18 FEBRUARY 1888, Page 22

Municipal Records of the City of Carlisle. Edited by R.

S. Ferguson, M.A., and W. Nauson, B.A. (Tharnam and Sons, Carlisle ; Bell and Sons, London.)—Most of this volume, which is one of the publications of the " Cumberland and Westmoreland Arol3walogical Society," is occupied with extracts from the records of the Carlisle Guilds. Of these there were eight, the chief being the "Merchants' Guild." By "merchant" was meant any trader who was not an actual manual worker. Its numbers were largely augmented by persons not traders, who had the freedom by inheritance. The seven Manual Guilds were the Weavers, Smiths, Tailors, Tanners, Shoe- makers, Glovers, and Butchers, three of them, it is observed, being concerned with the manufacture of leather. The books of these Guilds still exist. Indeed, the Guilds themselves still survive, it would seem, though, of course, in an inactive condition. The preliminary chapters contaia a valuable account of the grolvth of the Carlisle Municipality. Records of prices at various times are among the most valuable items. In 1606, for instance, we find tobacco charged at 7d. per lb. This is a curious contrast to what it was a hundred years before, when it cost several shillings per ounce, and to what it is now. We find the Carlisle people keeping the strictest watch against the employment of Scotchmen. Modern legislation is anticipated in the fining of one Andrew Foster for suffering "honest men's children to drink stipple in his house." Women's labour was jealously regarded, for Isaac Tully is fined lls. for allowing a sister to sell his goods. Tully, however, refused to pay. Oae Lowther was fined £8 for marrying before his apprenticeship was out, and, failing to pay, was shut out of the Guild. Curious little bits of our ancestors' life, it will be seen, abound.