We have heard that her Majesty has already announced to the proper authorities that it is her intention to open the ensuing session of Par- liament in person with a Speech from the Throne ; and it is generally expected, from the alterations and embellishments now going forward in the House of Lords, that our beloved Sovereign will be accompanied on that important and interesting occasion by all the royal and distin- guished foreigners invited to witness the christening of the infant Prince of Wales.—Correspondent of the Standard.
Prince Esterhazy and suite landed at Dover on Tuesday, on the way to London, in order that the Prince may be present at the marriage of his son, Prince Nicholas, with Lady Sarah Villiers. The Morning Post, however, says that, on account of the death of Lady Sarah's grand- father, the marriage is put off till the end of January.
The National says, that Sir Robert Peel has written to King Louis Philippe a letter, in extremely pressing and flattering terms, to request, that M. Guizot may be kept at the head of affairs." The statement is too absurd even for a hoax: it midst be meant as a skit at M. Guizot's assumed British predilections.
Viscount and Viscountess Palmerston left Carlton Terrace on Satur- day, for Broadlands.
Sir James Graham arrived in town on Thursday evening, from Dor- chester, where he had been paying a visit to his constituents.
The Marquis of' Lansdowne, Mr. Sydney Herbert, M.P., Sir Francis Burdett, M.P., Mr. Walter Long, MP., Mr. T. G. B. Esteourt, M.P., and Mr. J. H. Sotheron, MP.' have subscribed 100/. each for the relief of the distressed operatives of Bradford, in Wiltshire.
The Duke of Northumberland has forwarded 100/. to the fund for the relief of the distressed operatives of Paisley.
The Reverend Lord Augustus Fitzelarence entertained 139 poor families, comprising 471 individuals, lately, in Maple Durham, with a Christmas dinner in honour of the Prince of Wales's birth.
Mr. David Salomons having objected to a passage in Mr. Christo- pher's speech at Lincoln in which the Jews were mentioned as engaged in dishonest tamperings with the corn-averages, Mr. Christopher frankly disavowed all meaning of offence-
" It was not my intention to attribute the dishonest practices in the corn- trade exclusively to those who profess the Jewish religion. The expression of which you complain was a useless one, and not necessary for my argument; and I should not have made use of it, unless I had been credibly informed, when I was on the Continent, that the corn-trade was carried on by persons of your nation."
A considerable improvement has within these few days taken place in the health of the Duke of Cleveland ; who is pronounced to be conva- lescent, though he still sees his medical attendants.
Mrs. Monck, the lady of the Bishop of Gloucester and Bristol, fell, a few days since, down some steps leading from the hall-door of the palace; and dislocated her collar-bone.
We understand that the Chairman and Deputy-Chairman of the East India Company have selected Weekes to execute the statue of the Mar- quis of Wellesley, which was voted by the Court some time since to be placed in their court-room.—Morning Chronicle.
Henry Frederick James, fifth Earl of Egmont, Viscount Perceval, (in Ireland,) and fourth Baron Lovell and Holland, (in England,) died on the 23d instant, at his residence in Wigmore Street. He was great grandson to John, the second Earl of Egmont, (First Lord of the Ad- miralty in the Ministry which succeeded Lord Bute's in 1763); who was father, by a second marriage, to the late Lord Arden and Mr. Spencer Perceval. The late Earl was in his forty-seventh year ; and, dying un- married, his titles have devolved upon his cousin, Lord Arden, a captain in the Navy, who served with gallantry under the late Lord Exmouth at the siege of Algiers. He was born in 1794; and married in 1819 to Jane, eldest daughter of the late Mr. John Hornby, of Hook, near Southampton.
The Earl of Falmouth died suddenly, at Tregothnan, Cornwall, on Wednesday morning, when in the act of dressing himself. His title was conferred in 1821. He will be succeeded by his only issue, Lord Boscawen Rose, one of the Members of the Western Division of Corn- wall ; a vacancy in the representation of which is thus created. The late Earl was in his 55th year, having been born in May 1787. He married Anne Frances, daughter of the late Mr. Henry Bankes. The present Earl is in his 31st year. Lord Douglas Gm Halyburton, the late Member for Forfarshire 'ed on ele evening of Christmas Day, at Warren's Hotel, Regent treet. He was half-brother to the present Marquis of Huntly, and son f the fourth Earl of Aboyne. He was born on the 10th October 1777, d was consequently in the sixty-fifth year of his age. He took the ame and arms ot Halyburton in 1784, on succeeding to the estates of his cousin, the Honourable Hamilton Douglas Halyburton, of Pitcur. He -• arried, in 1807, Louisa, only daughter and heiress of Sir Edward Les0-4 of Tarbut, Kerry.
ir Stratford Canning arrried at Trieste on the 17th December, and was to embark immediately in the Cyclops steamer for Athens.
