0 u R. Tables would be incomplete without some notice of the anomalous varieties of the elective suffrage, and of the methods by which a few persons have gained the ascendency over the legitimate electors. The most ancient species of suffrage is that of Burgage Tenure. In very early times all theburgesses, who held houses or land within their town or borough, were en- titled to vote. On the introduction of corporations, it was sometimes granted by charters to the corpora- tion only, or to the Corporation and freemen, or to the corporation, freemen, and inhabitants. The other variations are the result of usurpations, for a long time submitted to, until no proof of a contrary custom could be established. the ancient records of the car poration having been lost. But the most fruitful source of anomaly has been the contradictory deci. sion of Committees of the House of Commons, which permits no other tribunals to interfere with its jurisdiction. The most wanton reversals of former decisions were made, and petitioners de- pended upon the strength of their party, and not of the case. The Ministerial party of the day decided very generally in favour of their own friends; and words have, in reference to different places, been construed according to very different meanings,—by which the suffrage has been narrowed or enlarged, as the case of the party whom the Minister was pleased to support happened to require. The present Lord Grenville, when in the House of Commons, obtained an Act to render the last decision of a Committee of the House final. But though that statute is calcu- lated toprevent a profligate appeal to the strength of a party in the House, yet it has preserved many un- sound decisions. As the right of sending repre- sentatives has been for some centuries regarded as an immunity, it has been restricted to the ancient limits of the place which originally enjoyed it ; these limits being often very narrow, wealthy individuals have acquired the entire real property of the place, and if the suffrage was attached to burgage-holds have easily controlled the suffrage by conferring on their friends, relatives, or dependents, the right of property for the period of election. In other in- stances, the right of election is invested by charters, in corporations, self-elected—or in burgesses or free- men elected by these self-elected corporations. As the members of such corporations were generally tradesmen of the place, they have been easily sub- dued, by the influence of a neighbouring peer or wealthy proprietor, upon whose support they depend- ed. Friends and relatives, in some cases the persons in the lowest condition of life, and even menial ser- vants, have been elected members of such corpora- tions ; and these have in their turn elected other creatures of their patron to succeed to vacant places. There are many corporations of this kind, which ap- pear to have been instituted merely as a convenient machinery by which the elective interests of a patron might be securely managed ; the greater number of their members residing at a distance, and visiting the place merely to attend electious. Where the right is vested in freemen chosen by these corporations, the case is very little altered ; as the freedom is seldom conferred upon any individual on whose support the influential party cannot depend. Even plain right has often been arbitrarily denied ; and should the favoured persons incline to change their opinions, a host of freemen are admitted, on the spur of the occa- sion, to counterbalance their numbers. Where the right of election has extended beyond these narrow limits to the inhabitants paying scot and lot, the right of persons unfavourable to the influential party has been successfully defeated, by omitting to rate them to pay the r wish taxes ; and friendly magistrates have been found to sanction the omission, though the rejected persons formed the most wealthy portion of the parish. Attempts have been made from time to time to open these boroughs, by petitioning the House of Commons ; but the enormous expense of the prosecution of a petition places redress out of the reach of poor persons.
Notwithstanding the defects of the Close Boroughs, the "Open" do not fall short-of-them. Money, ex- pended in every form of bribery—in treating, in buy- ing freedoms, in idle pageantry, in the fees of legal agents, in the conveyance of voters from distant homes, and in maintaining them whilst from borne— is the influence. There are not half-a-dozen places in the 'kingdom where an honest man, of known competency and character, can hope to be successful in a contest with a man who will expend it fortune to obtain a seat.
There are some places which, are regularly sold-
juntos sof individuals possessing great local influence, acquired by means such as have created the patrons of the close boroughs. The price of these places ranges from 10001., for the remainder of a short Par- liament, to 40001. or 50001. for a whole one. These sums are distributed among the voters in smaller sums of 201., 101., and even 21., according to the number of the voters. In cases of contest, from which such bargains do not protect the candidate, and which indeed are rather promoted than checked by the contracting electors, in order to draw yet more lar,ely from him, the expenses have extended even Co 18,0001. or 20,0001.
