1 APRIL 1848, Page 6

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FRX.NCE.—The Provisional Government has postponed the general elec- tion for the National Assembly till the 23d. of April, and the day of meet- ing till the 4th of May.

hi. Thiers has at last come forward as a candidate to represent his de- partment of the Bouches du Rhone in the National Assembly. He declares himself with characteristic spirit and point.

He considers that the lustre which he may have shed on his native department gives him an equal right with his opponents to offer himself to its choice. He confesses his faith—" It certainly is true that I have neither desired nor wished for the Republic; for, in my opinion, a constitutional Monarchy was sufficient to assure us a great degree of liberty; and the state of England during the two last centuries seemed to me a destiny which was not to be disdained for my country. Providence has decided otherwise. I bow before its decrees; and if I am ready to resist all tyranny, I shall never resist the force of circumstances, manifested by such striking signs. I accept, then, the Republic without any mental reservation; but I do not mean to disavow any part of my life. In the first years which followed 1880, 1 defended the cause of order. Hardly had order been established, when I defended the cause of liberty, of the national greatness; which in their turn seemed to me in peril through the faults of a Royalty which I shall abstain from outraging now that it is proscribed. I might have obtained the favours of that Royalty: I did not seek them, because my convictions could not accord with those of the reigning King. Out of eighteen years, I passed twelve in an opposition the most firm, the most constant, and the most disinterested."

His intentions—" I have therefore consented to be put in nomination. I have consented to do this from duty, from devotion, from honour, not to work in the future National Assembly for a concealed Restoration; but to labour frankly to constitute the new Republic on a solid and durable basis, to defend there the es- sential, conditions of all society, family and property and the liberty of transac- tions."

He admits that even the Republicans du lendemain may not find him a Repub- lican of sufficiently ancient date; that the Conservatives may still remember his opposition; and especially that the clergy may require to be reassured on his tenden- cies regarding public instruction,—a question now distant, and greatly changed. He understands all these scruples, "yet," says he, "to do away with them, I do not intend to disavow any of my former opinions." He declares that if he is not elected he shall consider himself by no means disgraced in the face of France or in the face of Europe; and beseeches his friends to spare all efforts—to abstain from compromising themselves in their support of him—and above all, to make no pledges on his behalf. In conclusion he says—" I shall reenter with pleasure on retirement and study, there to meditate in quiet on the eternal laws of human I society, which I do not think changed notwithstanding the agitation of the world .

there to make ardent vows in favour of that France which I agitation so loved, whirl'.

I love so still, and which I shall love in proportion even to the dangers which she may run at this time. (Signed) " A. Tinnns, Ancient Deputy des Beeches du Rhone.'

M. Louis Blanc has laid before the Parliament of Ouvriers over which he presides at the Palace of the Luxembourg, the outline of the system for the organization of labour which he proposes to lay before the National As- sembly. The Government, considering the commercial crisis at present existing, to take possession, on its own account, of all establishments which are about to suspend their works; the present proprietors preserving their rights, which are to be converted into bonds bearing interest, secured on the establishments and reimbursable in money either by way of annuity or by a sinking-fund. The persons employed in these establishments, and of which the State is to be the gdrant, are to be put on a new footing. The workpeople to form an association ; to elect the directors of the works, and themselves fix the amount of the wages or the share that labour is entitled to in the profits. The share being determined in a general manner, the collective wages to be distributed among the workmen individually, by the Council of Travailleurs, according to proportions open to discussion, but which the Government Commission thinks ought to be in equal parts. The produce, after deduction of the wages, to be formed into a general fund, to be divided into four parts- 1. A quarter for the sinking-fund of the capital belonging to the proprietor with whom the State made the bargain.

2. A quarter for the establishment of a fund, to be set aside for the support of old men, the sick, wounded, &c.

3. A quarter to be divided among the workmen by way of bonus. 4. A quarter for the formation of a reserve fund.

Besides this, M. Louis Blanc declares that it will be necessary to unite workshops belonging to the same branch of industry; to unite all the workshops of different branches of industry, but placed in the same con- dition; and to guarantee the interests of the consumer as regards the quality and the lowest possible price of the produce. In fine- " The plan is, that a Council of Administration should be placed at the head of all the ateliers, in whose hands would be united the guidance of all the in- dustries, in the same way that the direction of each particular industry would be placed in the hands of an engineer. The State would arrive at the realization of this plan by successive measures. No one is to have violence done to him. Ths State intends to establish a model, by the side of which the private associations and the present economical system may live."