The Elector of Hesse Cassel has created Baron de Rothschild a Com- mander of the Order of the Golden Lion of the first class, and Baron Anselm de Rothschild a Commander of the same order of the second class. The King of the French has raised Baron James de Roths- child to the dignity of Grand Officer of the Legion of Honour.
Mr. Henry Herz, the pianist, was married, at Paris, a few days before Christmas.
A report has just been published, addressed by a Deputation to the Short Time Committees of the West Riding of Yorkshire, relating a conference which the deputation had with Sir Robert Peel on the 28th of October, on the subject of a Factory-regulation Bill. The report consists of a colloquy between Sir Robert and "the deputation." The latter consisted of five gentlemen; but the long-winded lectures of "the deputation" bear every mark of being composed by only one person. They have either been dressed up for publication, or Sir Robert was doomed to hear a very pompous discourse.
The Deputation proposed that their bill should forbid any person be- ' tween thirteen and twenty years of age from being employed in factories more than ten hours a day ; that it should compel the gradual with- drawal of all females from the factories ; and that dangerous machinery should be boxed off. Sir Robert Peel suggested difficulties in the way of such a measure, such as the hardship which, in many cases, might be involved in the absolute prohibition of female labour in factories : what, he asked, would become of a widowed mother depending upon the support of two daughters ? And he pointed out the probability that so considerable an abridgment of the supply of labour would in- crease the cost of production, and so augment the existing distress by making our manufacturers still less able than now to compete with foreigners in the markets of the world. To the first of these objec- tions the Deputation replied, by arguing that the choice lay between occasional hardship and greater and more systematic evils. The present system, they said, tends to the debasement of the whole female popu- lation of manufacturing towns-
" They get little if any education worthy the name previous to entering the mills; and as soon as they enter them, (generally at a very early age, in con- sequence of the connivance of parents, medical men, and factory-owners, to evade the present law,) they are surrounded by influences of the most vitiating and debasing nature. They grow up in total ignorance of all the true duties of woman. Home, its cares and its employments, is woman's true sphere; but these poor things are totally unfitted for attending to the one or participating in the other." * * "Through these means is engendered a vast amount of immorality and misery ; and wink such are its results as respects private life, the operation of the system is not less injurious in a national point of view. It throws the burden of supporting the family on the wife and the child, and compels the adult male, upon whose shoulders the duty ought rightfully to fall, to be reluctantly idle. It is an inversion of the order of nature and of Provi- dence—a return to a state of barbarism, in which the woman does the work, while the man looks idly on. The consequence of throwing loose such a mass of partially-informed men in such circumstances, cannot fail to be fraught with danger to the state. Disaffection and discontent must be engendered among parties so situated."
The Deputation hinted at further measures. They quoted the late Sir Robert Peel's prophecy of the social and political evils which he foresaw from "indiscriminate and unlimited employment of the ma- facturing poor "— " If (observed the Deputation) this insane course had been checked—if over- production had been discouraged by wise laws, and a prudent system of trade pursued, wages and profits would have been better, and employment more per- manent and more equally diffused over the year. We should not have had flashes of prosperity, succeeded by lonn.' periods of depression; a continual re- currence of gluts and panics, each crisis following the other at shorter intervals, and finding us less prepared to bear it than its predecessor."
