lump auh totoutal.
FEAsica.—The publication of a letter from the Emperor of the French to the Czar has caused an immense sensation in France. It has been printed as a placard, profusely distributed through the departments, and read to the soldiers in the barracks. A controversy is going. on in the papers on the question whether a negative or any reply had been given by the Emperor of Russia. The Patrie has been warned for asserting that a reply had arrived : and the Moniteur has put forth an official contradic- tion. But it is still positively and circumstantially asserted that General Castelbajac had telegraphed to the effect that he should returnwith "a re- fusal." [But a refusal of what?] The Moniteur says—" The journals having given inexactly some pas- sages of. the letter which the Emperor of the French addressed on the 29th ultimo to the Emperor Nicholas, it is necessary to reestablish the exacti- tude of the alleged facts in publishing the original text." • "Palace of the Tuileries, Tan. 29, 1854. "Sire—The difference which has arisen between your Majesty and the Otto- man Porte has arrived at such a point of gravity, that I consider it my duty to myself to explain directly to your Majesty the part which France has taken in this question, and the means which I conceive to be calculated to avert the dangers which menace the repose of Europe.
"The note which your Majesty has just had presented to my Government and to that of Queen Victoria endeavours to establish that the system of pressure adopted, from the outset, brthe two maritime Powers, has alone envenomed the question.' But the matter would, on the contrary, it appears to me, have still continued a Cabinet question, had not the occupation of the Principalities transported it all at once from the domain of discussion into that of facts. However, once that the troops of your Majesty had entered Wallachia; we not the less recommended the Porte net to consider that occu- pation as a math' belli thereby giving roof of our extreme desire for conci- liatory measures. After having concerted with England, Austria, and Prus- sia, I proposed ta your Majesty a note calculated to give a common satisfac- tion; your Majesty accepted it; but scarcely were we informed of that good intelligence when your Minister, by explanatory commentaries, de- stroyed all its conciliatory effect, and prevented us thereby from insisting at Constantinople on its adoption without any alteration. On its aide, the Porte had proposed in the note certain modifications which the Four Powers, re- presented at Vienna, considered of a nature to be accepted ; but the changes in question did not meet with the approbation of your Majesty. Then, the Porte, wounded in its dignity, menaced in its independence, and straitened by the efforts already made to raise an army in opposition to that of your Majesty, preferred declaring war to remaining in that state of uncertainty and abasement. The Porte had applied for our support ; its cause appeared to us just ; and the English and French squadrons received orders to anchor in the Bosphorus.
"Our attitude with respect to Turkey was protecting but passive. We did not encourage it to make war ; but, on the contrary, incessantly gave to the Sultan counsels of peace and moderation, persuaded that that was the only means of arriving at an arrangement ; and the Four Powers again came to an understanding to submit to your Majesty other propositions. Your Ma- jesty, on your side, displaying the calm which originates in the consciousness of force, had confined yourself to repelling, on the left bank of the Danube as in Asia, the attacks of the Turks ; and, with a moderation worthy of the head of a great empire' had declared that you would remain on the defen- sive. Up to that point we were, therefore, I must declare, interested specta- tors, but still nothing but spectators, of the contest ; when all at once the affair at Sinope occurred, and forced us to assume a more de- cided attitude. France and England had not considered it advisable to send troops to be landed for the assistance of Turkey, and their flag consequently was not engaged in the conflicts which had taken place on land. But by sea the case was different. There were at the mouth of the Bosphorus three thousand pieces of cannon, the presence of which de- clared plainly enough to Turkey that the two first naval powers would not allow any attack to be made on her by sea. The affair of Sinope was for us as offensive as it was unexpected ; for it is a matter of little importance whether the Turks intended or not to land stores and ammunition on the Rus- sian territory. In fact, the Russian ships of the line came and attacked Turkish vessels of smaller force in the waters of Turkey, and while tranquilly anchored in a Turkish port, and they destroyed them, notwithstanding the assurance given not to wage an aggressive war, and notwithstanding the vici- nity of our squadrons. It was no longer our policy which there received a cheek; it was our military honour. The cannon shots of Sinope produced a deep feeling of affliction in the hearts of all who in England and in France have a lively sentiment of the national dignity. With a common accord the cry arose everywhere that, wherever our cannon can reach, our allies must be respected. Thence emanated the order given to our squadrons to enter the Black Sea, and to prevent by force, if necesaary, the recurrence of such an event ; and thence, too, the collective notification sent to the Cabinet of St. Petersburg, to the effect that if we prevented the Turks from carrying on aggressive war on the coasts belonging to Russia, we would protect the sendingof stores and ammunition to their troops on their own territory. As to the Russian fleet, in interdicting it from navigating the Black Sea, we platted it in different conditions, because it was important during the con- tinuance of the war to preserve a pledge which might be an equivalent for the parts of the Turkish territory which were occupied, and might facilitate the conclusion of peace by becoming an object in an exchange which was so much to be desired.