A Government decree, published last Sunday, ordains the suspension of cash payments by the banks of Lyons, Rouen, Bordeaux, Nantes, Lille, Marseilles, Havre, Toulouse, and Orleans: the same decree makes the notes of those banks a legal tender, allows notes of 100 francs to be issued, and prescribes the amount of each bank's circulation.

The official returns of the foreign commerce do not show any consider- able diminution. There has been an increase on cotton, coals, and some other minerals, and on seeds and manures. The increase of exports has been very great in wines, brandies, and salt. On the other hand, the navi- gation has fallen off 75,000 tons; and customs-duties on sugars have de- clined.

On Saturday, some three hundred engineers, workmen at the factories of M. Gavean, in the Rae Traverse, struck work, and insisted on their em- ployer's signing an application to the Government to reduce the hours of labour to nine. Captain Zegler, a delegate, went among them, appealed to their patriotism, and induced them to disperse.

The receipts of the French railways have wofully declined since the great injuries done to them in February. On the Paris and Rouen and the Rouen and Havre lines, three-fourths of the traffic have been annihilated.

The Committee of National Defence, composed of general officers, has decided that a camp of 90,000 [later accounts say only 35,000] men shall be formed at Dijon, and that the reserves of 1847 and 1848 shall be sent to it.

Some of the Paris journals relate instances of insubordination among the troops of the line in the provinces. Cries of " Down with the Colo- nel!" have issued from the ranks of the Fifty-seventh Regiment, at Lille. The Eighth Cuirassiers, at Mauberge, assembled tumultuously on the 21st March, and demanded the dismissal of their Lieutenant, Major, Captain, and Adjutant. Their Colonel addressed them, but was compelled tolwith- draw. They afterwards broke the prisons and liberated some of their comrades.

The Times correspondent describes the insubordination of the military in Paris- " The doors of the Sallee de Police in the barracks are torn down; no order of the chefs is obeyed; the soldiers come and go as they list, staying away from the barracks at will; sleeping out at night; remaining absent whole weeks some- times, and only returning to require to be fed. Under these circumstances, any discipline, much less any punishment, is quite out of the question. In the barracks of the Garde Mobile in the Faubourg Poissoniere, the common men on Saturday cashiered their officers, one and all, as obnoxious and tyrannical, and drove them out."

The affairs of Germany engross much attention among the Parisian public. A propagandist spirit is showing itself, in the open encouragement accorded to the organization of the various bodies of foreigners. These are publicly arming, and departing for their native countries with avowed Republican objects. The Times correspondent, writing on Saturday, de- scribes some demonstrations—

"At this moment there is passing before me a column of 1,000 Austrian, Bo- hemian, and Hungarian Republicans, chanting a national air, or several airs in fact, for each division has its own song as well as its own flag. They are fol- lowed by a separate body of some fifty only with the united German colours, who belong to one or other of the small Germanic states. Like the former, they ap- pear in marching order. Several have knapsacks on their backs, and they are to leave for Germany this evening."