Sir Robert Peel haring "directed the conversation to the broad question of machinery, which he said was one, deserving of the gravest consideration," the Deputation replied, that they " would not at- tempt to conceal their opinion that, in order to meet the case fully and fairly, the enactment of other and more comprehensive measures was indispensably necessary : and of these they stated that an indispensable preliminary would be, "the total repeal of the New Poor-law, or such an alteration of it as would make it applicable to the manufacturing districts in which it is at this moment practically inoperative, and in which we defy any Government ever to enforce it." They also sug- gested "the appointment at an early period of the session of a Committee of experienced, practical, moderate men of all parties, to inquire into the causes of existing distress, and especially into the workings of machinery at home and abroad since the close of the war in 1815, with a view to the adoption of a comprehensive and efficient remedy." The report says that Sir Robert listened attentively to the Deputa- tion; "sitting with his head bent down, in a manner expressive of very deep thought and attention": he seemed " favourably impressed" with their suggestion of a committee ; wrote them notes of introduction to Sir James Graham and Mr. Gladstone ; promised to give his own atten- tion to their representations ; and sent them away exclaiming, "Well, at all events it is clear that Sir Robert Peel has a heart!"
It is currently reported in the naval circles that the uniform of the several classes is to be forthwith changed, and that the white collar and cuff are to be again substituted for the red.—Standard, Dec. 31.
On Thursday afternoon, for the first time, a plate with the word, "Post-office," and the number of the neighbouring receiving-house, in black letters, was affixed on the lamp-post or other most convenient place as near as possible to each of the several receiving-houses in the Metropolis. The number of persons who visited the British Museum on Monday was 14,763; a much larger number than on any " boxing-day " since the Museum has been opened to the public on holydays. On the same day last year, the numbers were 2,531; on Whit Monday, 9,0:,1. Three persons were refused admittance on account of drunkenness, and three members of the "swell mob" were detected and arrested in the rooms. Not a single instance of damage occurred during the day.
We understand that Rapallo was originally under the impression that after his release from Newgate no other steps could be taken against him with regard to the forged Exchequer Bills. Having, how-
ever, some doubt of security from the risk of further molestation, and feeling desirous to be upon the safe side, he hastened, on the very evening of his discharge, to the private residence of a certain eminent counsel ; and, after a consultation, he lost no time in getting on board a Boulogne steam-boat. Had he been tried and acquitted, he could not, of course, have been again indicted for the same offence ; but as the proceedings went no further than an examination before the Police Magistrates, the opportunity of clearing his character (if he can) by a trial at the Old Bailey is still open to him, should he feel disposed to return to take advantage of it. —Globe.
Louis Philippe opened the French Chambers on Monday, with the usual ceremonies. The quays were lined with National Guards and
troops of the Line. The King left the Tuilleries at one o'clock ; and on his arrival at the Chambers he at once proceeded to read the following speech- " Gentlemen, Peers, and Deputies—Since the close of your last session, the questions which excited in the East our just solicitude have reached their term. I have concluded with the Emperor of Austria, the Queen of Great Britain, the Ring of Prussia, the Emperor of Russia, and the Sultan, a convention which consecrates the common intention of the Powers to maintain the peace of Europe, and consolidate the repose of the Ottoman empire. " The great burdens imposed upon the country have already experienced con- siderable reductions. It would bare been my lively wish that a balance should have been immediately reestablished between the expenditure and revenues of the state. This is the result which we must now prepare, and which you will achieve without weakening our military organization, and without deferring the execution of those works which are to increase the national prosperity. " A project of law will be presented to you for constructing the principal lines of a great system of railroads, calculated to insure those rapid and easy communications with all parts of our territory which will prove a source of force and riches to the nation.
" I am endeavouring at the same time by negotiations prudently conducted to extend our commercial relations, and to open new markets for the productions of our soil and of our arts.
" Such labours honour peace, and render it stable and fruitful at the same time. I have reason to reckon that it will not be disturbed, receiving from all the Powers the most amicable assurances.
" I have taken measures to prevent any external complication from disturb- ing the security of our African possessions. Our brave soldiers are pursuing on that land, henceforth and for ever French, the course of their noble labours; in which I am happy that soy sons have had the honour of concurring. Oar perseverance shall complete the work undertaken by our courageous army, and France will introduce into Algeria her civilisation as the consequence of her glory. " The financial laws and others, having for their object to introduce useL
improvements in the public administration, will be presented to you immediately.
