ALITTLE more than ten years ago, having an interest in that curious and little-studied subject, the History of Property, we published allst, compiled from the Illustrated London News, of all British fortunes exceeding a quarter of a million
personalty which had been transferred by death within the decade. That list, which was the first of its kind, and excited at the time a preposterous amount of interest, showed that within the ten years ten persons had died in Great Britain leaving more than a million, fifty-three leaving more than half a million, and a hundred and sixty-one leaving more than a
quarter of a million sterling. We promised to repeat the list at the end of another decade, and here it is, compiled in the same way :-
Ian. 4.-Mr. Algernon Perkins, Hanworth Park, Middlesex 250,000 - 11.-Mr. E. H. Beddington, 98 Lancaster Gate, W 300,000 - 11.-Sir David Baxter, Ironmaster, Dundee 1,098,000 Feb. 1.-Mr. Charles Meeking, Linen Draper, Holborn 250,000 - 22.-L. Levy, 100 Westbonrne Terrace, Hyde Park 300,000 Mar. 1.-Ernald Mosley Smith, Selsdon, Surrey 250,000 - 15.-S. M. Samuel, 29 Park Crescent, N.W 500,000 - 15.-Sir T. Beckett, Bart., Somerby Park, Lincoln 350,000 April 5.-Mr. John Hargreaves, Accrington, Lancashire 400,000 May 10.-Mr. F. Wright, Osmanton Manor, Derbyshire 700,000 - 10.-Rev. G. G. fluter, Rector of Cranfield, Beds 300,000 Jane 21.-Sir W. Tite, K.C.B. 400,000 - 28.-Mr. Nathan Lees, Dakinfield, Cheshire 400,000 July 12.-Mr. Francis H. Toone, 80 Portland Place 400,000 Aug. 2.-Mr. Charles Pease, Southend, Darlington 350,000 - 23.-Earl of Zetland, 19 Arlington Street 250,000 - 23.-Baron Wolverton (G. Glyn), Lombard Street 1,000,000 - 30.-Lord Westbury, Lancaster Gate, Hyde Park 300,000
Sept. 6.-Mr. John R. M'Clean, M.P., 2 Park. Street, W 700,000
- 20.-Mr. Alfred A. Pollock, Heathfield, Hampstead 400,000 - 27.-Mr. Wheeler, Bolingbroke House, Wandsworth 350,000 Oct. 11.-Mr. F. C. Braun, Holly Lodge, West Derby 300,000 Nov. 1.-Baron Marjoribanks, Ladykirk, Berwick 300,000 - 8.-Sir R. Fitz wygram, 42 Brunswick Ter., Brighton 250,000 - 29.-Mr. Alexander Find later, Kingstown, Dublin 350,000 Dec. 13.-Mr. James Blyth, Hyde Park Gardens 250,000 - 20.-Mr. G. Crawshay, Colney Hatch 500,000 - 27.-Mr. T. Baring, Banker, 8 Bishopsgate Within 1,500,000 1874.
Jan. 3.-Mr. J. Heald, Parr's Wood, Didsbnry, Lancs. 350,000 - Hon. Baron Lyveden (Robert Vernon) 250,000 Feb. 21.-Mr. Mark Phillips, Melcombe, Warwickshire 400,000 Mar. 28.-Mr. Peter Robinson, Oxford Street and Hornsey 350,000 June 13.-)fr. E. R. Langworthy, Victoria Park, Manchester 1,200,000 July 11.-Mr. H. M. Ames, 30 Queen's Gate, S.W. ... 250,000 - 18.-Mr. William Danville, 37 Eaton Square 250,000 Aug. 22.-Sir William Martins, Hyde Park Gardens 350,000 Sept. 5.-Sir Edmund Beckett, Bart., Doncaster, York 300,000 - 19.-Mr. Wm. Leaf, Park Hill, Streatham, Surrey 300,000 - 26.-Earl of Egmont, 26 St. James's Place 350,000 - 26.-Mr. Bryce Allan, Fairfield, Liverpool 250,000 Nov. 14.-Mr. Samuel Beale, Warfield Grove, Berke 350,000 Dec-. 19.-Mr. A. Gagniere, 3 Cambridge Terrace, 400,000 - 26.--Mr. J. Wormald, Highbury Lodge, Islington 250,000 1875.