A writer in the Chronicle describes the departure by the Northern Rail- way of a large number of Belgians with intentions of revolution in their own country- " During the day they had shown themselves in all parts of Paris. They pa- raded the streets with flags displayed and drums beating, as if to attract recruits. In the evening they proceeded to the railway-station in regular procession, and with their officers at their head, most of them being armed. At the station a large crowd assembled to witness the scene; who cheered them on their way, shouted for the success of the Belgian Republic, and forced the inhabitants of the streets in the neighbourhood of the railway-station to illuminate in honour of the glorious occasion." The Poles in Paris, to the number of 3,000, went on Monday in a pro- cession, headed by deputations from the various clubs, and delivered an address to the Provisional Government. They were much cheered as they marched along, and a deputation of their body was received at the Hotel do Vile by the Government. The deputation stated, that the Poles were abort to march for their own land, and that they thought they had a right to expect aid from the Government of Republican France. M. de Lamartine, in reply, admitted that France did owe Poland a moral and an eventual support, in return for that blood which brave Poles had abed for Europe on all the great battle-fields of liberty. He would make known the principles of foreign policy adopted by the Provisionnl Govern- ment- "France is undoubtedly Republican. She proclaims this to all the world. But the Republic is not at war, either openly or secretly, with any of the existing na- tions or governments, as long as those nations and governments refrain from waking war upon it. It will not, therefore, voluntarily commit or suffer to be commuted any act of aggression or violence upon the Germanic nations. . . . And at what a moment have you come to us to require us to commit this contra- 'motion against all good policy and liberty? Is the treaty of Pilnitz being brought into action against us? Is there a coalition of absolute Sovereigns assembled in arms upon our frontiers or upon yours? No! Every courier brings us victorious acclamations of people which strengthen our cause, precisely for the reason that we have declared its principle to be respect for the rights, the wills, the forms of govern- ment, and the territories of all nations and people. Are the results of the external policy of the Provisional Government so bad that it must be forced to change it,

and march to the frontiers of its neighbours, bayonet in hand, instead of present- ing it as the harbinger of liberty and peace? No! The firm and pacific policy of the Republic succeeds too well for us to wish to alter it until the hour comes when we may be forced to change it yother powers. Look at Belgium, Switzerland, Italy, all Southern Germany! Turn your eyes towards Vienna and Berlin! What more is necessary? Even the possessors of your own land open to you a path to your country, and call upon you to come and reestablish it in peace. Be not un- just either towards God, towards the Republic, or towards yourselves. The sympa- thizing states of Germany, the li'mg of Prussia, are opening the doors of their

citadels to your martyrs; the gates of Poland are open, Cracow is enfranchised,

the Grand Dutchy of Posen has again become Polish. These are the arms which we have given you in one month ! Do not demand any more from us." Several members of the Italian lssociation attended at the Hotel de Ville on Monday, on their way to Italy under the lead of M. Mazzini, their President; M. Lamartine received them, and replied to their address with his happiest brilliancy. We have only room, however, for its political kernel: he was speaking of Italy- " Go, and tell her, that if she is attacked in her soil or sentiments, in her limits or her liberties, if your arms are not sufficient to defend her, it is no longer wishes merely, it is the sword of France that we shall offer to preserve her from all encroachment."

On the same day, the Spaniards in Paris waited on M. Lamartine, and expressed their fraternity with the French Republic.

BELGIUM.—The invasion of Belgium by Republicans from Paris came to a signal and ludicrous failure. The Government bad been timely warned

of the intended descent by M. Delosclazes, Provisional Commissioner of the Departement du Nord; who came from Lille to Quievrain, just within the Belgian frontier, especially on the friendly office. A large body of troops and armed peasants (who are violently opposed to the notion of invasion by French Republicanism) were assembled at the station ready to pounce on the train. The first train started on Friday; and, by some misarrange- ment of commissariat, the travellers were disappointed of food at Donay.

A few loaves were got in some way, and scrambled for by the famished patriots. They left Donay half frozen and starved, with a faint attempt at the " MarseillaiSe." They had &rapped to stop at Valenciennes: but an instant after their arrival an engine which had approached from the Bel- gian frontier attached itself to the train, set off with it, and, despite the curses of the travellers, drew them on to the station of Quievrain. About a hundred of them, shouting " Sative qui pent!" leaped desperately from the train: some broke their legs, and were captured; others, more fortu- nate or more agile, scampered back to the French territory, and escaped. Upwards of eight hundred were safely drawn into the siding at the station, and quietly taken into custody by the troops and peasants: they were marched off in gangs of half a dozen, some to confinement, others to the obscurity of their native villages, others (chiefly French and English) back to the French frontier. subsequent trains were served in the same way ; but the trap becoming known, the later arrivals were stopped safely at Valenciennes; about three thousand have arrived there, and were scattered on the frontier villages, unable to get on to Antwerp or back to Paris.

Some of the Belgian artisans professed to have joined the expedition simply as a means of travelling home gratis.

Ganstarre.—We just indicated in our last postscript the prominent fea- tures of the grand circuit of his capital which the King made on Wednes- day the 22d, accompanied by his Ministers and the professors and students of the University.