AYLESBURY.—Since the franchise was extended to the HundredS, the election has been pare; the voters, as' if In atonement for the ancient venality of the place, return their members free of expense. And what the expense of an election ought to be, may be diecovered here—it does not amount, in this case, to 301., for Lord Nugent, and a dinner for Mr. Bickford. Formerly, the worthy electors of Aylesbury, with a luxury more than Roman, quaffed huge bowls of " golden punch ;" In other words, the price of their votes was measured out in goblets of guineas.
BAT tr.—The right of suffrage here is in a small corporation, consisting of 30 persons, self. elected. and representing a population of nearly 50,000. They have been for many years attached to the interests of the Marquis of Bath and Lord Camden; but Colonel Palmer has succeeded in displacing the grandson of Lord Camden, the Earl of Brecknock. The Colonel owes his success to his personal popularity.
BASSETLAW IS the substitute for EAST RETFORD• so famous in the last Parliament. A correspondent describes this district to be " nearly as corrupt as ever. The most shameful treating carried the day for Lord Newark and Captain Duncombe."
BEERALSTON, the property of the Earl of Beverly; a hamlet in Devonshire.—At the last election, no electors were summoned to the farce of election, but merely the returning officer and his clerk attended.
Btxrcuisiotv.—This borough belonged to the late Welsh Judge Kenrick, who sold it to the highest bidder ; and, before his time, it belonged to Sir Richard Clayton, and in his bands it was purchaseable. It now belongs to Mr. Russell, the great Northern coal-proprietor ; and is managed by his nephew, Mr. Charles Tennyson, its present Member, hitherto a staunch Reformer.
BRIDGEIVATER.—Like Aylesbury, Bridgewater is now pure, after having passed through the most cor-
rupt forms of venality. It now returns its members free of expense ; and in the very sensitiveness of its new-born virtue, will not suffer the candidates to pay the toll to enter the town. It is said, that during a former election here, a pig has been sold for one hundred guineas, with liberty to the seller to eat it himself ; and a parrot cost the same sum, b ut the can- didate never claimed his purchase. A famous black- smith charged fifty guineas for shoeing the horse of one of the candidates ; but another candidate, wanting
two shoes instead of one, he doubled his charge, took both sums, and preferred the latter. These stories are
now avowed—as things gone by and repented of ; but though they no longer affect Bridgewater, which is purified, they show what venality may exist in other cases not yet detected.
BRIDPORT.—The voters in Bridport, about 340 in number, are mostly poor, and'employed in the trade of the tolvn as flax-twine-spinners, flax-combers, lee. Mr. Warburton is returned on the influence of the Corpo- ration, nearly all of whom are Dissenters, and chiefly Unitarians. Sir H. St. Paul is returned by the Church party. The voters, when there is no contest, are paid 101. each for both Members; but when the elec- tion is contested, the price is from 20/. to SW. The voters in general are averse to Sir H. St. Paul, but cannot find so good a man to take his place. They look upon the douceur so completely as a quid pro quo, that after Sir E. Nepean had been some years since returned for the borough, a voter called on the Baronet for the customary 201. for his vote ; which being refused, the voter replied, " Then be damned if I don't arrest you for it." The payment of the con- sideration is commonly effected in this manner— about two years after the election, the members send down the money to the respective attornies, who inclose the 10/. note to the vuter in a letter, which he receives through the medium of the Bridport Post- office. Until a few years ago, the Corporation returned both members; but on a contest taking place, the Speaker's Warrant was issued for the production of the Corporation documents ; in consequence of which, they came to an agreement with the Church party (their former opponents), who have ever since been allowed to return one of the members—to preserve the peace of the town.
BR1STOL.—Every man who marries a freeman's daughter or widow is entitled to his freedom ; and as the certificate of baptism is evidence of their birth in the place, persons bring their children from all quar- ters and at all ages to be christened at Bristol. The contest at the last election was between the Quakers and Methodists, and the West India merchants ; and one of the members spent 15,0001. in canvassing voters at their residences in distant places, bringing them to the poll, and maintaining them during the election. It is said that the curious privilege we have men- tioned was granted by Queen Anne, who was pleased by She hospitality which the people of Bristol had shown to her husband, Prince George of Denmark: she asked what privileges she should confer upon them, and they requested this privilege—because their women were so ugly.* * It is to be presumed that civilization, and possi- bly the matrimonial custom then introduced, have ef- fected much in behalf of the Bristol females since the age of Queen Anne. We have seen, in our time, if we remember rightly, only seven beautiful women ; and of these, be the number more or less, assuredly the fairest was a native of Bristol.—ED.
