The formal assemblage of Parliament on the day to which it was pro- rogued at the end of the session took place on Tuesday, and the Houses were reprorogued by Commission. Only two rows of Peers' seats were denuded of their vacation-dress of brown holland. The throne was un- covered, and a bench was placed in front of it for the Commissioners. There was the usual attendance of visiters, chiefly ladies, and the usual scanty representation of the Parliamentary bodies. The Lords Commis- sioners were, the Lord Chancellor, the Marquis of Clanrimirde, and Earl Granville; the Commons present were Mr. Bellew and Mr. Aglionby. The commission was duly read, and under its authority Parliament was pro- rogued to Thursday the 14th November.
The National Reform Association held their "first aggregate meeting of the present season" on Monday, in the great room of the London Tavern. Sir Joshua Wallusley, • President of the Association, took the chair; and was countenanced by the attendance of Mr. Joseph, Hume, with Colonel Thompson, Lord Dudley Stuart, and half a dozen other Members of his party in Parliament. The speeches were not characterized by vigorous aggressive eloquence ; here and there, indeed, they showed a tone of de- pression: " letters " were received from zealous friends of the cause who are absent in the country recruiting themselves after their labours in the House of Commons—from Mr. Cobden, Mr. Bright, Mr. Luahington, Sir Benjamin Hall, and half a dozen more.
Sir Joshua Walmsley stated that the meeting had been arranged as affording a fitting opportunity to review the late session. of Parliament, and as a prelude for explanations before the series of provincial meetings which the Association is about to hold.
He ironically recapitulated the legislative labours of the session. The Member for East Surrey had been frustrated in his attempt to enfranchise county tenants between 101. and 501.; who accordingly remain as much dis- franchised as if they were lunatics, felons, or aliens. The Member for Not- tingham had obtained seventeen minutes' consideration of the People's Char- ter, and had then been "counted out." The Member for the Tower Ham- lets had tried, for the second or third time, to relieve compound householders from vexatious and disfranchising impediments, but had been stopped at the second reading of his bill ; and a host of other bills had been advanced to various stages in order then to be sent into winter-quarters. Nevertheless, much had been done : 12,000/. had been voted to the son of the late Duke of Cambridge in addition to his private fortune and his pay and allowances as a high officer in the Army ; stables had been voted at Marlborough House, that may some day be occupied by a prince now nine years old ; and 14,700/. had been voted—in addition to 12,000/. in '49, 12,000/. in '48, 12,000/. in '46, 13,000/. in '45, 10,0001. in '44, and 10,0001. in '43, in all 83,7001.—to- wards completing a palace on the Bosphorus for our Ambassador to the Ottoman Porte. Such items showed that the People's Representatives hod been watching the expenditure of the people's money ; but they showed also that very little has been done to check that expenditure, and in that way the glance taught how much remains to be done out of doors. The Associa- tion seeks the reateratiOn to the People of their lost rights. "The Monarch enjoys her rights ; the Peers are in possession of theirs ; but the People are without the power of electing their Representatives. That right we are seeking to restore ; and in doing so, we say that we are vindicating the con- stitution, and seeking to preserve inviolate the form of government under which we live. Are the changes by which we propose to bring about this object of a nature to excite alarm ?—We think not. We advocate the ex- tension of the franchise to all adult male occupiers of a bona-fide dwelling, whether it be a whole or a part of a house. To insure pie country against imnosition, we say let the occupier be registered for twelve months on the parish-books. Again, we say, let the voter have the security of the ballot. Let him have the opportunity of voting independently, by having the oppor- tunity of voting in such a way as that the fact of the person for whom he voted shall be known only to himself. Is our third proposition a startling one ? Are triennial Parliaments an invasion of the constitution? Why, one of the violations of the constitution which has been most denounced in this country is that committed by the Parliament which passed the Septennial Act. Had we proposed annual Parliaments, we should but have been going back to the system which prevailed for ages. We think, however, that a three-years reckoning, under the other arrangements we advocate, with the influence of the general public opinion in the mean time, as well as the vigilant oversight of a large constituency, may be frequent enough to keep representatives tolerably honest. One of the most important alterations we propose, is that of the equali- zation of the number of the contituencies. At present the contrast between the larger and the smaller constituencies is ridiculous and monstrous. Your gross number of electors is one million ; but a clear majority of the House of Commons is returned by 141,000, or one-seventh of the whole number. The consequence is, that a few men sit for constituencies of great magnitude, and vote according to the general feeling of the nation as expressed by those Constituencies; while hundreds of others sit for places in which there is no- thing like free election known, and have the power of outvoting by five to one the only real representatives of the people. Is it not preposterous that while the twelve largest county constituencies in the kingdom, numbering 163,000 voters, send only 24 men to the House of Conimons, 227 other con- stituencies, numbering only 141,000, should send 339? We propose, then, to equalize the numbers, not with absolute arithmetical precision, which would be impracticable, but as far as known and well-defined boundaries would allow of it, and thus to make every Member amenable to a large and inde- pendent electoral body—a body that on account of its numbers should be equally beyond the reach of corruption and of dictation." "If it is run in my power to point to any remarkable feature of the pre- sent times, indicating a strew national inipspse en the question of Parlia-