The Minister Count Schwerin assembled the students in the Hall of the University, and addressed them from the King. They were mostly armed, and were headed by their Rector and Prorector, Muller and Hecker, also armed. Count Schwerin, speaking of the King, said—

"He will originate and form a German Parliament, and he will head the pro- gress of the nation. The King relies on the protection of the people. Is not this your opinion? (" Yes, yes!" repeated by a thousand voices.) The King, wear- mg the German colours, will appear in the streets of this town. He wishes the students to surround him in a body. Gentlemen, may God bless the German King! (Stormy applause.) Gentlemen, we are his Majesty's responsible Minis- ters; but it is the King who animates us. His thought is progress; his thought is liberty God bless the responsible Ministers!" The King set out on the procession, surrounded by the Princes and his Ministers. All wore the German colours round their arms. The people

thronged about the King with great enthusiasm, almost preventing his pro- gress; and numbers of them received a shake of the hand from his Ma- jesty. At the University, the students were found in martial order, and headed by three young men bearing the Imperial German banner. The King saluted the heads with great warmth, and addressed those around him- " I am truly proud that it is my capital where so powerful an opinion has mani- fested itself. This day is a great day; it ought never to be forgotten: it is de- cisive. Gentlemen, you carry a grand future within you; and when in after years yen look back upon your life, you will, I am sure, think of this day. The colours I wear are not my own; I do not mean to usurp anything with them; Iwaut neither another crown nor any other dominion. I want liberty; I will have unity in Germany; I want good order; I swear it before God. (Here the King raised his right hand to Heaven.) I have done nothing but what has often happened in the history of Germany. It has often been the case that, when disorder prevailed, mighty princes and dukes have come forward; they have taken the banner in their hands and led the nation. I believe that the hearts of the Princes yearn to- wards me, and that the will of the nation supports me. Mark me, gentlemen' I ask of you—take it down in writing—that I will not usurp anything; that. I claim nothing except German liberty and unity. Tell it to the students of other universities. I am heartily sorry that they are not all here in one body !"

Loud cries of " Vivat Frederick William!" followed this speech. The students rattled their arms, the people threw their hats up, and vented their feelings by endless cheers. Returning to the Palace, the King was overcome by the scene, and in the exuberance of his feelings embraced his brother. The populace were extravagantly delighted at this, and raised anew the wildest acclamations.

Professor Dahimanu has been summoned to Berlin, to assist in delibe- ration on constitutional questions.

Von Auerswald has arrived in Berlin, and entered on his Ministry.

Count Arnim has been appointed to act as King's Commissary in the Assembly of the United Diet.

A striking funereal ceremony was performed at Berlin on the 22d March, in honour of the victims of the fatal night of the 18th. The interment of 187 bodies of the fallen took place at once, on a hill to the Northward of the city, called Friederischein. Ten thousand persons walked in proces- sion, in deep mourning. The guilds, the corporations, the students, (headed by the celebrated Humboldt,) and the Catholic and Protestant clergy, the military, the officers of State, and the King himself, joined to form the solemn train. Mourning flags covered the palace and the public buildings; the drums were muffled, and the bands performed funereal MI.. sic; the people were universally moved to deep grief, and the King espe- cially betrayed great emotion. One vast grave was dug in the form of a cross, and into this great receptacle the 187 coffins wore lowered. Citi- zens and soldiers, Catholics, Protestants, and Jews, were laid there in com- mon, that the mutual forgiveness of past events might be fraternally marked. The only distinctions were those of creed in the services per- formed by the ministers of each faith respectively. The clergy pronounced addresses of peace and reconciliation, and the people with deep feeling gave assenting response. A simple mound was raised. The mourning multi- tude then dispersed in silence and good-will.

Besides the deceased thus publicly interred, a far greater number have been interred in private. It is believed that the slain exceeded one thousand, eight hundred of them soldiers.

The King has caused numbers of the wounded to be taken into his pa- lace, and into the apartments of the Dutchess of Mecklenburg. The Queen has given up her own beds and linen for their use, and personally tends them with solicitous care.