Jan. 9.-Mr. William Joynson, St. Mary Cray, Kent 350,000 - 23.-Rev. R. Palmer, Holme Park, Sunning, Berke 350,000 Feb. 13.-Mr. Roger L. Jones, Prince's Park, Liverpool 350,000 Mjar. 6.-Mr. John Hargreaves, Silwood Park, Berks 600,000 - 6.-Mr. William Tarn, Newington Causeway ...... 500,000 April 10.-Mr. J. Hodgson, 65 Queen's Gate, S. Kensington 300,000 - 17.-Mr. Joseph Love, Mount Beulah, Durham 1,000,000 May 22.-Lady S. K. des Vwux, Drakelowe Hall, Derby 250,000 June 19.-Mr. Joseph Goff, Hale House, Somersetshire 350,000 July 7.-Mr. A. R. Strutt, Makeney Duffield, Derby 900,000 Sept. 4.-Mr. H. Adderley, 76 Inverness Terrace, W 250,000 Oct. 2.-Mr. William Gibbs, Hyde Park Gardens 800,000 - 30.-Mr. J. A. Arbuthnot, Coworth Park, Windsor 400,000 Nov. 13.-Mr. Peter Ormrod, Halliwell Hall, Lancashire 700,000 - 13.-Mr. Robert Allfrey, Wakefield Park, Berko 400,000 Dec. 18.-Mr. James Houghton, Rodney St., Liverpool 250,000 1876.
Jan. 8.-Mr. Wynn Ellis, Tankerton Tower, Whitstable 600,000
- 15.-Mr. H. Moses, 2 Park Square W., Regent's Park 600,000 Feb. 26.-Mr. W. Graham, 195 St. John Street, Clerkenwell 300,000 Mar. 11.-Sir William Jackson, Bart., 61 Portland Place 700,000
- 11.-Mr. Philip Lytcott Hinds, Portland Place 250,000 April 15.-Mr. H. W. Nunn, Broadlands House, I. of W.._ 400,000 May 6.-Mr. W. Herrick, Beau Manor Park, L'o'sershire 800,000 - 13.-Earl Howe, Gopsall Hall, Leicestershire 250,000 1876. £ May 20.-Mr. Walter Caradoe Smith, Seladon, Sairey 250,000 Jane 10.-Mr. Henry Kenway, Balaton, Manchester ... 250,000 July 1.-Sir S. Fladyer, Bt., 27 Great Cumberland Place 250,000 - •13.-Rt. Hon. Sir J. W. Hogg, Grosvenor Crescent 350,000
- -22.-Earl of Sheffield, 58 Portland Place 300,000
Aug. 26.-Mr. T. Anderson, Waverley Abbey, Farnham 250,000 - 26.-Mr. James Baird, Cambusdoon, Ayrshire 1,190,000 Sept. 2.-Mr. Charles Lambert, 3 Queen's Street Place 900,000
- -9.-Marquis of Conyngham, 5 Hamilton Place, W 500,000
- 16.-Mr. W. Duckworth, Orchard Leigh Park 250,000 Dec. 2.-Earl of Leven & Melville, Roebampton House 300,000 - 9.-Mr. Edward Tow, Crofton Hall, Yorkshire 600,000 - 16.-George Wostenholm, Kenwood Park, Sheffield 250,000 - 30.-Mr. George Moore, Bow Church Yard 400,000 1877. .