mentary reform, I think I am Justified in saying that there is a growing per- ception of the glaring and insufferable evils of our representative system. It would not be difficult to assign reasons for the absence of that general and deep feeling on this subject, which, whenever manifested, will compel the Legislature to yield to the wishes of the people. Be assured, that though gradually and apparently- very slowly, yet surely, and what we ought to rejoice in, safely too, the work of reform is advancing. It is not in our
power to force events, or to take them out of their natural order ; but as certainly as our cause is a just one, the time is not distant when the people
of this kingdom will demand with an irresistible voice, aided by the circum- stances of the period, a sweeping modification of the present mode of elect- ing those who are intrusted with the destinies of this empire." With a view to a more popular organization of the Association, the recom- mendation of the Conference held some months ago had been adopted. The Council of the Association formerly consisted of those who were subscribers to the amount of 10/. and upwards. "The Conference recommended a revision of this part of the constitution ; and the Council readily yielding to that re-
commendation' proceeded to abolish the 101. money qualification, and to place the election of members of the Council in the hands of all subscribers to the Association, without regard to the amounts contributed, providing at the same time that every member of the General Association (if resident within a certain distance from the Metropolis) should be eligible for election." "In our labours thus far we have been generously aided by the citizens of London, to whom we are indebted for by far the largest -part of the funds
placed at our disposal. Those funds have been applied with the strictest re- gard to economy, and have been made the means of extending information, and organizing societies more or less throughout Great Britain. We again
appeal to the well-known liberality of our friends in the Metropolis. We do. so with confidence, convinced that to the best of our ability .we have hitherto been faithful stewards, and have adhered inflexibly to the pnnciples on which we first sought their assistance."
Mr. J. W. Serie proposed a resolution expressing strong dissatisfaction with many of the votes of the public money, at the neglect of the popular
petitions for reform, at the disregard of just Colonial complaints, and a1. the oppression of unnecessary taxation,—things all scaling for a radical reform of the House of Commons : Mr. Serie especially enforced the des. mend for reform, which he pushed to an European extent, with an anti- peaceful ardour-
" And then, would they stop in England ? Had they no hearts, no feel- ings, no sympathies, in reference to the mighty events which were passing around them, and which, as the papers of that morning informed the
were, in one place at least, coming to a crisis? Had they no feeling for that noble little constitutional state the electorate of Hesse-Camel? Was it no- thing for the cause of liberty, wherever liberty was spoken of, that the cause of tyranny seemed, as it were, to be grasped by one foul house, which sent its Haynau to dragoon Hungary, and with the brother of that very Hayman appealed to the army, to put down all freedom and all right in Hesse-Cassel? He verily believed that all these things were drawing to a crisis. He be- lieved that long before this time next year events would happen on which they would heartily congratulate each other. MT. W. J. Fox, M.P., claimed to have been a Reformer when the word " reform " was odious and opprobrious—before a trimming policy had
made the Whigs a family clique in possession of office. He disclaimed any personal feeling as to the fate of his Education measure, but sarcasti- cally characterized the opposition which defeated it. The majority against him was much larger than that which usually voted on such questions, for it was composed of nearly all the priest-ridden of all factions. Those who so long held Europe in darkness, and who were now bringing new titled into this island, were ranged against him. The Cardinal Archbishop of Westminster sent his Member to oppose; the Puseyite clergy - men sent their Members to oppose ; the old regular established hierarchy sent the Government to oppose ; and many of the leading sects, who were more anxious for sectarianism than for religion, sent their Members to op-
pose; and what wonder if, under this combination the majority was far larger than was usually found on similar occasions ? But the very fact that such were the opposers of the measure strengthened his determination to persevere,—not, indeed, precisely in the same form' for, as Lord John Rus- sell thought he had given the Committee of the Privy Council too much power, he would not try to make his Lordship a tyrant against his will;
but now, that he had more fully than before developed his policy with re- gard to education, he would take him at his word, and would include no such provision in any future measure. But as to the question itself, if health and strength were continued to him, he would again try to obtain for the people the exercise of the right to have education uncontrolled by priests. or governments,—paid for by self-imposed local taxation, directed by volun- tarily chosen local management, free from all class preponderance, and pre- senting to all classes a system of instruction which, whilst it would not be too good for the poorest, would be quite good enough for the wealthiest.