• Whatever may be the burdens of our situation, France would support them without difficulty if faction did not unceasingly obstruct the course of her powerful activity. I will not dwell upon the intrigues and crimes of the factious; but let us not forget, gentlemen, that it is that which debars our country from fully enjoying all the blessings which Providence has conferred upon it, and which retards the development of that legal and pacific liberty which France has at last achieved, and of which I make it my glory to insure her the possession. "'Sire shall follow up this task, gentlemen. My Government will do its duty, It will maintain everywhere and constantly the authority of the laws, and cause them to be respected, as it will respect them itself. Your bpil sup- port will aid me. In enlightening the country with persevering sincerity with regard to its true interest, we shall strengthen by its support, and by our union keep entire, the sacred deposit of order and public liberties which the Charter has confided to us. Future generations will reap the fruit of our endeavours, and the gratitude of our country will be our recompense."
The Chamber of Deputies assembled on Tuesday, for the purpose of appointing its standing committees, and verifying the powers of the
members returned during the recess. At four o'clock, the ballot for the election of President commenced ; and at five o'clock the result was announced. M. Sauzet, the Ministerial candidate, obtained 193 votes; M. de Lamartine, the Opposition candidate, 64; M. Odillon Barrot, candidate of the Gauche, 45. M. Sauzet was proclaimed President.
The Chamber met on Wednesday to elect its four Vice-Presidentr. Only 289 members took part in the ballot. M. Duffinre, the candidate of the Ministry, as well as of the Gauche, obtained 246 votes ; M. Calmon, who stood in a position nearly similar, 172; General Jacque- minot, the Ministerial candidate, 176; M. Bignon, the other Ministerial candidate, 151; M. Vivien, former Minister of Justice under M. 'niers, the candidate of the Centre Gauche, 113; and M. Tracy, the candidate of the Extreme Gauche, 30. The four first having obtained the re- quired majority, were proclaimed Vice-Presidents of the Chamber.
By individual ordonnances, dated December 25th, the King has raised to the dignity of Peer of France—
MM. Berget, Vice-Admiral ; Count Beugnot(Arthur), Titulary Member of the Institut ; Viscount do Bondy, formerly Prefect ; Baillet, First President of the Royal Court of Amiens; Baron de Bourgoing, Minister Plenipoten- tiary; Baron de Bussiere (Edmond), Minister Plenipotentiary; Count Char- bound, Lieutenant General; De Chastellier, formerly Deputy and ex-Mayor of Nismes ; Baron Dufour, Mayor of Metz, President of the Council-General of the Department of the Maine ; Ferrier, President of the Council-General of the Department of the North ; Viscount de Flavigny, Member of a Council-
Genera]; Frank Carre, First President of the Rota] Court of Rouen ; De Gascq, President of the Court of Accounts; Baron bourgaud, Lieutenant-Ge- neral ; Chevalier Jaubert, Titulary Member of the Institut : Lesergeant de Bayenghen, formerly Deputy President of the Council General of the Depart- ment of Pas du Calais ; Count Murat, ex-Deputy and ex-Prefect ; Baron d'Oberlin, ex-Deputy; Viscount Pelleport, Lieutenant-General; Count Alexis de St. Priest, Minister Plenipotentiary. Of these twenty new Peers, nine have been Royalists—namely, MM. Beugnot, Bonrgoing, Bussiere, De Chastellier, Flavigny, Lesergeant, Murat, Pelleport, and St. Priest. M. Jaubert is the father-in-law of M. Dufanre. The deaths of Peers, in 1841, have been nine—namely, Baron
Bignon, Marshal Duke de Bellune, Count de Larochefoucault, Count Perregaux, Count de Cessac, Duke de Preslin, the Prince of Monaco, Duke de Gramont Caderousse, and General Viscount Tislet.
M. de Tocqueville has been elected a member of the Acadt:mie Fran- caise by twenty-one votes. M. Vatout obtained eight, and M. Aime Martin two votes.
The editors of the most influential journals in Paris have put forth a declaration on the subject of M. Dupoty's conviction. In some remarks preceding the formal enunciation of their conclusions, they observe that the press has never, at any period, shown more respect for legal order than at present : never was it exposed to such bitter persecution. The object seems to be to accomplish the expression of M. Guizot, in the discus- sion of the laws of September in 1835—" We desire not to punish, not to ameliorate, but to suppress, nay, to annihilate the bad press." M. Dupoty has been convicted of a "moral complicity": "he has been condemned by the Court of Peers as guilty of a provocation followed by an effect ( provocation suivie d'effet), although the court had not re- cognized any personal relation between M. Dupoty and the authors of the attempt, and although it is impossible to find any relation between the article published the 12th of September, by the Journal du Peuple, and the sinister event of the following day."
