THE GRAHAMS OF MONTROSE.
EARL MALISE—the dispossessed Earl of Strathern and the new Earl of Menteith—married Lady Anne de Vere, daughter of Henry, Earl of Oxford, and his second son by her, Sir John Graham of Kilbride, called Sir John with the Bright Sword (great-nephew of the murderer of James I. of Scotland) was the ancestor of Viscount Preston (James II. of England's adherent) and of the Grahams of Netherby, of whom the late Sir James Graham, Bart., the Whig Minister of de Reform-Bill epoch and the colleague subsequently of Sir Robert Peel, was the head. The fate of the elder branch of the Menteith Grahams was a singular one. After the earldom of Menteith had descended in that family down to William, seventh =Earl, in the reign of Charles I. of England, this nobleman in 1630 was served heir to David, Earl of Strathern, son of Robert II. and Euphemia Ross, and this was confirmed by a patent of King Charles, dated July, 1631, granting him the titles of Earl of Strathern and Menteith. In 1632 he had a charter of the lands and barony of Airth in the county of Stirling. He had previously been appointed Justice-General of Scotland, an extraordinary Lord of Session, and President of the Privy Council. But his enemies now asserted, or his own imprudence lent circulation to the report, that he had said that "he had the reddest blood in Scotland." The legiti- macy of Robert DI had always been questioned, on the ground that his mother, Elizabeth Muir, was not married to King Robert II. when he was born, and Euphemia Ross, the mother of David Earl of Strathern, was then generally believed to have been the first wife of the latter King. It was represented to King Charles that Earl Wil- liam of Menteith, by the terms of his service as Earl of Strathern, had virtually laid claim to being the legitimate heir of the Stewarts, and yielding to this paltry jealousy, Charles actually in 1633 stripped him of the titles of Earl of Strathern and Menteith, and instead, following the example of his ancestor King James, raised him to the title of Earl of Airth, with the precedency of Menteith, and he was thenceforth called Earl of Airth and Menteith. He was also in the same year deprived of his various offices, and retired into private life. His titles became extinct with his grandson.
We must now return to the main branch of the Grahams of Men- teith. Sir William Graham of Kincardine and Montrose, elder half- brother of Patrick, Earl of Strathern, and Sir Robert Graham, had a charter of Logyachray in Stirlingshire from Archibald, Earl of Dou- glas, and had safe conducts to the Court of England in March, 1405, and January, 1406, and was a Commissioner to treat with the Eng- lish in December of the same year. In October, 1408, the lands of Bororfeld in Forfarshire, which he had resigned, were granted away by the Duke of Albany, and he had also a charter from the same Duke containing an entail of Auld Montrose and other lands. He was again a Commissioner for a truce with England in May, 1411, had a safe conduct into Eng- land in May, 1412, and another thence to Scotland about the release of James I. in April, 1413, and had again safe conducts into England in September of that year, and again in May, 1415, and December, 1416. On the 15th of May, 1416, he had a charter of the barony of Ballamok in Dumfriesshire, and on the 4th of August, 1420, he had a fresh charter of his lands of Auld Montrose, Kinnaber, and Charleton, in Forfarshire, to him and his wife, Mariot Stewart, "sister of Robert, Duke of Albany," and the heirs male of their bodies respectively, which failing, to the heirs whatsoever of Sir William, "Dominus de Graham." This charter was confirmed by James I., August 20, 1430. On the 4th of January, 1422, he had a charter from Murdoch, Duke of Albany, of the barony of Dimdaff in Stirlingshire, Kinpunt, Elotstone de Clyfton, and Pontfrayston, in the constabulary of Linlithgow, to him and to Patrick, son of his deceased son and heir, Alexander de Graham, with remainder to Alexander, second son of the said Alexander and John, second son of Sir William, and to Robert, Patrick, William, Henry, and Walter, sons of Sir William by his second wife, Mariot, cousin of the said Duke Murdoch, and the heirs male of their bodies respectively. Sir William had also, on the 10th of August, 1423, a similar charter from Duncan, Earl of Lennox, of some lands in that earldom. Sir William died in 1424. The name of his first wife is a little uncertain ; the genealo- gists, however, make her to have been Mariot, daughter of Sir John Oliphant. His second wife was certainly the Lady Mariot Stewart, daughter of King Robert II., not of Robert III., as the peer- ages have it, as is evident from the words of the charters just referred to. His eldest son by his second marriage, Sir Robert Graham of Strathcarron (now represented by the Grahams of Finlay), was the ancestor of the celebrated