Mr. Hume contrasted the easy march of Reform now-a-days with its slow and difficult progress when he started in political business ; and he
derived from the improvement hopes of further perfection. He then. passed to counsels in his usual economic vein ; running a parallel between the government of a state and the management of a well-regulated private
household, and insisting that the same maxims of prudence should guide both in balancing the style of living with the amount of income. He hinted aggressions on the extravagant Ministry in power—" changes could not be effected without a change of Government" ; and he had a parting fling at the cold friends of "the People's cause." Having owed his seat, in stormy times, to the working classes, when he was supported. by the trades associations in the boroughs he had represented,
he counselled all those who were now coming forward in the muse of politi- cal reform, to persevere in endeavouring to secure to the people their just rights. Unfortunately, the higher class of merchants, manufacturers, and capitalists, had deserted their cause, and they were left to fight their own battle. Look at this city—where were the members of the Corporation ? Where were the men of property, whose influence might be beneficial to their Interests? They were all away with the Whigs. They called them- selves Reformers, but only to the extent of the Whigs, who were no Re- formers at all.
Colonel Thompson echoed this concluding tone of reproach, but en- deavoured to give inspiriting counsel against yielding in despair. Mr. Feargus O'Connor, who was "loudly cheered by one section of the meeting," commenced with a declaration of his joy that the Association
will dissipate the antagonism which has existed between the Middle and labouring classes; but his subsequent remarks eho w a momentary ob- livion or disregard of this source of pleasure. The Financial Reformers sought to reduce the expenditure of the coun- try by ten millions. What would be the benefit of that to the working man ? It would save him just the value of a single pint of beer a month. But they might depend that, if the expenditure were so reduced, no reduction would be made in the taxes paid by the labouring man-' or if there were, the em- ployer would immediately take off 20,000,0001.from the wages of labour. (" Oh !" cheers, and marks of dissent.) The taxes were as nothing com- pared with what was ground out of the labour of the poor by their em- ployers. (" !" and cheers.) We pay 10,300,000/. every year for the cler- gy,. 8,000,0001. for poor-rates, and 8,000,00W. for the Army and Navy ; While the whole government of the United States costs only 8,000,000/. If the foreign nations now struggling for freedom succeed, then Lord John Russell would no doubt come down and say, "What do you want for the people ?" Then he would make concessions, but not else. He re- gretted that there was not the same union of all classes here as on the Con- tinent. If there was a demand for popular rights abroad, merchants, bankers, officers in the army, all were united on the side of the people. But it was not so here ; for here the upper classes were almost always found op- posed to the concession of popular rights. The only object of those in power was to keep there, and those who were not sought only to overthrow those who were, and get their places for themselves. The people were never thought of, or eared for; and the reason was that there was not unanimity amongst themselves. If they were properly governed, there would be no poor-laws. (" Oh.!" hisses, and laughter.) He was no revolutionist, and never had been. They had seen that those who were the first to urge the people to revolutionary measures in 1847 and 1848, as Powell and Davis, were the first to inform against them. As society is now constituted, the upper classes care only for themselves; and whether the labourers starve or ,not they do not care; in fact, they would rather they died, in order that the poor-rates might be lessened. (Interruption and cries of "Under !") He wished to offer no opposition to the principles of the Association, but he called. on the working men never to abandon the principles of the People's Charter whole and entire.