The Prussian State Gazette states that the Duke of Brunswick has caused the King of Prussia's proclamation " to his people and to Germany " to be distributed to the public with a Ministerial foot-note of approval. The note "acknowledges the generous resolution of his Majesty to take the lead of the general affairs of Germany in this stormy time, to be the only means, and one which our circumstances render indispensable, to protect the outward security and integrity of all Germany, and to secure the quiet development of internal liberty."

A great national meeting from the South and West of Germany as- sembled at Heidelberg on the 26th March, to exchange congratulations on the events of the past month, and hear the hopes and desires for the future. Thirty thousand freemen were there, every man armed, in open meeting after the fashion of the ancient gemotes of the Teutonic tribes. Cologne, Coblentz, Mayence, Mannheim, Carlaruhe, Darmstadt, and Baden on the Rhine—Frankfort, Munich, Stuttgardt, Nuremberg, Augsburg, and Cassel —the Universities of Munich, Bonn, and Heidelberg—all furnished their quota of citizens, professors, or students. The valley of the Neckar re- sounded with the snortings of railway-engines hourly racing to and fro with their living freights, and adorned with the German flag. The day was fine. In the great court of the Castle was erected a platform for the speakers, with evergreens grouped around. Welcker, Mittermayer, Hecker, Gervinus, and numbers of the greatest teachers and orators, were there and spoke, and were received with salutes of musketry from the centre of the great crowd. Welcker recommended a model- " Do not mistake licence for liberty, nor suppose that because much must be remodelled all most be overturned. Far be such a thought from us: let us progress, but steadily and thoughtfully; let us lay the foundation of our freedom, a national parliament; lot us be citizens of one united country; but do not think such an object can be attained by proclaim- ing a Republic. Look to France: she now, for the second time, possesses that form of Government, in which alone, according to some, true freedom is to be found. What has she gained by it? What is her present condition ? What her future prospects?—To say the least, they are not encouraging; and I am de- lighted that among my own countrymen no desire has been expressed to follow in her steps. But regard the present condition of England "—[ Here the speaker was interrupted by thunders of applause and vollies]—" let her be our model: he has long enjoyed free institutions; she alone now remains unshaken by the storm which is howling around; and it is to her we must look as our model and our guide." Other speakers enforced these opinions; and were greeted with signs of approbation. The meeting broke up, to unite again at Frankfort on the 30th.

A monster meeting of more than 100,000 Germans was held at Berlin on the 26th. Every trade and guild sent its members. Among the claims set forth in the resolutions adopted by the meeting, was a Ministry of Mas- ters and Workmen "for the administration of labour "; and it was resolved that the trades should meet again and nominate the persons they approved, and inform the King of their choice. The King, having been memorialized for a constitution by the people of Breslau and Liegnitz, replied, on the 23d, by an edict. lie objects to granting an electoral law for Silesia alone; but intends to submit a law to the Diet forthwith, which he thus explains-

" I shall present to the new representation of my people propositions on the following points, in accordance with resolutions which I have already. made known. 1. For guaranteeing personal liberty. 2. On the right of association and public meeting. 3. On the adoption of trial by jury for criminal affairs—that is to say, for political offences and those of the press. 4. On thegeneral armament of the inhabitants of towns, with free election of their chiefs. 5. On ministerial re sponsibility. 6. On the independence of the magistracy. 7. On the abolition of privileged tribunals. Further, the standing army will take the oath to the con- stitution."

The Datchies of Schleswig and Holstein have revolted against the Danish Government, and declared for their own junction as a unit in the " great German nation." A Provisional Government, under the presidency of the Duke Angustenberg of Schleswig-Holstein, has been formed; who have obtained possession of the fortress of Rendsiterg, and are organizing great preparations for defence. A deputation went to Copenhagen to ne- gotiate, and were received with popular tumult; the Danish populace being with difficulty prevented from taking the lives of the deputation. On the 2fith March they returned to Kid with the King's answer. He proposed to grant a separate constitution to Holstein, as an independent German federal state, with a liberal electoral system. But he refused to allow Schleswig to join the German Confederation. These terms were not deemed satisfactory. It is stated that hostilities had commenced at Fre- dericstadt on the 26th, and that the town was then on fire. There is also a report that the King himself has been slain, in an attack on Rends- berg; which his troops had nevertheless taken by storm. The King of Prussia has written to the President of the Provisional Go- vernment, acknowledging that body, and promising to protect the dutchies against violent measures: troops are on their way thither from Berlin.