Jan. 20.-Mr. C. Chatfield, Broad Green House, Croydon 250,000 Feb. 10.-Mr. Henry Tritton, Lombard Street 250,000 Mar. 24.-Mr. William Matthew Coalthurst, 59 Strand 600,000 - 24.-Mr. P. Wood, Woodbank, Southport Lancaster 400,000 April 28.-Mr. Robert William Moore, Brixton Rise 300,000 - 28.-Admiral Sir A. Clifford, Westfield House, I.W 250,000
May 5.-Mr. William Holland, Deptford Bridge, Kent 300,000 - 19.-Mr. D. Mocatta, 5 Norfolk Crescent, Hyde Park 250,000
June 9.-Mr. John Pemberton Heywood, Liverpool 1,900,000 - 23.-Mr. Graham, 11 Cornwall Terrace, Regent's Park 250,000 July 7.-Earl of Shrewsbury, Alton Towers, Staffs 350,000 - 14.-Mr. James Brown, Remington, Yorkshire 250,000 Aug. 18.-Mr. John Knowles, 4 Moorgate Street 350,000 Act. 20.-Mr. Nathaniel Caine, Liverpool 500,000 Nov. 3.-Sir Titus Salt, Crow Nest, Halifax, York 400,000 Dec. 8.-Mr. John Leschallas, Page Green, Tottenham 500,000 - 22.-Hon. Mary Howard, Ashtead Park, Surrey 250,000 1878.
Jan. 5.-Mrs. Frances H. Miles, Firbeck Hall, York 350,000 Feb. 9.-Dr. J. Blundell, 1 Great George St., Westminster 350,000 - 16.-Sir Charles Forbes, Strathdon, Aberdeenshire 250,000 - 16.-Mr. Rollout], Stanmore House, Great Stanmore 350,000 - 23.-Rev. Fiancis Swan, Sausthorpe, Lincolnshire 350.000 April 27.-Mr. George Moffatt, 103 Eaton Square 350,000 May 25.-Mr. G. Stone, 21 South Bank, Regent's Park 250,000 Aug. 17.-Mr. Edmund Pepys, 20 Portland Place 350,000 - 31.-Mr. J. Pearson, 10 St. James's Place, West 25'0,000 'Sept. 21.-Mr. Alfred George, Bristol 250,000 - 28.-Mr. James Martin, Lombard Street 500,000 Act. 12.-Mr. J. Rotherham, High Street, Shoreditch 350,000 - 26.-Mr. John Penn, the Cedars, Lee, Kent 1,000,000 Nov. 16.-Miss Helen Hallifax, Chadacre Hall, Suffolk 300,000 - 23.-Mr. Henry H. Kennard, Milford, Southampton 400,000 - 30.-Mr. Richard Durant, Copthall Court 600,000 Dec. 14.-Earl of Dysart, 31 Norfolk Street, Strand 1,700,000
- 21.-Mr. R. Thornton, W. Streatham Hall, Exeter 1;000,000
- 21.-Mr. Alfred Brooks, 67 Finchley Road 250,000 1879.
Feb. 8.-Earl of Lauderdale, 83 Lancaster Gate 466,000 - 15.-Mr. Wyld-Browne, 7 Upper Hyde Park Gardens 250,000 . _ 22.-Mr. Henry Gardner, 1 Westbourne Terrace 600,000 Star. 8.-Baron Heath, Director of the Bank of England 250,000 - 8.-Mr. Charles Cam mell, Derby 250,000 May 10.-Mr. A. F. Arbuthnot, Hyde Park Gardens 350;000 - 24.-Mr. J. Hatton, Higher Broughton, Manchester 700.000
June 21.-Mr. Crawshay, Cyfartha Castle,. Glamorgan 1,200,000
- 28.-Baron L. N. de Rothschild, 148 Piccadilly 2,700,000 - 28.-Mr. George Hadfield, Sheffield 250,000 July 5.-Mr. John Foster, Prospect House, Bradford 250,000 - 26.-George Hamilton Fletcher, Liverpool 250,000 Aug. 9.-Mrs. Vernon Harcourt, Swinton Park, York' _ 250,000 - 16.-Mrs. Samuel C. Whitbread, Sonthill, Beds 350,000 - 16.-Rev. H. Sbrabb, Brabceuf Manor, Guildford 300,000 - 30.-Mr. J. E. Ralli, 33 Gloucester Sq., Hyde Park 350,000 'Oct. 11.-Mr. Lionel Lawson, 2 Brook St., Hanover Sq. *900,000 - 18.-Mr. Thomas Southey, Caversham, Oxfordshire 500,000 - 18.-Mr. Charles Myers, Liverpool • 400,000 Nov. 15.-Mr. K. D. Hodgson, 8 Bishopagate St. Within 400,000 Dec. 27.-Mr. J. R. Mills, Kingswood Lodge, Tunbridge 1,200,000 1880.
