300,000/. is expended on medical charities in London annually. The fourteen general hospitals possess an income of 109,6871. from Property.
The commerce of Genoa has increased greatly ; there is barely sufficient quay-accommodation for the unlading of the crowds of shipping that enter the port.
The revenue of France improves. In the first three months of this year the receipts were 14,202,000 francs in excess of those of the same period of last year.
As the Russians don't readily take up shares in the great railway scheme, the Imperial family has set them a significant example by subscribing for a considerable number.
A private communication from Constantinople states that "the British Minister and the India Company have abandoned the plan of passing the electric wires for Constantinople to India through the R i ea Sea. It s detennined that the wires shall follow the Euphrates Railway."
The appearance of the vineyards in the South of France, and the favourable weather, have created an expectation of an abundant vintage this year • The unlucky Transit having undergone the necessary repairs at Portsmouth, reshipped the troops and stores, and departed for China on Tuesday, An inquiry having been held as to the cause of the steamer's misfortune; the commander has been pronounced blameless.
The Tagus, one of the Peninsular and Oriental Company's steamers, towed into Plymouth, on Wednesday, the emigrant-ship Martin Luther, of Liverpool, with 550 souls on board. The Tagus fell in with the Martin Luther about eighteen miles from Ushant : she was dismasted—a complete wreck, having suffered in a tremendous gale on Monday ; had not the Tagus come to her aid the worst consequences would probably have ensued, as the ship was helpless in a rough sea.
On Good Friday there were thunder-storms in Paris and at Wakefield. There were heavy snow-storms at Manchester and the vicinity on Sunday.
Some officers of the Inland Revenue have made a great seizure of contraband malt at Worthing, on the premises of Mr. Allen—no less than 3000 quarters, valued at 10,000/. The penalties incurred are enormous.
Since the murder of the Archbishop of Paris, many insults have been offered to priests in the streets of the capital : several of the offenders have been punished : in the most recent case,. a labourer, formerly a village schoolmaster, has been Sued and sent to prison for six months for exclahning " Oh, the Vergers ! the Vergers !" and looking scornfully at two abbes.