"Such, Sire, is the manner in which events have followed each other and been connected together ; and it is clear that having arrived at this point, they must promptly lead either to a definite understanding, or to a decisive rupture. 'Your Majesty has given so many proofs of your solicitude for the repose of Europe, and contributed so powerfully by your beneficent influence to put down the spirit of disorder, that I cannot entertain any doubt of the resolu- tion which you will come to in the alternative presented to your choice. If your Majesty desires as ardently as I do a pacific conclusion, what is more simple than at once to declare that an armistice shall be signed forthwith, that matters shall resume their diplomatic course, that all hostility shall cease, and that all the belligerent forces shall be withdrawn from the places where motives of war have called them.? " In that ease, the Russian troops would quit the Principalities and our
squadrona the Black Sea. As your Majesty prefers to treat directly with Turkey, you would name an ambassador to negotiate with a plenipoten- tiary of the Sultan, respecting a convention which should be submitted to the Conference of the Pour Powers. Let your Majesty. adopt that plan, OA which the Queen of England and myself are perfectly in accord, and tran- quillity will be reestablished and the world satisfied. There is, in fact, nothing in this plan that is not worthy of your Majesty, nothing that can wound your honour. But if, from a motive difficult to be comprehended, your Majesty should refuse, in that case France, as well as England, would be obliged to leave to the fate of arms and to the hazards of war what might be decided at present by reason and justice.
" Let not your Majesty suppose that the slightest animosity can enter my heart; it experiences no other sentiments than those expressed by your Ma- jesty in the letter which you wrote to me on January 17, 1853. Our rela- tions,' you said, ought to be sincerely amicable, and ought to be based on the same intentions—namely, maintenance of order, respect for treaties, love of peace, and reciprocal kind feeling.' That programme is worthy of the Sovereign who traced it out, and I do not hesitate to declare that I have re- mained faithful to it.
" I request your Majesty to believe in the sincerity of my sentiments ; and it is in such sentiments that I am, Sire, your Majesty's good friend, "NAPOLEON."
The Emperor visited, on Monday, the screw-steamer Le Laromgniere, which had arrived at Paris from Bordeaux. She is built of wood and iron on a new system, draws only six feet of water, and by the use of " moveable keels" she can encounter the roughest weather, and yet enter rivers hitherto closed against her tonnage. The Emperor inquired whe- ther ships of war could be built on the plan of the vessel, so as to insure a light draught of water.
The Moniteur formally announces that Admiral Deepointes, acting un- der orders, took possession of New Caledonia, hoisted the French flag, and constituted that island a French colony, on the 24th and 29th Sep- tember 1853.
TIIRKEY.—The intelligence of the week may be packed into small com- pass, as it chiefly consists of generalities. The latest accounts, to January 30th, continue to speak of a concentration of forces over against Kalafat, and report that Prince Gortschalcoff has been ordered to carry the intrenchments, cost what it may. It is even said that the Turk- ish outposts had already been driven in after hard fighting. On the other hand, Omar Pasha has reinforced the garrison at Kalafat, which
was not probably less than 30,000 men. Skirmishes still continue along the Danube, with varying fortune and loss on both sides. Masses of troops were directed upon Bessarabia, and the force in the Principalities was estimated at 120,000 men. General Aurep has been superseded by General Liprandi. The cause of Aurep's disgrace is the loss of the battle of Zetati.
From Asia we hear of little but preparations. The defeats at Quinn and Akiska, according to an eye-witness, were caused by the want of military skill on the part of the commanders. The men fought steadily,
but they were so disposed as to be without support; a small number, having to bear the brunt of the Russian onset, were beaten with great
slaughter, and, in disorder, the whole army fell back upon Kars. Here
Kurschid Pasha (General Guyon) arrived, having ridden night and day from Aleppo. At once, without taking rest, he organized an outpost service, hitherto neglected by the commanders. In a few days some money arrived; he instantly distributed it among the soldiers ; and at the latest dates he was reorganizing the army newly-inspired with confidence by his presence. A report is current that the Russian fleet attacked the fort St. Nicholas, near Batoum, "after" the combined fleets left Sinope for the Bosphorus. But a comparison of dates shows the incorrectness of the story. It was on the 3d January that the fleets entered the Black Sea. It was on the 6th that the Russians cannonaded St. Nicholas. The allied commanders heard of this, and, expecting to catch the Russians in an act of war, the ships convoying the Turkish transports to Batoum set out from Sinope with guns shotted, in the hope of a brush. But the Russians had been severely handled by the fortress, and did not wait for the French and British ships.
There would appear to be good reason for the withdrawal at least of the sailing-ships from the Black Sea. During January and February, the Russian ships always keep in their harbours. The fogs, the short chopping seas, the sudden gusts, and the dangerous coasts, render sailing all but impossible. The Admirals seem to have determined to command the sea and the Russian ports with steamers.
The change of Ministry at Constantinople certainly has no character of compromise. Riza Pasha has become Seraskier, and he is anything but Russian in his sympathies. Engaged in the war of 1828, he was Go- vernor of Widdin when the Hungarian exiles arrived ; and when the present war threatened, he organized the nucleus of the army now sta- tioned on the Danube.