"The decree of the Court of Peers is not confined to the striking down of a political writer—it presses upon the very liberty of discussion itself. The jurisprudence that this act tends to establish, goes even beyond the laws of Sep- tember; it is still more menacin„e; and one more arbitrary has never been so formally stamped with legality. In order that the laws of September may be made applicable to any writer, book, or journal, it is essential that the writer should have so directly excited to the assassination of the person of the King, or to the overturning of the power of the laws, that such provocation, even without having produced an effect, should constitute in itself an attentat. The writer thus knows what he did, and to what risks he exposed his honour and his life. But by the interpretation given by the Court of Peers of the law of 1819, every hostile word contemporary with an erneute, a complot, or an attentat, will be sufficient to constitute complicity in such acts, and to bring upon the writer penalties such as detention, transportation, hard labour, and even death. The feeling of the times in which we live rises up in horror at the bare thought. "The jurisprudence which flows from the decree of the Court of Peers aggra- vates the already flagrant inconveniences of this jurisdiction. It is, moreover, a motive for demanding that the competence of the Peerage may be defined and limited in criminal matters and in political offences; but until this shall have been done, it is another danger created for the press and the country. Public writers are deprived of those guarantees which are a natural right in every civilized community, and which the Revolution of July had promised and the Charter had consecrated. The entire press is placed in a permanent state of prevention. The accusation of moral complicity is suspended over the heads of all writers. It is the law of suspicion that is established against them."
The subscribers determine to oppose every legal resistance to this new system of intimidation-
" We declare then-
" With the Charter, that the French have the right to publish and to print their opinions, conforming themselves to the laws.' "With the article 69, of the same Charter, that the judging of offences of the press belongs exclusively to the jury.' last'" With the Constitution of 1791, that no man can be pursued by reason of
• "; the writings which he has published, unless he has designedly provoked disobe- rdience to the laws. • "With the article 202 of the Penal Code, that 'provocation, to be made a crime or an offence, must be direct,' and not the result of a connexion more or less arbitrary between a fact and the writings which have preceded or accom- panied this fact.
"With the article 60 of the Penal Code, that there cannot exist complicity where there is no knowledge of a plot "With MM. Royer Collard, Odillon Barret, Lamartine, Berryer, Dufaure, and Dupin, that it is not wise to give judicial attributes to a political body ; and that in making the Chamber of Peers la Cour Prevotale of the press, its sincerity has been compromised, as well as the force of our opinions. "With citizens of all opinions, that the degree of liberty at which a nation has arrived may be judged of by the degree of liberty which its prat' enjoys ; and that in this respect France, since 1830, has positively retrograded. " In fine, that this is a point upon which all can agree—writers, electors, deputies, and citizens of every class. It is a duty to refuse concurrence to the policy of any Administration which will not repair the attempts made against public rights by the laws of September, as well as by the last decree of the Court of Peers.
"In this situation, we appeal to the Chamber of Deputies—we hope that it will rise to the duty which circumstances impose upon it. And if, contrary to all expectation, it fails to do its duty, we shall appeal to the electoral body, which is invested with political rights ; well convinced that it will not forget the 66th article of the same Charter, which has confided the rights of the press, as well as all other rights consecrated by the Charter, to the patriotism and courage of the National Guards and of all French citizens."
Signed by the editors representing The Commerce. The Echo Francais, The Courrier Francais, The Journal du Peuple, The France, The Revue Independante, The National, The Revue du Progres, The Patric, The Mode,
The Quotidienne, The Charivari, The Siècle, The Corsair.
It is remarked that the name of M. Thiers's paper, the Constitu- tionnel, is sot among the signatures. To the declaration, however, the delegates of the independent provincial press had signified their ad-, herence.