John Graham of Clever- house, Viscount Dundee. Sir Robert's next brother, Patrick, was one of the most virtuous and unfortunate of the Scotch eccle- siastics, and deserves an especial notice. He was consecrated Bishop of Brechin in 1463, and translated to the see (then only a bishopric) of St. Andrew's in 1466, on the death of the excellent Bishop Kennedy. Mr. Tytler styles him "a prelate of singular and primitive virtue." Unfortunately the new Bishop was ob- noxious to the dominant party of the Boyds, and to prevent any opposition from them he secretly left the kingdom, and proceeding to Rome, obtained the confirmation of his election from Pope Paul IL He resolved to wait at Rome until the opposition to him at home had somewhat abated, and occupied himself in vindicating the independence of the Church of Scotland against the preten- sions of the Archbishop of York, which had been just revived. He entirely succeeded, and obtained a bull from Sextus IV., Pope Paul's successor, erecting St. Andrew's into an archbishopric, and enjoining the twelve Bishops of Scotland to be subject to that see in all future time. Also feeling deeply the abuses in the Church of Scotland, Archbishop Patrick persuaded the Pope to confer on him the office of Legate for three years, with a view to a thorough reformation. But the nobility of Scotland, who were in the settled habit of appropriating the Church livings to themselves and their adherents, without the slightest regard to the efficiency or character of their nominees, rose up in arms against the impending reform, and the Bishops, sharing in the dread of their lay relatives lest their abuses should be brought to light and prevented for the future, and meanly jealous of the authority over them granted to the Archbishop of St. Andrew's, worked on the mind of the weak King Robert Ill., and partly by represent- ing to him that Archbishop Patrick had obtained his new powers by a private intrigue with Rome, without the previous licence of the King, and partly by a direct bribe to the King of 11,000 marks, effected the ruin of the founder of the independence of the Scotch Church. The instant he landed in Scotland he was cited to answer this accusation, and was prohibited from using the title of Archbishop or his legatine powers. The leader of the clergy against him was Schevez, an able but profligate man, and a favourite at Court from his pretensions to a knowledge of judicial astrology. Agents sent to Rome raked up against the Archbishop a charge of heresy, and he having incurred a considerable debt in that city in pushing the claims of the Scotch Church, his bankers and creditors there were induced to insist on immediate payment. The Rector of his own University got up a quarrel with him, dragged him into his Court, and excommunicated him. Graham refused obedience and bore himself at first boldly till the weight of animosity and the conduct of the King were too much for him, and he fell into a distraction of mind from which he never com- pletely recovered. He was committed to the custody of his enemy Schevez, who had succeeded him in the Primacy, and who continued to persecute his victim, removing him from prison to prison till at last, overcome with age and misfortune, the unfortunate Graham died in the castle of Lochleven in 1478. Not a hundred years elapsed ere a Queen of Scotland was consigned as a captive to that same castle, in consequence chiefly of the success of the movement against the abuses of the Church of Scotland which Patrick Graham, but for the unworthy conduct of an earlier Stewart King, would have anticipated and guarded against by timely reforms. William, next brother of Archbishop Patrick, was the ancestor of General Sir Thomas Graham, of Balgowan, one of Wellington's corny panion.s in the Peninsular War, and the hero of Braiosa, who was created Lord Lynedoch, but died in 1848 (at the age of ninety- two) without issue.
Returning again to the main stem of the Grahams-the cadets- of the family have been themselves so distinguished, or have given birth to such remarkable descendants, that frequent digressions are absolutely necessary if we would do justice to the fame of the family-Alexander, the eldest son of Sir William Graham of Montrose, died, as we have seen, before his father, and th latter was succeeded by his grandson Patrick Graham, who was. one of the supplementary hostages for the ransom of James I. in 1427, and remained in England till June 20, 1432. He W88 created a lord of Parliament about the year 1495, under the title of Lord Graham, was one of the Council of Regency during the- minority of James H., and a Commissioner to treat with England in 1451, 1457, and 1459. A charter was granted to him on October 24, 1458, of the lands of Ballingrochan in Stirlingshire, erected into the barony of Mukdow. He died in 1465, leaving a son, William, who succeeded as second Lord Graham.