Jan. 10.-Earl of Durham, 39 Hill St., Berkeley Square 500,000 - 31.-Earl of Clanwilliam, 32 Belgrave Square 250,000 - - 31.-Mr. Thomas Cross, Ruddington Hall, Notts. 350,000 Feb. 7.-Mr. J. Rennie, 22 Norfolk Street, Park Lane 350,000 - 14.-Mr. Martin Goldstein, 126 Piccadilly 300,000 - 14.-Mr. John Torr, M.P., Liverpool 250,000 - 21.-Mr. Henry Crawshay, Oaklands Park, Gloster 300,000 - 28.-Miss Palmer, Polme Park, Sopping, Berke 350,000 -- 28.-Mr. Philip Cazenove, Clapham 250,000 Mar. 6.-Sir G. H. Seymour, 10 Grosvenor Crescent 400,000 - 13.-Mr. Alfred Gilbey, Pantheon, Oxford Street 350,000 - 13.-Mr. T. Dives, Lavender Sweep, Battersea 350,000 - 20.-Mr. William Paynter, 21 Belgrave Square 350,000 - 27.-Duke of Portland, Cavendish Square 1,500,000
- 27.-Hon. Augustus Duncombe, Dean of York 560,000
27.-Mr. Julius Beer,"27 Portland Place 400,000 April 3.-Mr. J. J. Foster, Moor Park, Ludlow, Salop 700,000 - 10.-Mr. J. Williams, Caerhayes Castle, Cornwall 1,600,000 - 10. -Mr. E. Joicey, Whioney House, Gateshead 600,000 - 10.-Rev. George B. Paley, Freckenham, Suffolk 300,000 May 1.-Mr. Thos. Wigley, Timberhnrst, Lancashire 1,300,000 June 12.-Lieutenant J. A. S. Freeland, Royal Artillery 300,000 - 19.-Mr. Alfred Harris, Oxton Hall, Yorkshire ...... 300,000 - 26.-Mr. Philip Twells, Chase Side House, Enfield 300,000
* From the World.
Aug. 21.-Right Hon. Sir S. Cave, Sidbnry Manor, Devon 350,000 Sept. 4.-Sir R. Burdett, Bart., Foremark, Derbyshire 300,000 - 4.-Mr. J. E. Fordham, Melbourn-Bury, Cams. 250,000 - 25.-Mr. Edward Pease, Darlington, Durham 500,000 - 25.-Mr. Joshua Appleyard, Halifax, York 300,000 - 25.-Mr. H. Christopher Roberts, 15 Lombard Street 250,000 Oct. 16.-Mr. Edward Moon, Bank Chambers, Liverpool 500,000 - 30.-Mr. W. H. Poynder, Upper Brook Sreet, W. 250,000 - 30.-Mr. E. Mackenzie, Fawley Court, Bucks 1,000,000 Nov. 27.-Mr. Martin Tucker Smith, Lombard Street 350,000 Deo. 11.-Sir Thomas Hare, Stow Hall, Norfolk 300,000 - 11.-Mr. Robert Bell, Copse Hill, Wimbledon 250,000 - 18.-Mr. Joseph M. Montefiore, Worth Park, Sussex 600,000 - 25.-Mr. Eyre, called Count Eyre, 25 Manchester Sq 400,000 1881.