The President gently condemned some of Mr. O'Connor's language— He did not concur in many of the sentiments which had been uttered; but what he asked of them was, while they were each and every one free to carry out his own views and opinions, to give credit to others for the same honesty of purpose, and to accept the aid of the middle classes in achieving those objects which they have m common; and, if the good sense of the com- munity would allow them afterwards to go further, then do so.
Mr. Henry Vincent avowed a momentary pain at witnessing the "little irritation of fooling"; and he endeavoured to allay the irritation by con- ciliation, persuasion, and cheering assurances for the Chartists. The power of the aristocracy as a distinctive corporation is dead and gone. When death has swept off a few illustrious names that might be mentioned, the ancient families will be powerless, without a hearty constitutional union with the great body of the people. The tendency of the country is demo- cratic. Nor must men be alarmed at this fact ; for to quarrel with Demo- cracy is to quarrel with Christianity, which teaches that God made all the nations of the world of one blood which is more democratic than the con- stitution of the Reform Association, or even of the People's Charter.
As Mr. Vincent sat down, the Chairman ejaculated, "That's one man from the ranks of the people ! There are thousands as good as he ; belt ours to send such to the House of Commons." (Prolonged applause.) At this stage, a resolution was put into the Chairman's hand, calling for a general conference to consider the propriety of adopting the Manhood Suffrage. He thought it inconvenient and inexpedient, but would put it to the meeting : it was put, and negatived by a large majority. Resolu- tions of compliment then finished the proceedings, and the meeting broke up.
The Lord Mayor gave a banquet to the principal bankers and mer- chants, and many of the Wardens of the leading Companies, on Wednes- day. The toasts were mostly formal, and the epeecheil of a simply con- vivial inst.
At a meeting of the Metropolitan Commissioners of Sewers, on Tues- day, Mr. Pete advertised the public of an important resolution, upon which the Commissioners are about to act. The drainage of Church Street, St. Gilea's, is in course of execution ; and the cost of those works has been levied on the property itself. He wished the fact to become ge- nerally known that persons possessing property in a similar condition to that in Church Street and Carrier Street, St. Giles's, would be assessed in a similar manner in default of their fbrmimg a proper system of drain- age. The Commission was determined, that having once decided upon the general system of the arterial drainage of London, they would turn their attention, as even now it was their duty to do, to those districts where private property was inefficiently drained; and in cases where drainage was not properly carried out, the COMM1881011 will execute the work itself, and levy the whole cost on the property.
Parochial Schools, for the children ofthe parishes of St Paul's Covent Garden and St. Martin's in the Fields, were opened on Thursday, with an entertainment to visiters and a holyday to the children. Sir Henry Du- kinfield, the late Vicar of St. Martin's in the Fields, set on foot the plan ; and by his personal influence and benevolent exertions obtained upwards of 3000/. of the 4000/. which the building has cost. An excellent feature of the building is prominently described in the accounts. "These schools have one remarkable and distinctive feature, which is said to be an entire novelty in school architecture, but which appears admirably adapted for such buildings, where it is necessary to erect them in crowded localities. A covered playground, something like a racket-court, has been constructed on the roof. The edifice is so high that a view to some distance is commanded from it ; and the air is so great an improvement upon that of the streets of the locality, that the place, if not otherwise appropriated, 'night afford an admirable covered walk in wet weather for the inhabitants of the confined neighbourhoods adjacent. To this elevated platform the visiters and guests of the parochial authorities were introduced on repairing from the church ; and here the children of St. Martin's Schools were mus- tered, and formally opened their future place of education by singing the national anthem and giving three hearty cheers for their fellow-parishioners and Sovereign. The children then marched round in double file; and not the least agreeable feature of the day's proceedings was to observe the affec- tion which one and all appeared to feel for their late and present Vicars, and for those who interested themselves in their education and wellbeing."
The report of the Prisons Committee of the Middlesex Bench of Magis- trates states some facts of interest. Captain Williams, the Government Inspector, had doubted the validity of "the order for removing certain classes of prisoners from one prison to another "—for placing the males and the females in different prisons, ice—without the sanction of her Ma- jesty in Council : the opinion of Mr. Martin, Q.C., had therefore been taken ; Mr. Martin considered the order perfectly legal without the Royal
sanction, but recommended nevertheless that it should be obtained : the sanction was obtained, and the removals and classification were subse- quently carried into effect.