BUCKINGHAM is the property of the Duke; the few aldermen and freemen are his relatives and de- pendents.
CALLINGTON was said by Lord Clinton to Mr. Alex- ander Baring ; who also purchased a large estate in Suffolk of Lord Petre, which enables him to return a member for the borough of Thetford. The Duke of Grafton and Mr. Baring amicably divide Thetford be- tween them.
Catme.—This is the only close borough belonging to a member of the present Cabinet. The Marquis of Lansdown is the owner. The right of election DOW exists in burgage tenures, limited to twenty-four or twenty-six persons, principally under the immediate Influence and protection of the Marquis. Caine is a decayed town, its manufacture of cloth having been nearly lost. An attempt was made to open the borough at the last election,and a petition was brought against the return of the present members ; but the Com- mittee determined that the last decision of a Com- mittee was final.
CANTERBURY, though the seat of the Archiepiscre pal residence, is not less corrupt than other corrupt boroughs. The last election cost the candidates 4000.. or 50001. a piecej and It sis said that since the
election, they have given alpines to each voter who chose to accept it.
CARDIGAN.--It is said that the Member for this place and the member for the county " tossed up," two Parliaments ago, to ascertain by lot which should have the borough and which the county, and the agreement has been since acted upon. Caanive.—The right of voting is in the freemen of this and of its seven contributory boroughs, NEAT'S, CARBRIDGE, SWANSEA, KENFIG, ABERAVAN, Lowsa, and LANBRIPENT; who together return one Member. This is at present a close borough, in the hands of the Marquis of Bute. A correspondent states that he has witnessed a contested election there, and speaks of the drunkenness, riot, outrage, and disorder which prevailed, as a convincing proof of the necessity of the ballot.
CHRISTCIIURCII.—The Roses are said to have grown here by carefully purchasing every accessible property in the place, which is small. Sir George Rose is lord of the manor, and landlord of nearly the whole town.
DENBIGH, and its contributory members of Ru- 'WHEN and Home, contain nearly 1000 burgesses. The family of Middleton, ancestors of Mr. Biddulph, on the female side, influenced the return of the mem- bers for the county and these boroughs ; but the Wynns, in 1742, after a memorable struggle, succeeded to the representation for the county, which they have ever since retained. On Colonel Middleton's death, the property descended to three sisters ; and two of them having married, a rivalship ensued between their husbands (Mr. Biddulph, and Mr. F. R. West, the member for East Grinstead), until the election of 1826, which ended in a double return. The cost of this struggle induced Mr. West to retire ; and at the last election Mr. Biddulph was elected without opposition. The independent spirit which this struggle provoked,
has gone far to make Denbigh independent. Mr. Ifiddhlph enjoys no higher influence than is due to his personal character. The right of franchise is, how- ever, strictly confined to the burgesses selected by the corporations of Denbigh, Ruthen, and Holt, who -are, in every case, the ruling.powers. The electors are, in general, the lowest class of the resident popu- lation. Treating, feasting, &c. were in full requisi- tion during the family struggle ;,•but the last election was conducted by the inde.pendentlparty without my expense to the sitting member.
DEW:W.—Tim Duke of Devonshire's interest is only sufficient to secure the return Of one membtr, who is usually one of his own family. The other member, Mr. Strutt, belongs to the opulent manufacturing family of the Strutts. He is a Whig Reformer, and said to be the choice of the people. The electors, about 800 in number, bear a very small proportion to the inhabitant householders.
Des, re es.—Mr. Taylor, the present member, has purchased a large estate in the neighbourhood, which returned its late owner, Mr. Drummond Smith, and previously its former proprietor, Mr. Delme, .who was well known as an army contractor. This town is un- der the direction of a Mayor and Corporation. The late Mr. Salmon, the leading solicitor, had the ma- nagement of it. It formerly had considerable manu- factures, which have fallen into decay. The principal corn-market of the county is held here ; and when there is any previously known opposition for the elec- tion of county members, the nomination is made at Devizes, but the election takes place at Salisbury : if there be no third candidate, the whole farce takes place at Wilton, a small, decayed place, but the county town.