Jan. 15.-Mr. John Middleton, Glasgow 292,000 - 22.-Mr. J. Jones, Abberley Hall, Worcestershire 500,000 - 22.-Mr. H. F. Shaw.Lefevre, 29 Green Street, W 350,000 - 29.-Mr. Deakin, Moseley Park, Cheadle, Cheshire 250,000 Feb. 5.-Right Hon. Baron Wenlock, Wenlock, Shropshire 250,000 - 19.-Mr. Mark Firth, Oakbrook, Sheffield 600,000 Mar. 5.-Mrs. Julia Ripley, Springfield Hall, Lancaster 250,000 April 9.-Earl of Crawford & Balcarres, Haigh, Lancashire 300,000 - 23.-Right Hon. Baron Ashtown, Woodlawn, Galway 350,000 - 30.-Mr. James St. George Burke, Sudbury, Essex 250,000 May 7.-Mr. S. Conrtauld, Lancaster Gate, Hyde Park 700,000
June 11.-Mr. H. W. Eyres, 41 Upper Grosvenor Street 300,000 - 25.-Mr. E. Hermon, M.P., 13 Berkeley Square 588,000 - 25.-Mr. E. W. L. Popham, Hungerford, Berks. 300,000 July 1G.-Mr. John Allnutt,14 Charles St., Berkeley Square 433,000
- 23.-Mr. William G. Mantle, Leicester Square 280,000 - 30.-Mr. T. Broad wood, 33 Great Pulteney Street 423,924 Aug. 13.-Mr. Henry Pease, Pierrepoint, Darlington 360,489 Sept. 10.-Mr. Themes Lambert, 41 Lancaster Gate 345,000 Nov. 5.‘--Mr. M. F. Bruxner, 5 Hyde Park Terrace 263,000 Dec. 3.-Mr. John Thorpe, Elston Hall, Notts 380,000 - 17.-Mr. Raikes Currie, Minley Manor, Hants 280,000 1882.
Jan. 7.-Mr. Henry Sykes Thornton, Battersea Rise • 330,000
- 14.-Mr. J. Laycock, Tynemouth, Northumberland 464,000 - 14.-Mr. George Perton, Birmingham 261,000 - 28.-Col. Joicey, Newton Hall, Stocksfield-on-Tyne 678,000 Feb. 11.-Mr. Joseph Henry Nettlefold, Birmingham 287,000 Mar. 11.-Mr. John Jones, 95 Piccadilly 359,000 April 1.-Mr. James Macfarlane, 147 Leadenhall Street 890,000 - 15.- Rt. Hon. Baron Robartes, Lsutrydrock, Corn 570,000
- 15.-Mr. Charles Ford, 7 Russell Square 353,000
- 22.-Mr. Louis Cohen, 84 Gloucester Place, W. 623,000 - 22.-Mr. Alfred Kitching, Darlington 344,000 - 22.-Mr. Alex. Scrimgeonr, 18 Old Bond Street 338,000 - 29.-Mr. Hodgson, 24 Sussex Square, Hyde Park 688,000 June 3.-Mr. Frederick Schwalm], 6 Moorgate Street 280,000 July 15.-Mr. R. Brooks, St. Peter's Chambers, Cornhill 370,000 Aug. 12.-Mr. Ralli, 102 Westbourne Terrace, Hyde Park 437,000 Dec. 2.-Baron S. B. de Worms, the Lodge, Egham 427,271
This list is .a disappointment. We had expected that the number would have doubled, or at least greatly increased, and that the scale of fortunes would be much larger ; but this is not the case. The number of fortunes ranging between £100,000 and £250,000 has increased enormously, and is now far beyond anything we care to Print, and a fact perceptible in the old list might have been . made a marked feature in the present one. The wealthy of the world are investing in England very largely indeed, especially the Spanish-Americans, who find it convenient to place a section of their often gigantic fortunes beyond the reach of plunder. But excluding a Rothschild, whose wealth is of a separate kind, there is no double million- aire in the list, and no man whom the rich Americans and the cosmopolitan Jew millionaires, with their fingers in every pie, would allow to be possessed of a first-class fortune. No one ap- proaches even at a distance the wealth of W. VaiIderbilt or Jay Gould, and no one's personalty enables us to compare him with a first-class English landed property. About £80,000 a year . would represent the very highest sum upon the list. No .British subject, in fact, has left wealth so large as to raise social questions or seriously affect the Budget, and the fact is a very curious one. It is, of course, in part explainei by the method of computation. These returns are based on the payments made for probate duty on personalty, and do not include land and houses, still a favourite investment in England, or the enormous masses of wealth now held abroad, which, though liable to income- tax, escape legacy duty altogether. Much of this mass belongs to the very rich, who have accurate information, who like a good per-tentage, and who are in many cases haunted by an idea that distribution in many countries is equivalent to insurance. The English holdings in the Rentes of all countries, in Railways and Banks