The King has published the following proclamation in answer to Po lisle deputation beaded by the Archbishop von Przylnski, demanding a re- organization of Posen- " Agreeably to the wishes which you have communicated to me, I readily con- sent to pave the way to a national reorganization of the Grand Dutchy of Posen, to be accomplished with the least possible delay. I win therefore sanction the formation of a Commission, consisting of men of both nations (i. e. Germany and Poland.) This Commission will consult with my chief President, and they will make their propositions according to the result of their consultations. But this Commission can only be eft ctual if, and as long as, legal order and the authority ,f the magistrates remain undisturbed in the Grand llutchy of Posen," Prince Adam Czartoryski and other leaders of the lest Polish revolution were at Cologne on the 26th, on their way to Poland. The correspond- ent of the Morning Chronicle describes an enthusiastic but dignified pub- lic reception given to the Prince by the authorities and garrison of Aix-la- Chapelle. The Colonel of the Landwebr was the spokesman: he ex- pressed his pride, and the happiness of all, at meeting the Polish veteran on Prussian ground. He then embraced the Prince, in the name of the whole Prussian army. The people of Cologne and the authorities mani- fested the greatest delight at the sight of him; and the authorities placed a guard of honour at his hotel. He issued an address claiming Poland to be free, unprivileged, and Democratic; and departed for Posen.

The same writer says, that on the journey by the railway, processions to the churches were noticed in all parts of the country. The whole of the persons employed on the railway were armed with swords and muskets.

It is stated in the Breslau Gazette, that 150,000 Russians are already concentrated on the Polish frontier, under the command of Prince Paskie- witch. It is also reported that 30,000 have suddenly been called to the slime frontier, from the Caucasus.

Hardly anything of more significant importance has appeared than this article in the Cologne Gazette, one of the leading journals in the Prussian kingdom- " If we look carefully at our position towards foreign states, nothing is more certain than that we shall shortly be in open war with Russia. One month hence, at the latest, we must be in the field. The will of the German people has pro- nounced itself in favour of the reestablishment of Poland. Prussia will have to give up a portion of her territory to attain the great object—an intermediate kingdom between Germany and Russia. This movement has already com- menced. A Provisional Committee has already been formed at Posen for the re- generation of Poland, with the sanction of the Prussian authorities. " If Prussia is to make a sacrifice of territory, it must be understood that it does so with the certainty of attaining the desired object. Posen must not be given up with a chance of its falling into the bands of Russia. Prussia and Ger- many cannot remain strangers to the Russian-Polish war. The words in the Royal proclamation of the 21st of March, recommending a federate army and an armed neutrality, are equivalent to a call to arms."

There is concurrent testimony from Tiibingen and Ulm and Cologne, that a very large body of labourers and soldiers, under Herwegh the Prus- sian poet, have crossed the Baden frontier from France, attacked and burnt Offenburg, and penetrated through the defiles of the Black Forest into the interior of Germany, on a Republican expedition. The professors and students of Tubingen have armed, and are busy in preparing to set out on march. The citizens and the military of Ulm are under arms; and two regiments have departed suddenly, though it is not known whither. The news comes by couriers from Oberndorf and Rothweil, which lay on the German side of the Black Forest. One account numbers the invaders at 40,000, and several concur in making them 20,000.

King Ludwig of Bavaria has abdicated in favour of his son, Maximilian; who, under the title of Maximilian the Second, has formally notified his ac- cession in a patent to his public servants-

" That they shall serve us willingly and dutifully, render us inviolable loyalty and implicit obedience at all times and in all places, as loyal subjects are in duty bound to Kings and those who are set over them by God'

The new King opened the Chambers of his kingdom on the 22d March, in a speech which has already gained him popularity.

He said that he had resolved on an amnesty for all political offences, and taken steps to lay measures immediately before the States securing responsibility of Mi- nisters, liberty of the press, and some other Liberal advances. He intends to abolish lotteries, and has already commenced a reform in the administration of the Landwchr. In conclusion, he said—" The commotions of the times, and the immense interests of our fatherland, demand a closer union of all the German states. I have lost no time in taking measures for concerting the representation of the people at the Confederation. We have entered upon a new sera in our pub- lic life. It is commanded by the spirit which pervades Europe. The eye, not of Bavaria, but of Germany, is fixed upon the approaching deliberations. day they be distinguished by manly independence, by wise moderation, and an abeiance of all revolutionary and destructive tendencies."