The prisoners in Coldbath-fields prison were 1205; the daily average throughout the year was 1176: the total commitments of the year were 10,010—less by 1105 than last veer. The expenditure of the establishment has been reduced. "On the 11th October 1849, there were 1087 prisoners, and a staff of 144 officers, whose wages amounted to 12,281/. per veer ; on the llth October 1860, there were 1200 prisoners, a staff of 144 officers, whose wages amounted to 9330/. per year, a saving of nearly 3000/. a year having been effected in the item of wages alone. It is a circumstance well deserving the attention of those who deprecate the system of presenting prisoners with good-conduct marks, that since the introduction of that sys- tem into Coldbath-fields, the punishments for misconduct within the walls have decreased at the rate of one per cent per diem, and during the past year no less than 5389 prisoners were discharged from that prison without being reported for any offence. When the female prisoners were removed to West- minster, some difficulty was experienced in filling up the places of those prisoners taken from the laundry ; but no inconvenience is now felt in that respect—all the washing, making, and repairing of linen, 8re., being per- formed efficiently by male prisoners. Amongst the 10,015 prisoners com- mitted, there have occurred but 6 deaths, and the general health of the es- tablishment is remarkably good."
A railway arcade, similar to the Lowther Arcade in the Strand, is being constructed, by the South-eastern Railway Company, on the left-hand side of the approach to their terminus, on the property in their possession abutting upon Tooley Street The design is rather an elegant one, and con- sists of a succession of shops on either side- for the sale of fancy and other articles in requisition by railway travellers, with a large refreshment-room in the centre of the thoroughfare which fronts the railway terminus. The building, between one and two hundred feet in length, has its basement in Tooley Street, from whence it rises upwards of sixty feet, divided into two stories of thirty feet each, the upper elevation forming the arcade, on a level with the railway, and the lower part in Tooley Street, forming a range of ordinary shops. There are rooms above the shops, and the floors throughout the building are fire-proof. The front is to be in the Italian style of archi- tecture; and the building, upon which a large number of men have been at work for the last two months, is to be completed and opened by Christmas. —Daily Papers.
A gang of burglars have met with a warm receptionin the Regent's Park.. Daring Sunday night, three or four men entered the mansion of Mr. Hol- ford, Holford House : the servants were alarmed, arose, armed themselves, attacked the robbers, wounded and captured one, and wounded without cap- turing another. The prisoner was produced at the Marylebone Police Office in the course of the day, and a number of witnesses were examined. The pri- soner gave the name of " William Dyson" : he was pale and weak, ant appeared to suffer from a hurt on the head. It seems that Mr. Ifolford is in America. James Paul, the butler, secured the house on Sunday night. About two o'clock in the morning he heard a noise; he got up, and saw the shadow of a man on the lawn ; Paul dressed and armed him- self, roused the groom and footman and armed them, and thou awoke two coachmen in the stables, giving one a loaded gun and the other a pitchfork. These forces were stationed about the house. Three men: were seen to leave the banqueting-room, and one of these was Dyson; he was knocked down by a coachman with a pitchfork, and two men grappled him till the Police came. Another of the robbers was seen running away ; Paul the butler snapped one lock of a double-barrelled pistol, but it missed fire, and as the robber ran behind a bush Paul fired the other barrel. The under-coachman had fired his gun as he saw the three men descent from a window ; one exclaimed, "Oh, God!" as if he had been struck. Dyson only was caught, the others having disappeared for a time. When search was made, blood was found near the bush at which the butler had fired; and there were traces of blood over some fences, for a considerable distance. There was an impression that the man hit by Paul; hadbeen thrown by his companions into the Regent's Canal. Policeman. Collins stated that Dyson told him "there were four of them ooncerned in it ; and that they had made an arrangement at a public-house at Battle Bridge to meet at the house of Mr. Holford at a certain time, and that each WSW to take a separate road." He said to the Police at Mr. Helloed'', "It's of no use searching the place any further; there were only four of us, two inside and two out." Nothing of note was found on Dyson. But at the house the officers picked up some pieces of candle, a crowbar, part of an ormolu orna- ment broken from a figure in the banqueting-room, a sling formed of a large • stone tied in a handkerchief, and a hat ; there were shot-holes in the hatr and marks of blood on the inside. The robbers had entered by a window, ' which they had forced open with the crowbar. The prisoner, who com- plained of the hard treatment he received from his captors, was remanded for a week.