abroad, and in foreign house property elude this list altogether, as do also the immense sources of wealth classed as " businesses," with their offices out- side Great Britain. Still, we are surprised at the figures. Only thirteen men have left more than a million, only fifty-six more than half a million, and only a hundred and ninety-five more than a quarter of a million. That is an increase among million- aires of thirty per cent., among half-millionaires of six per cent., and among quarter-millionaires of eighteen per cent., and we ex- pected the numbers to be doubled. Considering the increase of op- portunities, there must be some cause operating against excessive accumulation, and we are happy to believe it is a reluctance to spend life in mere amassing, which prevents the children of mil- lionaires, who in England are usually cultivated, from treading in their fathers' footsteps. They either retire altogether from such work, or pursue it with a certain languor, and end by merging themselves in the ordinary aristocracy, who hunt down exceptional wealth with persistence and success.
Still, what a list it is ! Amongst all those millionaires and demi-millionaires and quarter-millionaires, there is only one great grandee, the late Duke of Portland, whose eccentric wasteful- ness did not in the least impair his magnificent income ; only three or four Peers ; and not above ten persons who were at all widely, not to say nationally, known. The immense majority were quiet traders,. bankers, manufacturers, ironmasters, and the like, who led usually quiet, though wealthy lives, spent money on collections and gardens, and were unknown even to those who make it a business to know. They represent the profits of Trade, and that is all ; and their wealth increases the wages fund, without disturbing the social calm. If they do good, it is generally by cultivating Art ; if they do harm, it is by keeping up a standard of outlay which destroys much of the ease and -enjoyment of social life, and would anywhere but in England make the able restless and discontented. Here, how- ever, the wall which surrounds private life is seldom broken, expenditure is apt to be steadily profuse rather than ostenta- tious, the love of country seclusion is deep-rooted, and ambi- tion is much more common than acrid envy: The foible of rising men in England is sensitiveness rather than ostentation, and though purse-pride often exists in a high degree, it is lost amidst other prides, and toned down by the social ascendancy of an aristocracy which loves money and despises moneyed men. As to popular hostility to the millionaires, there is no trace of it. We detect strong sighs of a growing desire to spoil certain privileges, rather than let the rich monopolise them—as, for example, in the agitation to throw open gardens which are worthless, and worse, the moment they cease to be secluded—but of dislike to an individual because he is rich, we see no sign. Any butler in London who, on reading our list, finds that his master inherited more than he thought, will not only respect him more, but, oddly enough, will resent his economies less. Wealth, when not too pompous, is liked, like any other ornament ; and if a man shod his horses with silver, his grooms would quote that fact as one reflecting a certain credit and rank upon themselves. Indeed, even opinion hardly presses on the rich ; there is no "feeling," as in America, that a millionaire should do something for the public, and we very much doubt if legacies to charities excite any great respect. They become more frequent, we fancy, but the comments upon them delivered on omnibuses are not entirely eulogistic. "He was a charitable beggar ; but Lord, how his folks must feel !" was actually said, and expresses forcibly, if inelegantly, the genuine popular idea. There is no point on which English and Continental feelings differ so widely as the appreciation of wealth. To " kill a bourgeois," as the French Socialist did the other day, strikes Englishmen as something worse than kill- ing a man; and they lament over a fire all the more, if the person burnt out was rich.