The Society of Gens de Lettres had also issued a declaration. They observe, that the Society has no right to mix itself up with a political question ; but they think it right "to mark the dangers of an interpre- tation of the law which would assimilate to 'complicity' a thought ex- pressed in a public writing published before the act took place espe- cially when no relation whatever existed between the writer and those accused of the guilty act. Such interpretation would take away all personal security from writers, and all freedom from the expression of thought" The signatures to this document are headed " Arago, de l'Institut, President"; ; and among them is that of George Sand.
The journalists, it is said, expect that Royer Collard, Berryer, Laffitte, Dupont de l'Eure, and Odillon Barrot, will bring the case of the press before the Chamber of Deputies. Just Brasier and Colombier, Quenisset's accomplices, have saved their
menaced heads by disclosures and accusations, and several arrests have taken place of persons connected with secret aocieties. A certain Rousselet, a master mechanic, residing in the Faubourg St. Antoine, is said to be especially implicated ; and he has been arrested, with four or five others. Dupoty's name recurs ; and it is soli the. .oese .Aen„ with the fears of the scaffold before their eyes (for their demands of pardon have not yet been answered) have even mentioned the name of Arago. The Journal des Debate says, that on Tuesday the Committee of Peers appointed to prepare the evidence relative to the attentat of the 13th September, assembled at the Chancellor's residence. It was determined that a supplementary proceeding should be commenced forthwith, It was generally believed that the Duke of Aumale had prevailed on the King to commute the capital sentence pronounced by the Court of Peers against Quenisset, Colombier, aud Brazier.
M. Salvandy, the new French Ambassador at Madrid, is at issue with the Spanish Government ; at first, he wished to communicate with the Queen without the intervention of the Regent or the Ministers. On the 22d, he modified his demands, and asked to be permitted to deliver his credentials to the Queen in presence of the Regent. The Cabinet, it was believed, would not accede to this demand; so that M. Salvandy would, in all probability, call for his passposts on receipt of his final instructions from Paris, which were to reach Madrid on the 28th.
Letters from the Hague mention that the Prussian Government in- tends to bring before the Diet the conduct of the King of Holland with regard to the Luxemburg treaty.
The Wurtemberg Chamber has unanimously adopted a resolution inviting the Minister to interfere with the German Diet for the restora- tion of the constitution in Hanover.
The plan of constructing a railroad from Berlin to Hamburg, upon the right bank of the Elbe, through Pregnitz, is taken into considera- tion. Negotiations will consequently be commenced with the Govern- ments interested in this work. Should the company of the right bank not succeed in raising sufficient funds, the proposal for constructing a railroad on the left bank of the Elbe will be taken into consideration,— Prussian State Gazette, Dec. 23.
The Levant mail brings advices from Constantinople to the 7th De- cember. Izzet Pasha had been appointed Grand Vizier, in the room of Raouff Pasha. He is considered a sanguinary and incapable man ; and on that account, at the instance of Great Britain, he was removed from the command of the Turkish forces in Syria. Hostile to British in- terests, his elevation is reckoned a sort of triumph for France.
According to accounts from Athens, King Otho has been foolhardy- enough to decline the mediation of the Three Powers to whom the Porte addressed complaints of his conduct. Turkey is said to be con- centrating forces on Greece.
A correspondent, who is at the receipt of the best information, has favoured us with the following account of the state of matters in Syria— as little "settled" as ever. It bears out the forebodings which the same correspondent expressed in June last-
" Since I wrote to you, I have again twice received letters from Syria—from Beyrout and Aleppo. The Nusanyeh (commonly called Insarii) who fill the mountains north of Lebanon, up to Antioch, are in a state of insubordination; not insurgent, to be sure, but at their old trade of plundering. The whole of that district is now unsafe.
"The war in Lebanon is suspended pro tern. It seems that the Maronites (Papal Christians), instigated by the clergy, and they by French emissaries, desired to destroy the Druses en masse; and were led to expect help in money, &c. from France. The first part of this late short civil war was therefore un- expected to the Druses, and went against them severely. They rallied, how- ever, and became victorious at every point, taking ample and relentless revenge on people and property. The present Prince of the Mountains (or Emir Beshir) was set up by Wood, the English intrignant in the war of 1840, late Dragoman at Constantinople, now Consul at Damascus. This Emir is a rich man, a Maronite, and of good family, but feeble of purpose, and partial, from his creed. The Druses were ill-used by him, and will not be ruled by a Maronite.