DOVER.—The right of voting is in the freemen ; of whom the residents amount to 1450, and the non-resi- dents to 1200. One member is returned through the Influence of the Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports, and the other by the unbiassed votes of the freemen. The election is, however, a very expensive one.
DuanAm.—The influence of the Marquis of Lon- donderry and Lord Durham is not controlling in the city. Their only influence is over the workmen in their employ ; they have none arising from property. Lord Londonderry has about 60 votes at his command, and Lord Durham has 50. Mr. Chaytor, the unsuc- cessful candidate, had nearly as many tied votes. Thus the influence of one party was completely nullified by the other; the Marquis of Londouderry having es- poused the interest of Sir R. Gresley, and Lord Dur- ham that of Mr. Taylor.
Eves HAM.—" The price is said to be regularly fixed—five pounds for a single vote, ten pounds for a plumper; and so recognized and established is this purchase, that in one instance, it is said, immediately after the vote was given, a slip of paper, naming the sum, was delivered at the hustings to the voter, who carried it to the candidate's hanker, where it was im- mediately paid; in another, the reward was paid by the agent of the party, appointed without his know- -ledge, who hired an uninhabited house, into which parties were introduced singly, that there might be no witnesses. There are about ninety non•resident voters living in and about London, forty at Birmingham, and about the same number dispersed through the West of England, who make a regular traffic of their votes. So great is the corruption of this borough, that the late member, in disgust, resisted all entreaties to be- come again its representative ; in his retiring address, Joe declared 'Ire could not submit to lend himself to so vicious and abominable a system.' This borough is only partially open : one member, Sir Charles Cock- erel', is returned by the recommendation and through the influence of Lord Northwick, but who is still obliged to pay the voters ; the other member is he who pays the best, whatever may be his political creed." We quote the above description from one of Colonel Jones's Letters. Since it was published, the last election has been set aside by a decision of a Committee of the House of Commons; and the writ for theelection of new members is suspended.
Garroar was the property of Sir George Cole- brooke ; it was afterwards sold to satisfy his ceeditors, and bought by Sir Mark Wood ; who returned himself and sold the other seat—the price varying from MO/. to 40001., and latterly 50001. as secure seats, without trouble, rose in the market. Since the death of Sir Mark Wood, and his heir coming of age, it has become the property of Lord Monson, Five dependents form the hotly of electors.
Gli.aatoaoassarat.—Blr. Talbot la supported bY Sir C. Morgan. An attempt was once made by a Mr. Edwards, an attorney, to displace him; and but for the coalition with Sir Charles Morgan, it would have been successful. If the aristocracy and freeholders were fairly to contest the county, the latter would probably succeed. GLoccesrs a.—The voters here are about 2000, of whom 700 reside. Mr. Phiilpotts obtained his seat- by spending about MOOD/. in treating, taking up free. dome, itte. Colonel Webb, the other member, is re- turned upon the Whig interest, which prevails in the city and corporation.
HASTINGS.—A borough at the command of the Treasury, through the medium of Mr. Milward, an attorney. The suffrage is in the Mayor, Jrtrats, and freemen, resident and not receiving alms. The prac- tice is, to give the freedom to persons who are likely to become paupers; thus, the return is kept in the hands of a few—two noblemen alternately playing Mayor.
Hen os.—We have very numerous, and in some respects contradictory statements, regarding this borough. One correspondent, whose letter we pub- lished soon after the first edition of our ANATOM appeared, says,—" The ascendant patrons have been the Iveson family, attornies residing there, who have always commanded one seat, and sometimes both, as every one at Merlon can tell. Colonel John Baillie, the present member for the Nairn boroughs, repre- sented Hedon for some sessions, and regularly paid his 4,0001.—a very fair and marketable price. I be- lieve Mr. Henry Iveson, solicitor, WhO resides at Beverley, has managed this concern more majornm." Another correspondent adds, that the influence is money, and not the family of Constable, who reside in the neighbourhood. The common price for a vote is about 201., and most of the voters are very needy persons. This statement is corroborated by a third. On the other hand, Mr. Francis Iveson of Beverley, supposing himself the Mr.Henry Iveson above alluded to, writes thus :—
" Sir Thomas Aston Clifford Constable, Bart came in without opposition on the retirement of Colonel John Baillie, who most unexpectedly declined offer- ing himself again a few days before the election. Sir Clifford was supported by Mr. Iveson's interest, which has for the last forty years been opposed to the inte- rest which supported Mr. Farrand. The statement that Sir Clifford returned himself and lie. Farrand is, therefore, wrong.. The ancient Catholic family to which Sir Clifford belongs, have been the owners of estates at Burton Constable, and in the vicinity of
Hedon, of the value of nearly 20,000/. a-year: dsufli. debt ground to entitle them to aspire to the represen- tation of a neighbouring borough, and to interfere and use the natural influence arising from wealth, setting aside other pretensions, in the election of a represen- tative, but they never did interfere. " The borough of Hedon contains 900 inhabitants of all sexes and ages, perhaps ninety houses, about 330 burgesses, eighty of whom are residents. My family have been residents there for nearly a century ; are numerous., possess considerable property there, and have, of course, many connexions ;—without attributing their influence to any other causes, are not these sufficient to show that they possess some claims to legitimate influence?"