The second Lord Graham has left no mark in history, and (lied in 1472, being succeeded by his eldest son, William, third Lord
Graham, who adhered to James ILL in the struggle between that
King and his rebellious son and barons, and was one of the com- manders of the rear of his army (consisting of Westland and Stir- lingshire men) at the disastrous battle of Sauchie Burn in 1488. His: kinsman Menteith fought on the same side. After the murder of the King which followed that battle Lord Graham took his sea in the first Parliament of James IV., October 7 in the same year. On May 10, 1498, he had a eharter of Aberruthven in Strathern, for Kinaber in Forfarshire; on July 16 in the same year of Strathy- boyes and Nether. Perny ; on February 20, 1500, of Aberothven, Strathyfentoun, &c. ; on December 4, 1501, of Inchebrakky ; and: on March 14, 1503, of Pettinclerath,-all in the county of Perth. On March 14, 1504 (according to the peerage-books), he had a charter from Sir John Wemys, of Wardropestoun in Kincardine- shire, under the designation of William, Earl of Montrose, Lord Graham, but as the creation of the earldom of Montrose did not take place till March 3, 1505, when a new charter was granted to him of the lands of Auld Montrose, on his resignation of the same, by which they were erected into the free barony and earldom of
Montrose, the former date is probably 1505 (which in the old way of commencing the year would be 1504). He had also a charter of March 3, by which Kincardine and other lands in that county and Perthshire previously held by him were erected into the free barony of Kincardine, antkon March 17 of another, by which the lands of Abrodwen, &c., in Perthshire, were erected into the free barony of Abrodwen. On August 10, 1507, the new Earl had a charter of Carrecklaw and the lochs with the isles of Inchgarrock and Lochkaderne, in Dumbartonshire, erected into the barony of MUG - DOCK. The Earl commanded, along with the Earl of Craufurd, a part of the right vanguard of the Scotch army at Floiden, and successfully withstood, with levelled spears, the first charge of Dacre and Admiral Howard, but renewed attacks at length broke the forces of the Earls, and when the battle closed Mont- rose was among those who lay dead on the field, September 9,. 1513. He was succeeded by his eldest son William, second Eart of Montrose, who was one of the peers left by Albany- in charge of the young King James V., when he went to France, and in August, 1536, was appointed by that Sove- reign one of the Commissioners of Regency during bis own absence in France in search of a bride. In 1543 he had the charge along with Lord Erskine of the infant Queen Mary in the
castle of Stirling, and in 1544 was one of those who signed an agreement to support the Queen Dowager and to substitute her as Regent for Arran, and in 1546 he was one of the twenty peers appointed who were in successive fours every month to remain with the Governor Arran as his secret council. On July 10, 1549, he had a charter of Lochcarneroth and other lands in Dumbartonshire, forfeite 1 by Matthew, Earl of Lennox. He was one of those who banded against Bothwell after his conveyance of the Queen to Dunbar in 1567, and died May 24, 1571. His eldest son Robert, Lord Graham, fell at the battle of Pinkie, September 10, 1547, but had a posthumous son by his wife, a daughter of Malcolm, third Lord Fleming, John, Lord Graham, who succeeded his grandfather as third Earl of Montrose. He was one of those surprised at Stirling along with the Regent Lennox and the Earl of Morton, and made prisoners by Kirkaldy of Grange and Lord Claud Hamilton in their dashing sally from Edinburgh on the 3rd of September, 1571, but was rescued immediately afterwards, on the overthrow of his captors through their own carelessness. He afterwards joined the enemies of Morton, and was one of the council of twelve appointed to govern in the King's name when the Earl was compelled in 1578 to resign his Regency. He seems to have been distinguished from the rest of their opponents by Morton's partisans, for when the latter had succeeded in secur- ing the person of the King and Stirling Castle, Montrose was the only one of the council who was admitted by them and courteously received within the walls of that castle ; but when Morton called together the Estates to the same place, Montrose and Lindsay presented themselves in the hall of assembly and protested against its being a free Parliament, and were only silenced by the personal mandate of the boy-King. Montrose then abruptly left the hall and rode post to Edinburgh, where he roused the citizens to arms for the rescue of their Sovereign, and was joined by Argyll and Atholl. He thus barely escaped imprisonment at Stirling, for the next day an order of Privy Council appeared commanding him and Lindsay to confine them- selves to their own lodgings on pain of rebellion. The two parties were about to engage in a deadly struggle of arms when Sir Robert Bowes, the English Envoy, succeeded in bringing about a temporary arrangement and superficial re- conciliation.