" This man's incapacity, no aid from France, and the vigour of the Druses, were the causes of these people becoming victorious; but there is another effect from the same causes. The Maronites have become as hostile to this Emir, from his incapacity, as the Druses are from his partiality. Moreover, they are once more in temporary disgust at the French, and have applied to the British authorities at Beyrout to interfere, not merely to stop the war, (which they have done,) but to bring about some new arrangement, satisfactory to all parties, by which the Mountain will have a strong and impartial government. The dates by the India mail from Beyrout were to the 7th November ; but on the 20th November, a British war-steamer left Beyrout for Malta, with the official application of the Mountaineers to the British Government. It is by this steamer I have received this pees. Once more, therefore, the settlement of the Mountains under an impartial and firm rule is in the power of the Foreign Office, and French influence thrown overboard. Surely measures will be taken to secure tranquillity to one of the finest countries, and the most in- dustrious population in Turkey." Advices from Erzerum of the 20th November, in the Leipsic Gazette, state that Sir John M'Neil has been received in a splendid manner at Teheran ; and that ten thousand persons came out of the town to meet him. At the gate, lie was complimented by the Prime Minister of' the Shah, and afterwards he received a valuable horse from his Majesty. It was said that the Shah was going to make an expedition against the predatory tribes of the Turcomans.
The paragraph in the Morning Chronicle stating the death of Mr. Charles Scott of Abbotsford, at Teheran has not been corroborated by any letter hitherto received either by Mr. J. G. Lockhart or at the Foreign Office.—Dumfries Courier.
The President's message was delivered to Congress on its opening, on the 7th. He begins by congratulating Congress that throughout the year "peace has been on our borders, and plenty in our habitations." He then alludes to the acquittal of Alexander M`Leod, in which he re- joices ; while he regards the trial of M`Leocl as the only answer that could be given to the demand of Great Britain for his discharge, "by a Govern- ment the powers of which are distributed among its several depart- ments by the fundamental law." The Executive Government of the Union cannot enter a none prose qui upon a prosecution pending in a State Court : but no foreign power could complain of that, as it is a 6ere point of muaicipal regulation to fix at what stage of proceedings such an order may be made. " I cannot fail, however," says Mr. Tyler, " to suggest to Congress the pro- priety, and in some degree the necessity, of making such provisions by law, so far as they may constitutionally do so, for the removal, at their commence- ment, and at the option of the party, of all such cases as may hereafter arise, and uhich may involve the faithful observance and execution of our interna- tional obligations, from the State to the Federal Judiciary. This Government, by our institutions, is charged with the maintenance of peace and the preserva- tion of amicable relations with the nations of the earth ; and ought to possess, without question, all the reasonable and proper means of maintaining the one and preserving the other. Whilst just confidence is felt in the Judiciary of the States, yet this Government ought to be competent in itself for fulfilment of the high duties which have been devolved upon it under the organic law, by the States themselves."
" It contemplates the establishment of a Board of Control at the seat of Government, with agencies at prominent commercial points, or whevever else Congress shall direct, for the safe keeping and disbursement of the public monies ; and a substitution, at the option of the public creditor, of Treasury notes in lieu of gold and silver. It proposes to limit the issues to an amount not to exceed 15,000,000 dollars, without the express sanction of the legislative power. It also authorizes the receipt of individual deposits of gold and silver to a limited amount, and the granting certificates of deposits divided into such sums as may be called for by the depositors. It proceeds a step further, and authorizes the purchase and sale of domestic bills and drafts, resting on a real and substantial basis, payable at sight, or haying but a short time to run, and drawn on places not less than one hundred miles apart ; which authority, ex- cept in so far as may be necessary for Government purposes exclusively, is only to be exerted upon the express condition that its exercise shall not be pro- hibited by the State in which the agency is situated. In order to cover the ex- penses incident to the plan, it will be authorized to receive moderate premiums for certificates issued on deposits, and on bills bought and sold; and thus, as far as its dealings extend, to furnish facilities to commercial intercourse at the lonest possible rates, and to subduct from the earnings of industry the least possible sum. It uses the State Banks at a distance from the agencies, as auxiliaries, without imparting any power to trade in its name."