"I have never interfered with the Hedon elections, and, although I have possessed the right of voting for
nearly eighteen years, I have never exercised that privilege but on one occasion, and that was in favour of Anthony Browne, Esq., who had retired from the contest previous to the day of election; and thosewho voted for him did so to mark the respect they bore for his services in many Sessions of Parliament.'
HERTFORD.-.-A correspondent at Hertford bitterly complains of the effect of the boroughmongering system on the value of houses In this borough. The Marquis of Salisbury, whose influence extends to the nomination of one member, has bought a con- siderable part of the town ; other persons, who seek to obtain a Parliamentary interest in the place, adopt the same course; and thus the value of houses is artificially raised, to the injury of individuals seeking a domicile there. He adds, that the tenants feel bound to vote on the interest of the Marquis, and that no one would take a house who did not intend to do so ; also, that money is a necessary auxiliary even to sustain the interest of the Marquis of Salisbury ; and that Mr. Duncombe, though much approved by his party, could not retain his interest without great expense in treating, Arc. He has now about 50 houses in the borough, most of which he has built himself. Our correspondent's account of the trickery, treating, &c., at last election, makes out a strong case agai list the independence of the town, but it Is a great deal too long for this abstract.
Floasusss—The control of this borough is now entirely in the hands of the Duke of Norfolk. The late Duke was at no small pains to acquire the ascendency ; and, it is said, had the tact to induce the late Mr. Ducesne to part with the title of the free- hold of his estates, and take a long lease of them for 999 years. The present Duke has provoked some die. satisfaction among the townspeople, by denying in. dulgences by which his father courted their favour, but a contest with his Grace would be hopeless. Mr. Colborne, the present member, owes his seat to his vote on the Catholic question.
Hutt.—The expenses of the election here are so great that candidates could not be found, and so of necessity two respectable persons were returnedwith. out cost at the last election.
KNARESEtoRouGH.—Lord NVaterpark has been re. cently elected, in the room of Lord Brougham; but some sturdy persons, questioning the good-humoured Interference of the Duke of Devonshire with "his own," have petitioned against the return. Mr. Bruce, the other member, distinguished himself by aiding Lavalette's escape: LAUNCESTON AND NEWPORT, the property of the Duke of Northumberland, are separated only by a small bridge. The former has a corporation, but solely subject to the nomination of the Duke, and under his immediate control. At Newport, his Grace's agent, we understand, is the returning officer and solitary Voter.
Lsicssrsa.—One member is popularly returned; the Corporation have, at a vast expense, secured the nomination of the other. They have inlisted among them, as honorary freemen, an Immense number Of the Tory gentry and clergy of the 'county. Our cor- respondent suggests, that the ballot would emancipate Leicester, where the spirit of refortn has germinated.
LITCHPIELD.—The patron of this borough is Lord Anson ; but the Corporation have considerable and a growing influence. 'l'o prevent the inconveniences and expense of a contest, it is arranged between his Lord- ship and the Corporation, that each party shall return a member. In consequence, Mr. Vernon will not, after the present Parliament, represent this borough. Sir E. Scott is to be the future member.
vErteoos.—The corruption of Liverpool is too notorious, from the recent election, to need illustration here. A great number of the freemen are journeymen, workmen, shipwrights, and others ; thousands of these persons are admitted to the freedom, whilst the most respectable and independent inhabitants generally are excluded. During Mr. Fluskisson's representation„ 'the people of Liverpool conducted their parliamentary business in a peculiar but very -useful manner. They had an office in London, kept up at an expense of some 6001 or 7001. a year, whither Mr. Huskisson repaired every day to answer communications from his consti- tuents. It is said that Mr. Canning complained bit- terly of the obligation he was under to provide for the children, relatives, and friends of Ns supporters at Liverpool—members of the stub for the management of elections, every subscriber to which is allowed his share of the patronage according to the sum sub- scribed.