The Archduke Stephen returned to Freeburg on the 26th, and pre- vented an outbreak which was imminent, by promulgating the concessions of the Vienna Government. They are, a separate Ministry, with judicial and financial administration. A Liberal Ministry has been formed under Ludwig Batthyany; in which the names of Louis Kossuth and Prince Charles Esterhazy appear as Finance and Foreign Ministers. The Diet has already abolished feudal land-rights, under a compensation to the owners.

ITALY.—The revolution in Lombardy has been complete and success- ful; and the Austrian troops have been driven out.

The great struggle began at Milan on the 18th; when the Empesa proclamation conceding the abolition of censorship and calling the States together was promulgated. The people assembled in great excitement, and made special demands relating to Lombardy,—chiefly concerning the election of deputies to the General Assembly, and the liberation of prison- ers. The demands were refused; and the people immediately set about gaining their ends by force, though at first only armed with cudgels. The Archbishop encouraged them by a harangue from his balcony. The guard at the Governor's palace was surprised and disarmed; and the pa- lace was gained after a stout resistance from troops in the interior. Rem six cannons, with ammunition, fell into the people's bands; and were used with effect in the general struggle. The troops, to the number of 9,000, were concentrated on the citadel, which is on an immense opea plain used for reviews, and is regularly fortified with bastions commanding the town. The gates, however, were held, and the cavalry scoured the en- virons to prevent attempts at relief from without. The people organized themselves, barricaded the streets, seduced some of the troops, especially the Hungarian cavalry, and directed their great efforts to obtaining relies from the outer country. The water of an aqueduct was cut off, and a party conveyed out by its aperture: they came on a guard in the rear, surprised them, and put them to the rout. The country-people flocked to- gether in arms: they captured six guns which were going under escort from Pavia to Milan, and, joined by a large number of armed Swiss, at- tacked the outposts, and established communications with the citizen in- surgents. At last the gates of the city were gained, and the powder- magazine was taken. The troops were closely ^confined in their strong- hold, and provisions cut off. On the 21st a parley was demanded by the garrison and granted; but it brought no peace.

At this date Vilaliano Borromeo, one of the Provisional Government, Wrote— "We have opened communications with the exterior, and will devise the means for the annihilation of the remainder of the army of the Codelegno (Austrians.) Our independence is proclaimed. The surtout, and various other articles, be- longing to Radetsky, are amongst our trophies; and today I caused his uniform to be hung from a in in the centre of my court-yard. His `valiant sword of sixty-five years' is in my hands, and shall be deposited in the Hall of the Muni- cipality. . . I write you from the office of the Provisional Government, of which I am a member, and where I have remained day and night since Saturday, with the exception of the time necessary to inspect the barricades. We have taken a considerable number of prisoners. My house is full of them. Amongst them is the wife of Toresani, and the three Commissaries of Police, &card, Galimarti, and the celebrated Bolza; whom I have thought proper to remove to another place, lest the people should massacre them."

On the 22d, the Austrian troops prepared to retire on Mantua. The fight was maintained till the morning of the 23d; and then, under cover of a brisk cannonade, which was executed as a diversion, the garrison eva- cuated the town in three divisions. Soon after their departure, Piedmontese chasseurs, the advanced guard of Charles Albert's army, ;ode into the opposite end of the town. The Austrians were instantly pursued, over- taken in disorder, and put to rout with dreadful slaughter. They fled in the three directions of Mantua, Verona, and Piacenza. It is not even cer- tain what has become of the renowned Radetsky himself. The Austrians are said to have lost 2,000 slain, in the city and in the'pursuit.

The events throughout Europe, and espeoially at Vienna, with the ex- ample of Milan, in a short time set all the rest of the great towns of Lom- bardy in a flame.