The foreign correspondents mention a serious revolt of the Christians in Albania. The Turks bad been defeated, and the garrison of Arta had been besieged by from 1200 to 1400 insurgents. In Albania the Christians outnumber the Mussulmans.
Russu.—Before the fifth corps d'armee marched from Moscow, the Patriarch issued a fanatical address to the soldiers. He told them that Russia was again "provoked" by the enemy so often vanquished ; that "the Czar, the country, and Christianity, called upon them" ; that their brothers had already revived the old habit of beating their enemies by land and sea ; that they would fight for the "most pious" of Caere, against the profaners of the cities that had seen the birth, passion, and re- surrection of Christ ; and that they would go forth followed by the prayers of the Church ; and now if ever victory was due to them—by faith they would conquer.
A telegraphic despatch from Paris says, that on the 27th January the Ymperor Nicholas addressed a letter to Prince Cholutoff, the Hetman of the Don Cossacks in which the following phrases occur-
" 'In the war Which has broken out in defence of the Christian faith, my brave Cossacks of the Don have given new proofs of their devotion and valour. The glorious history of their faithful service to the throne and country is well known; and I have a firm conviction that during the pre- sent *year they will be, as they have always been, the terror of the foes of Buena and of the Holy Cross.'" The unsatisfactory result of Count Orloff's mission was known in S. Petersburg on the 9th instant. GERMANY.—There is now no doubt that very large bodies of Austrians are concentrated on the Servian and Transylvanian frontier, and in Hun- gary, ready for all eventualities. The Prince of Servia has arrived at, Vienna, and it is supposed he will ask for a corps of Austrians to occupy Servia in the event of a Russian invasion of that territory. The feeling in Vienna is, that the preparations of Austria are more for war than an armed neutrality ; and the effect of this feeling is evident in the fall of the exehange-4 per cent in forty-eight hews.
The Turco-Egyptian officers who had arrived at Vienna were not those captured at Sinope, but in the Egyptian frigate Pevasi-Bahri. They have placed themselves under the protection of the Turkish Ambassador.
Usaress Smres.—The Atlantic arrived at Liverpool on Thursday, with advices from New York to the 4th instant.
It is believed that the President would not submit the Gadsden treaty to the Senate, but would resume direct negotiations with Mexico. The reason for this course is, that the treaty does not settle the Tehuantepec question ; and that a clause in the treaty, providing that " Flibusteros " shall be given up, is inadmissible. Lieutenant St. John and Mr. Porde had arrived from England at Panama on the 17th January, on their way to make the official survey for the Darien Canal. The Government at Bogota had appointed 200 soldiers and a corps of sappers and miners to protect and assist the operations.
INDIA AND CIFINA.—The fuller accounts give no more information than the telegraphic despatches, except in details. The assassination of Captain Latter took place at Prome on the night of the 8th December. Some Burmese, disguised as women, were permitted to pass the sentry. They entered the Captain's quarters and stabbed him in his sleep ; making so little noise that they escaped without detection; and it was only. on the next morning that the body was found pierced by three wounds. rt appears that the sentry had orders not to prevent women from visiting the tent of the Deputy Commissioner ; indeed, it is hinted that Captain -Latter's intrigues may have been the cause of his death, by inciting private revenge. However that may be, he will long be remembered as a gallant soldier and able political agent. He led the storming party at Rangoon ; he played a conspicuous part at Bassein ; he had frequently pursued, attacked, and destroyed the deceits; and his loss will be greatly felt. rseveral attempts of convicts—Sikhs, among others—to escape-from confinement, are mentioned as resulting in much bloodshed. Large bodies of Burmese still hung about the principal stations, and the utmost vigilance was imperative. Nothing new is reported of the Persian army alleged to be at Bushire. From China nothing definite is reported, except a naval attack by the Imperialists, aided by their European allies, upon Shanghai. The buccaneers, so the Europeans are called, landed, plundered, and destroyed the suburbs of the town. The insurgent army had advanced to within about eighty miles of Pekin.
Anaraeme.—The papers from Australia by the overland mail bring the intelligence down to the 30th November.
Four additional steamers are to be placed on the river Murray during the next twelve months ; and the lands on its banks were to be forthwith surveyed and thrown open for public sale. Labour was less scarce, and there was lees disposition to leave the colony.
The yield of gold has been somewhat less than usual, in consequence of the new system of mining, called "deep sinking," adopted by the more experienced diggers. The plan of "surfacing," so long followed with great success, is now left to "new chums," who are looked upon as poor or ueenterprising fellows. But it is justly remarked, that surfacing is steady industry, and deep-sinking a kind of gambling, sometimes yielding large sums, often little or nothing. Instances are not wanting of diggers who deserted a deep hole having taken nothing, while persons succeeding them and diving down a few feet further have alighted upon large prizes. Disease and disorder still prevail at the gold-fields.