LUGGF.RSITALI. is the property of Sir James Sand- ford Graham. Most of the houses of this boroughs have fallen into ruin ; but a door-way gives the right of voting.
Ls-ME Resrs.—The elective franchise is monopo- lized by the Corporation and freemen, of whom not more than 8 or 10 reside in the town, and those are nil devoted to the Earl of Westmoreland. It happens that there has never been a resolution of the House of Commons upon the right of voting in this borough. The right has been contended to belong to the inhabi- tants at large. Lord Westmoreland has not an inch of land, nor any visible influence, in the borongh; but there is a customhouse, all the offices of which have hitherto been tilled by dependants of the Earl.
LeNS.—A correspondent states that the Corporation influence is supreme here. Its members consist of the principal merchants and shipowners of the town, and they are so compact andunited a body that they in- 'finence the freemen as they please.
Ms w.—The influence of Mr. Williams has been encroached upon by Colonel Clayton. who has built some new houses there. He is very popular, on ac- count of his protection of the voters, who were ejected from the houses they held of Mr. Williams.
The right of voting lies in all the inhabitants who pay the poor-rate.
Mr en sass, is a small village. The'greater part of the inhabitants do not know who are the members. The property is held in burgage tenure.
MoNscorreevsnrae, represented by the Right ROIL C. W. W. ‘Vynn, is controlled, perhaps, equally, by Sir W. W. Wynn hnd Lord Clive, the Lord of Powisland, though his father has the title. The last contest was in 1774, between Mr. Mostyn Owen, sup.. Ported by the Powis influence, andMajor NVilliams, in the Wynn interest ; the former was successful. The marriage of Sir W. W. Wynn with Lady Harriet Clive, the daughter of Earl Pcnvis, has confirmed Mr. Wynn's seat.
Moxmours, with the contributory boroughs, New- port and Usk.—Sir Charles Morgan enjoys the pre- vailing influence in Newport, and the Duke of Beau- fort in Monmouth and Usk ; but, by a tacit agree- ment between them Sir Charles Morgan is allowed to take the seat for the county, on condition of his in- terest being exerted in the boroughs on behalf of the Duke of Beaufort's nominee. The r4.t of election is in the corporators, over whom, the great men exer- cise their influence.
Newsns.—The Duke of Newcastle's influencehere is somewhat on the wane. Lord Middleton's also has been declining ; and a third party—the Corporation, and a few leading men—have gained the ascendency so fur as to return the second member, by compelling the tradesmen tojoin what is styled the "united in- terest." It is said that few except the artisans dare to speak for them selves.
NEWTON, in the Isle of Wight, is the joint property of Lord Yarborough and Sir F. Barrington. It has not so much as a remnant of an habitation—the plough goes over the whole ; and the ceremony of an election is conducted by the agents of the proprietors, sent there with furniture and provisions,for the occa- sion.
Noawrc is—The number of voters is 4500, of whom ICCO rve non-rekident. The freemen and freeholders are alike entitled to vote, Norwich being a county and city, and the freeholders retaining their right of voting, of which in London and some other places they are deprived. The freedom is obtained either by birth, servitude, or purchase. 'There is no controlling influence, either corporate or individual: but much money is expended on Norwich—it has cost the family of the Gnrneys many thousand pounds. The dismissal of Colonel Peel cost him dearly. The expense of a disputed election is about 4000/. ' • and even where there is no contest, from 12001. to 18001. is necessary. The out-voters always expect to pay their friends a visit at an election, at the candidate's expense; and unless a very considerable number are conciliated in this way, they will procure a third candidate.