Como and the Lake district around it rose. The Corps Francs of the Tessin mustered in great force, and marched on Como; and the large gar- rison was compelled to surrender. Stores of arms were here gained; and the Swiss set forwards into the Tyrol in one direction, and in the other to aid Milan. Triente and the whole Southern half of Italian Tyrol have risen, and are combating. Southwards, the Austrians have been driven from Pavia and Cremona. The garrison of the fortress of Pizzighettone, rose of itself, and gave much artillery to the insurrection. Lodi, Brescia, and Desenzani, (only one march from Verona,) pronounced, and expelled their rulers. Above all, Venice and Trieste were in open insurrection on the 19th. The Viceroy of Lombardy is at Verona; that place itself being in the greatest agitation.

Parma rose on the 19th. There was barricading and fighting, with much slaughter, through the night. On the 20th, the Duke resigned "supreme authority " into the hands of a Regency, which he appointed from the Po- pular leaders. In the evening, witless with fright, he fled, but was caught and brought back to his town. Afterwards the Regency resigned; and a Provisional Government, composed of its chief members, was elected by the people. Their first act was to proclaim the incorporation of the Dutchy with Piedmont, and adopt the Sardinian constitution. Modena rose on the 20th; the Hungarian troops refused to act against the people. The Duke tried to conciliate the people by concessions; but failed, and was imprisoned. The German dragoons were stanch, but the people overcame them with stones.

There have been convulsions also at Pontremoli, at Massa, and Carrara. On the first news of the outbreak in Milan, Charles Albert assembled his Council, and it was deliberated whether troops should not be sent across the frontier in aid of the movement. The sympathy of the Genoese and of the people on the frontier was openly encouraged, and arms given out to volunteers. Some thousands of students and others from Turin, Alessandria, and Genoa, concentrated at Novarra, and set out in bodies towards Milan, driving back the frontier guards, and raising the country round them.

On the 23d, and before it could be known that the Austrians had evacuated Milan, the King openly declared against Austria, in this pro- clamation— " Charles Albert, by the grace of God King of Sardinia, Cyprus, and Jeru- salem. People of Lombardy and Venice! the destinies of Italy are maturing; a happier fate awaits the intrepid defenders of inculcated rights. From affinity of race, from intelligence of the age, from community of feeling, we are the first to join in that unanimous admiration which Italy manifests, towards you. People of Lombardy and Venice! our arms, which were already concentrated on your frontier when you anticipated the liberation of glorious Milan, now come to offer you in your further trials that aid which a brother expects from a brother, a friend from a friend. We will second your just desires, confiding in the aid of that God who is visibly with us—of that God who has given to Italy a Pius the Ninth—of that God who by such wonderful impulse has given to Italy the power of acting alone. And that the sentiment of the Italian union may be further de- monstrated, we command that our troops, on entering the territory of Lombardy and Venice, shall bear the escutcheon of Savoy on the tricoloured flag of Italy."

On the same day, Charles Albert decreed the opening of a voluutary loan, at five per cent—the names of the lenders to be published in the journals—the calling out of the army reserves, and the concentration of all his military resources on the frontier. He sent his advanced troops across the frontier on the road to Milan. The Grand Duke of Tuscany has also stepped forward to aid in Italian regeneration. He has called on his subjects to arm, and has marched his army for Lombardy, by way of Pietrasanta and San Marcello. The General-in-chief commands one division, and Colonel Langier the other.

SPAIN.—Intrigues are rife at Madrid. The Cortes demanded the exclu- sion of Sotomayor, Bertran de Lis, Sartorius, and Bravo Murillo, from the Cabinet. This was objected to; and the Cortes were suspended, on the 21st of March.

The troops are concentrated from the North-east upon Madrid; where great agitation is caused by the events of the times. An outbreak in Cata- lonia seemed imminent.

Mara]) STATES.—By the New World packet-ship papers have been re- ceived from-New York to the 11th March. The Mexican treaty had been ratified by at least four-fifths of the Senate. Its precise terms are still a secret.

Ceara.—The Ministry has resigned. Mr. Baldwin moved an amend- ment on the Address, stating that the Cabinet did not enjoy the con- fidence of the country: this was carried by 54 to 20 votes, on the 3d of March.

There was little discussion before the division, but it was expected that a debate would take place on the report of the Address; and it was sup- posed that M. Papineau would speak strongly against M. Lafontaine, who would no doubt be chief of the new Ministry.