Montrose was again one of those who conspired more success- fully against Morton in the close of 1580, and was one of those intended to be seized and put to death by the Earls of Angus and Mar in their unsuccessful plot to rescue the Ex-Regent in the following year. He was commissioned to bring the captive Earl from Dumbarton to the capital, and he was chancellor of the jury which tried Morton. He was one of those who in 1582 signed a" bond," along with the Earls of Gowrie, Argyll, Mar, and others, against the Duke of Lennox, the King's favourite. Soon after- wards, however, in 1583, subsequently to the "raid of Ruthven," we find Montrose among those who had banded together to rescue the King out of the hands of Gowrie and the Ruthven lords, and connected with the French party. On the revolution which fol- lowed and the reascendency of the latter faction, Montrose was ap- pointed (1583) by the King guardian of the young Duke of Lennox, who had just arrived from France and been restored to his father's estates. In May, 1584, he was appointed High Trea- surer of Scotland, in the same year had a grant of Balmanno, forfeited by one of the Gowrie party, and on the 25th of May in that year charters of the lands of Cowgask, Strathbrane, and .Glenshee, and the office of sheriff of Perth. On the 12th of the same month he was appointed one of the extraordinary Lords of Session, and held this office till February, 1585. In that year, however, the banished lords, with the Earl of Bothwell and Lord Arbroath, the leader of the Hamiltons, succeeded in returning to Scotland, driving Arran into exile and compelling James to sur- render to them his person and the castle of Stirling, in which among other lords of the French party Montrose had taken refuge. Montrose with the rest was thrown into prison, where he remained for some time. On the King attaining his majority in 1587 there was a solemn and formal reconciliation of all the nobles, and they feasted together in the presence of James ; but of course this agreement was only superficial, and soon fresh intrigues broke out, in which Montrose—a Catholic at heart, if not avowedly—
leagued himself with Huntley and the other Catholic peers, being professedly discouraged but really secretly favoured by the King. He was again appointed an extraordinary Lord of Session, November 6, 1591, and continued therein till May 19, 1596. He attached himself to the party of the Chancel-
lor against the Queen's party. In 1593 we find Montrose at the donne of Menteith, along with Atholl, Cowrie, and 500
horse, where they were attacked suddenly by the King, who was afraid of this combination, and Montrose and Gowrie
were made prisoners. In 1594 we find Montrose again leagued with the exiled Earl of Bothwell, and with Atholl and Argyll against the Chancellor Maitland. But it is vain to attempt to follow out the exact career of a Scotch noble through the various complica- tions of those turbulent years, when every year, if not every month, saw new leagues and combinations only formed to be dis- solved again, and to reappear with the most opposite and con- flicting elements. Montrose managed very adroitly on the whole, and at last, on January 15, 1599, we find him appointed High Chancellor of Scotland ; and in 1600 he offered 400/. to the King towards furthering the latter's claim to the English succession. After the accession of James VI. to the throne of England, on February 8, 1604, Montrose was appointed Royal Corn- missioner during the sessions of the Scotch Parliament. Sur- rendering the Chancellorship, he was in December, 1604, ap- pointed Viceroy of Scotland. As such he presided in the Parlia- ment of Perth, July, 1606, in which episcopacy was restored, his own religious opinions being, if not secretly Roman Catholic, at any rate what we should now call Anglo-Catholic in their tone. On March 28, 1605, he had a charter to him and his son, Sir Robert Graham, of Sottistoun, of the barony of Invermay, in Perthshire, and on December 8, 1606, a charter to him and his son John, Master of Montrose, of the barony of Cowgask, and on June 14, 1607, of the lands of Kynneth, 8:c., in Kincardineshire. He died November 9, 1608, in the sixty-first year of his age, and was succeeded by his eldest son, John, fourth Earl of Montrose, who when young, on the 19th of January, 1595, had fought a duel with Sir James Sanclilands, thinking to have revenged the death of his cousin, Mr. John Graham of Hallyards, an Ordinary Lord of Session, who had been slain in 1593 by one of a party commanded by Sandilands, in an encounter arising out of a law-suit. He was President of the Council in July, 1626, but died on November 24 in the same year, being little more than a thrifty country gentleman. By his wife, Lady Margaret Ruthven, eldest daughter of William, first Earl of Gowrie, he had five daughters and a son, JAMES, who succeeded him as fifth Earl of Montrose, and is well known in history as "the great Marquis" of the times of Charles I. and the Common- wealth.