Nossixortsal being, like Norwich, a county of itself, tire freeholders vote with the burgesses at the election of members. This town has for very many years been warmly contested ; the Tory party have created new votes by subdividing freeholds' the Re- formers, to meet this movement, extended the free- dom of the Corporation to any Reformer who would take it. The electors are about 4100; of whom one- third are non-resident, scattered wherever the hosiery and lace trades exist. The greatest number ever polled was 4,051, at the election of 1806. Not more than a third of the inhabitant householders are elec- tors. The Corporation has little influence (though It can make voters), and that is always exerted for the Radicals. The elections have always been expensive till the present year, not only from the cost of fetching out-voters, but also in the purchase of hundreds of
SCARBOROUGIL—The Corporation 'is selaelected• and consists of 44 members, to whom the right of electing representatives is confined. Our corres- pondent speaks of the altered times. He remembers 10001. being given for a single vote, to one who was
• prudent to keep back till the price grew high. At later periods, Customhouse and Excise places, Com- missions in the Army and Navy, and Church prefer- ments, have been the considerations. But these good things are gone; and it is said the Members are chosen by the Corporation, on their merits ; therefore Mr. Sutton, the Speaker, is retained ; but General Phipps could not resist the attack of a third candidate, as he is now out if power, and the Illurace iivluenee is pose. Of the Corporation, 7 have places and are deprived of their votes, and 6 are incapacitated by
. distance or extreme age from exercising their privi- lege. The number of electors is thus reduced to 31.
&my:era-a is a small village, the houses of Which are held in burgage tenure. The occupants hold them at a very low rent, their votes being expected in re- turn. Sir. Blount is the 'auditor of the Duke of Nor. folk., The father of Mr. Phillips, the other member, a great spinner, lent a large sum of money to the Duke. The son has ever since been returned for this borough. a
ST. Ives.—The lord of the manor of this place is entitled to tithe on the pilchard fishery. The voters are commonly fishermen, and their suffrage is secured by permitting them to enjoy the full benefit of their labours until an election approaches. The lord then threatens the enforcement of his right. If the poor fisherman gives his vote as his lord bids him, the claim is abandoned.
TA3IWORTH has about 4000 inhabitants. The late Sir Robert Peel introduced himself by purchase, and attempted to carry both seats, but failed. A similar attempt was, we believe, made at the last election. The property belonged formerly, to the Ferran family, and Lord Ferrars Townshend still retains sufficient to secure a seat from this place.
TAUNTON.—This is a costly borough. A candidate must be prepared with 4004)1. or 50001. in case of a con- test, and there are few elections without a con- test. The voters are for the most part artisans and persons of the lower orders—potwallopers—and they fully exercise that character during the election. It is also customary to give a gratuity of two guineas ; It originated in the plea that the poor voter should be indemnified for his loss of time. The borough forms a very small portion of the town. The members are expected to support the races, charities, and contri- bute largely in periods of distress. Parliamentary conduct is not much regarded.
TRURO Is confined to a small corporation' undertbe control ofLord Falmouth, who returns both members. A petition has, however, been presented to the House of Commons, by Sir John Lubbocke and Mr. Tooke, the unsuccessful candidates at the last election, to unseat the sitting members. The burgesses claim to vote at the election; which has hitherto been decided by the votes of the capital burgesses only, many of
votes among the artisans. Sir Thomas Denman's elec- tion was cost free.
OLD SARUM, which retains but the vestige of a house, formerly conferred the title of Lord Camelford upon Mr. Thomas Pitt, a cousin of the first Earl of Chat- ham, who used his Parliamentary influence to support Ministers. The late Lord promised to send his foot- man to represent him in Parliament,—to exemplify the vice of the close borough system. The estate on which this imaginary borough stands is very small: Lord Caledon, however, gave 60,0001. or 70,0001. for it. PETERBOROUGIL—When Lord Milton resigned, he signified to the electors of Peterborough that be should nst interfere in the election. For this cootie. scension, these gentlemen returned their grateful acknowledgments, but begged his Lordship to assist their judgment. Lord Milton then recommended Dlr. Fazakerley.
POOLE.—This property was formerly held by the Shaftesbury family. It came into possession of Mr.. Ponsonby by his marriage with Lady — Ashley, the only daughter and heiress of the late Earl of Shaftesbury.
PLYMPTON, a Small village, is a proprietary bo- rough. Lord Mount Edgecumbe returns one member; and Mr. Treby, a country squire, the other.
