CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME.
Handbook to Christian and Ecclesiastical Rome. By M. A. H. Tuker and Hope Malleson. Part III., " Monasticism in Rome." Part IV., " Ecclesiastical Rome." (A. and C. Black. 10s. 6d.)— This work is a veritable treasure-house for the visitor to Rome. Doubtless the man of great learning who has absorbed, let us say, the " Acta Sanctortun," the " Liber Pontificalis," Montalem- bert'a "Monks of the West," might well be able to do without it. But for the majority of us, who have neither time nor ability for research, and who want our guide to Roman ecclesiasticism in portable form, we know of nothing like this work, which does for Catholic and ecclesiastical Rome what Professor Lanciani has done for pagan Rome. This work tells us all that we need to know about the Orders of monks, friars, canons, and sister. hoods, about the clergy, the Papal ceremonies, the Cardinals, and so forth, from their purposes and foundation down to the details of their dress. The details which seem so complex to visitors to Rome are here simplified. The account of the religious Orders is the most interesting portion of this work. The authors show the important distinction between the Eastern and Western monks. The former were mere ascetics, the latter were the true pioneers of Western civilisation. St. Benedict and St. Bernard did more for European culture and civilised life than all the secular authorities of the Middle Ages. Interesting also is it to observe the jealous attitude of the early monks towards the Bishops and ecclesiastical authorities. The monks were origin. ally laymen pure and simple, and it was only after they had existed for centuries that they became " regular clergy." The distinctions between the various Orders and what may be called Sub-Orders are here made plain. The headquarters of each Order in Rome is given. Few persons realise when they are passing by some apparently obscure building in Rome that they are passing some centre of a community which has shaken the world. The account of the Papal ceremonies is very exact, and very useful to the who desire to witness these imposing
functions. All visitors to Rome should take this valuable work with them.