Mr. Tyler calls upon Congress to " relieve the Chief Executive Ma- gistrate, by any and all constitutional means, from a controlling power over the public treasury." Alluding to the foreign debts of the sepa- rate States, an "indebtedness" amounting to 200,000,000 dollars, he hopes that the States will resort to every legitimate expedient before they forego a faithful compliance with their obligations. He proposes that Congress should regulate and restrain the power of the President to remove public officers ; since that power acts as a stimulus to office- holders and office-hunters in the elections. These, the chief points of the message, occupy almost all its space.
With the message had been laid before Congress, the corespondence between Lord Palmerston, Lord Aberdeen, and Mr. Stevenson, the late Ambassador for the United States at London, concerning the question of the right of search. It is exceedingly lengthy, extending over upwards of seven columns of the New York papers. The first letter complains of the seizure and temporary detention of many American vessels on the coast of Africa. Lord Palmerston justifies the proceedings, on the ground that an agreement in writing (of which he transmitted a copy to Mr. Stevenson, but which does not appear among the documents) was made between the commander of the British squadron on the coast and Commander Paine, of the United States vessel Grampus, to the effect that the British cruisers might visit suspicious vessels under the American flag, and American vessels the like vessels under the British flag. The principle laid down by Lord Palmerston and Lord Aber- deen is, that while disclaiming emphatically all right to search or detain American vessels, even though with slaves on board, they have a right to ascertain that vessels hoisting the American flag under suspicious circumstances are bona fide American. To this Mr. Stevenson replies, that however convenient, expedient, and necessary its exercise may be to enable the British Government to carry out the treaties she has made with other Powers for the suppression of the slave-trade, treaties to which the United States is not a party, it is one which for reasons co;.- !meted with higher expediency, and indeed with her existence as an independent nation, America can never acknowledge nor submit to. Mr. Stevenson's formal protest is thus put-
" The undersigned must therefore, after the most careful consideration of the arguments advanced in Lord Aberdeen's note, repeat the opinion which he has heretofore expressed, that if a power such as that which is now asserted by her Majesty's Government shall be enforced, not only without consent but in the face of a direct refusal to concede it, it can be regarded in no other light by the Government of the United States than a violation of national rights and sovereignty and the incontestible principles of international law. That its exercise may lead to consequences of a painful character, there is too much reason to apprehend. In cases of conflicting rights between nations, the pre-. cise line which neither can pass, but to which each may advance, is not easily found or marled; and y et it exists, whatever may be the difficulty of discerning it. In ordinary cases of disagreement there is little danger ; each nation may and often does yield something to the other. Such, however, it is to be feared, is not the present case. The peculiar nature of the power asserted, and the consequences which may be apprehended from its exercise, make it one of an important and momentous character. Involving, as it does, questions of high and dangerous sovereignty, it may justly be regarded as•deeply endangering the good understanding of the two countries."
Mr. Spencer, the Secretary of War for the United States, had issued his report. He recommends a strengthening of the defences on the Northern and Western frontiers.
No material change had taken place in monetary affairs. The rate of exchange on London was 9 to 9/ premium. There had been a great excitement in Boston in consequence of the exposure of large defal- cations in some of the banks, arising from over-drafts permitted by the sellers.
The Grand Jury of the county of Philadelphia had made a present- ment against Nicholas Biddle, Samuel Jaudon, and others, officers of the United States Bank, charged with fraud, asking for a bill of indict- ment against them : it had caused a great excitement in Philadelphia.
The New York Horning Herald contains an account of what it terms "another British outrage." Another American vessel, the William, has been boarded and overhauled by a British cruiser, the Queen's brig Dolphin, at Galenas, and permitted to go at liberty again.
The same paper contains an extract from a letter from Havannah, which says—" A serious affair has just commenced in the neighbour- hood of Matanzas. It appears that the English Consul went, a few days since, to a plantation situated near that town, and attempted to obtain the emancipation of all the slaves belonging to a planter who had arrived from Jamaica. His seditious counsels might have occa- sioned a general revolt among the Coloured population of that place. As soon as the commander of Matanzas obtained information of this occurrence, he arrested the Consul and sent him back here, escorted by soldiers under the order of the Government. We do not know what will be the result of this affair."