QUEENBOROUG11.—A double return was made for this borough at the last election. A petition was sub- sequently presented against the return of Sir P. Dur- ham and Mr. Holmes, and they declined to oppose it. At the last election, the influence of the Ordnance was paraded in the most wanton manner. Voters were brought from London in the King's vessels, regimental bands were in use, and the Government members displayed flags bearing the Ordnance arms. It is said, that the late Ministry offered Mr. Capel a seat free of expense if he would abandon his petition; and his friend, Mr. Gladstone, the othef member.
Itieos.—This borough belongs to an. old maiden lady, Miss Lawrence • and is under the management of Sir Launcelot Shadivell, the Vice-Chancellor. The lady is a near relative of Lord Goderich, and his bro- ther Lord Grantham ; and they are likely to be the future possessors of it.
RYE.—A Committee of the late House of Commons had determined' the right of election to be in the mayor. jurats, and freemen; but, on appeal, this deci- sion was reversed by a Committee of the present Par- liament. It is now narrowed to the Mayor, Jurats, and freemen inhabiting the port of Rye, and paying scot and lot. The effect of the present decision is to place the patronage of the borough again in the hands of Dr. Lamb, whose family have enjoyed it for nearly a hundred years. It is managed by their influence on the Corporation, of which, though not resident, they form the greater number. About the period that the Lambs acquired the ascendency in the borough, a solemn convention was entered into between them- selves and the then other influential persons in the borough, to keep it close.
SANDWICH.—The patronage of this borough is in the Admiralty ; but at the last election it was unsuc- cessful. The cost of an election varies ordinarily from 15001. to 20001.; but, in case of opposition, from 2000/: to 50001. each candidate. The population is 2530; and the number of voters 955, of whom 320 are resident, and 635 non-resident. • Weou av is a small hamlet in Herefordshire. The houses are deserted until the period of an election ; when the servants of the Marquis of Bath, whose property the borough is, bring beds and occupy them for a night or two. On the day of election, they elect the Marquis's nominees, and return home.
WESTRURY.—As a property, in point of extent, this place is very small, but it was some years ago valued at 00,000/. for its privilege of sending me m. hers to Parliament. The privilege in this place, as in others u-here the property is held in bargage tenure, Is attached to the land, which, though it be abso- lutely valueless as land, confers its qualification of making representatives upon its owner. Sir Ma- nasseh Lopez is the owner of all the houses built within the borough ; which are very few, and only held so as to serve the purpose of returning in em- bers.
WEYMOUTH and Iffeacostn REGIS were formerly two boroughs, returning two Members each. Since
the reign of Queen Elizabeth, the four Members for the two boroughs have been returned by one indenture The right of election is in the freeholders and corpo- rators, who amount to between 600 and 700. But the Johnstone family have great influence. Sir E. John- stone, the at esent representative of the family, is a minor. Mr. Ure and Colonel Gordon, the Members, are his trustees. It is said that the enormous sum of 100,0001. huts been spent to keep up the family interest. The famous Bubb Doddington was formerly Member for these boroughs, and subsequently took his title of Lord Melcumb from the latter place. A correspon- dent states, that the majority of voters are merely "occasional" and non-residents. The qualification is, is some cases, the possession of a thirteen-hun- dredth part of a sixpenny freehold; and lie spealas in the strongest terms of the corruption of the place.
'WI Nen ESTE rt.—The Duke of Buckingham obtained his influence in this place by his marriage with the heiress of the house of Chandos, from which lie takes the title and assumes to be related to the Planta- genets.
Woor-rox DASSETT.—A decayed, miserable town, celebrated for it. corruption. Mr. R. Knight, the
member for Wallingford, purchased property here, with a view to a seat in Parliament, but the expense u-as so great that be relinquished his purpose.
laaanougia—During the war, this was a Govern- ment borough. It is now perfectly open—but costly. The right of voting is in the freemen ; their freedom is obtained by birth or servitude. whom are not resident, and have no other connexion with the borough. As the act of the capital burgesses is an obvious contravention of the charter, the peti- tioners are likely to be successful WENDOVER.—Purchased of the late Lord Verney. The right of voting lain the inhabitants of a certain district of the borough paying scot and lot. Part of this district (not in possession of the Smiths) was pur- chased by Lord Chandos, who made a fruitless at- tempt at the last election to unseat the sitting mem- bers. Wendover is an insignificant village, and the population very small.
WELLS.—The voters of this borough have been of late much increased in number. They are now about 450, many of whom are non-resident.