t Dyson is well known to the Police on the Surrey side of the water ; he is usually called "the Doctor." The Regent's Canal was dragged on Mon- day, but without effect. The Police made inquiries for wounded men at hospitals, and found several who had recently entered.; but the only really suspicious ease was that of a man named Bryant, who entered St. Thomas's on Monday morning. He had gun-shot wounds in one arm and on the back of his thigh. He told an improbable story, that he had been wounded in &- scuffle with the pot-boy at a beer-shop at East Peckham in Kent; and a watch was set on hills.
The Police have since ascertained that Bryant was wounded in a scuffle between Irish and English hop-pickers ; and he has been discharged from custody.
At Lambeth Police Office, on Thursday, Hardy and Smith, notorious and expert burglars, were brought before the Magistrate. They were arrested. by the Police in the Renmngton Road, at night, in consequence of their bulky appearance : four coats, a telescope, and other property, evidently the produce of a recent robbery, were found upon them ; also housebreaker's im- plements, two of which were large plyers. Sergeant Goff explained the use of these—" Hitherto the greatest security against picking the locks of street- doors was that of leaving the key inside; for while it was so placed, a ske- leton-key could not be introduced. The use of the instruments produced, however, destroyed this security ; for with them the end or pipe of the door- key waslaid hold of, and in nine cases out of ten was turned round so as to unlock the door. If however the lock was so stiff as not to act by the force ititnedur:?. the key,kfle tihtefrokrneyitheellfoolivr:thantigntalnroilntrdoitiiucea pot:itiptv to .r enable skeleton-key. Again, its application as a latch key was most effectual' mattered not whether that part entering the pipe of the key was round or square, the instant it was caught by the end of the plyers, that instant could I the bolt be forced back. There was another ingenious instrument amongst ' the lot, namely, a parlour door-key, or dummy without wards, and covered I with wax, for the purpose of taking the impression from some lock." The burglars were remanded.
At the Mansionhouse, on Wednesday, Henry Denham, the man charged with robbing Mr. Cureton and assailing; Mr. Miller, was reexamined, and committed on the latter charge. The only evidence given was in Mr. Mil- ler's case. That gentleman said he had not "a single bit of doubt" as to the prisoner's identity.
At the Southwark Police Office, on Monday, Mr. East, a leather-manu- facturer of Bermondsey, attended to make public a diabolical attempt to kill or maim his son. An oval wooden box arrived by post, with two shil- lings' worth of stamps on the lid; it was addressed to young Mr. East, in what appeared to be a feigned hand. The thing looked suspicious. When the lid was partially raised with a knife, gunpowder fell out. Mr. East senior immediately directed his son to proceed no further till water had been poured into the box. This was done, and the box opened with safety. It turned out to be an "infernal machine." It contained nearly a pound of the finest gunpowder, with irregular pieces of lead; and just underneath the lid were a number of lucifer-matches and sand-paper, placed in such a position that the least violence used in prizing up the top of the box must lead to an explosion of the whole contents of the interior, and the result would be in all probability disastrous, not only to the persona who opened it, but to all around. The Police were immediately called in, and inquiries set on foot,— hitherto ineffectually, as the person who posted the box could not be traced. Superintendent Haynes remarked to the Magistrate, that it was surprising the box had not exploded while in transit, as a fall or slight friction would have fired it.
Mr. John Bridge has been charged before the Southwark Magistrate with creating a disturbance in the Roman Catholic chapel at Dockhead, by at- tempting to force his way in. It appears that two young ladies were to take the veil ; Mr. Bridge applied to a Catholic bookseller for a ticket ; a shilling was demanded ; Mr. Bridge would not pay this, and resolved to in- sist on his "right" to enter a public place of worship : hence the fracas. Mr. Long was of opinion that the ceremony of "taking the veil" could not be considered as "usual worship," and that therefore Mr. Bridge was not entitled to demand admission; but under the circumstances, the Magistrate discharged him from custody.
Mr. William Thomas Restell, who has been for fifteen years chief clerk to the Governors of the Poor of St. Margaret's and St. John's Westminster, has absconded after embezzling money intrusted to him. His defalcations are said hardly to exceed in amount one year of his salary.