1 JUNE 1844, Page 8

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FRANCE.—The debates in the Chamber of Peers on the Secondary Instruction Bill, which had lasted for twenty-one days, closed on Fri- day ; when the whole bill was carried, by 85 to 51. The narrowness of the majority created some surprise; but it is explained by the Journal des Debuts : on the previous day, the Chamber had passed a vote with- drawing the smaller schools for the education of ecclesiastics from the control of the Council of the University ; that vote displeased several Peers, who, by way of protesting against it, voted against the whole bill, and thus swelled the apparent strength of the Church party. The project of law for the extraordinary and supplemental credits for 1843 and 1844 gave rise to an animated discussion in the Chamber of Deputies; but it does not possess very great interest for the foreign reader. It began on Monday, when M. Berryer attacked the conduct of Ministers in relinquishing the occupation of New Zealand, and after. -wards in not asserting a more vigorous policy in Tahiti, and better sup- porting Admiral Dupetit-Thouars. M. Guizot replied ; reproducing n some former arguments, but referring to tie past decision of the Cham- ber on the subject. He alluded to Hayti in the course of his speech : Prance had recognized her independence ; but should that republic cease to be completely independent. or neglect to fulfil her obligations towards France, the latter was at liberty to adopt whatever course she deemed expedient. The debate continued on Thursday. General Delarue set out on Saturday for Algeria, to give the benefit of his maturer experience to the Due d'Aumale; whose ardour had be- trayed him into some imprudence, and some awkward reverses, in a re- -cent encounter with the Kabyles. The Toe/on/mils says that he nar- rowly escaped being captured ; and that, as it was, the French troops incurred great loss of life through his rashness.

M. Jacques Laffitte, the great financier, died on Sunday evening. He was a remarkable man : the son of a Bayonne carpenter, he became Governor of the Bank of France, and had the illustrious fortune to confer signal services on his country : for example, at his instance the Bank advanced the war-contribution levied on Paris in 1815, to be re- paid at the convenience of the country. After the capitulation, when the Army was left without bread for want of funds, he lent 2,001000 francs to the city of Paris, without guarantee ; and in the commercial crisis of 1818, he manifested similar generosity. In 1830, he became President of the 'Council and Minister of Finance; but his management of official busi- ness disappointed expectation : kind to the most unfortunate, fond of popularity, he lacked the firmness needed for responsible power. Lat- terly, as father of the French House of Commons, he provisionally held She post of President ; and it will be remembered that he made rather a curious use of his position to attack the existing order of public affairs : the words which he then uttered, the National regards as "his political will." On Monday, the Chamber of Deputies resolved to attend his funeral en masse.

SWITZERLAND.—The disturbance in the two Valais, or rather the civil war bezween the Aristocratic party of the Upper Valais and the Liberals of the Lower Valais, or " Young Switzerland," has been quelled. Both parties appear to have committed cruelties on each other, though that statement is denied; but the troops of the Upper Valais on the whole had the advantage. The Vorort issued a circular letter dated the 13th May, announcing that Federal troops would march into the canton of Lower Valais. It was expected that the Liberal Can- tons of Berne and Vaud would oppose the passage of the troops ; but they did not, and even in the Lower Valais itself the soldiers were well received by the people at large. The Swiss State Gazette of the 25th announced that order had been quite restored, though measures of pre- caution were still kept up.

UNITED STATES.—The mail steamer Hibernia, which left Boston on the 16th instant and Halifax on the 18th, arrived at Liverpool on Tues- day. The only interesting points in the general news are thus summed up by the New York American of the 15th- " The chief incident of interest of the last few days is the defeat of the bill modifying the existing tariff. It was finally laid on the table in the House of Representatives on Friday, by a vote of 105 to 99 ; and is therefore disposed of for the session. As it has all along been certain that even if it should obtain a majority in the House of Representatives that bill could not pass in the Senate, its defeat has produced no effect upon mercantile affairs. As a political mea- sure it may have more marking consequences, but with those we have here no concern.

"The Texas treaty is yet before the Senate ; but as it is well understood that it will find no favour there, all anxiety about its fate has ceased. It will be rejected by a very large vote. " The internal trade of the country is active and vigorous. The imports from abroad also continue large; and withal there is a healthiness and sound- ness of business that promise the best results. The money-market is free alike from agitation and pressure.

The most startling interest, however, attaches to a bad subject—san- guinary street riots which had kept Philadelphia in a state of anarchy for several days. The cause does not come out very clearly ; but it is best indicated by the correspondent of the Morning Chronicle.

" For several years past, the Irish Catholic immigrants to this country have been very numerous ; and, within the last two years, they have attained to such a magnitude of political power and influence, as to awaken some jealousy Among the native and Protestant Americans. But, possessing this power through the medium of an immense number of votes, both the great political parties, Whig and Democrat, have courted their favour ; and, by way of obtaining their votes, great numbers of them have been appointed to fill offices, a majority of which the native-born Americans naturally thought should be filled by themselves. In an early stage of the progress of this feeling, Bishop Hughes, of New York, not being satisfied with the reading of the Protestant Bible in public schools, succeeded, by Catholic influence, in obtaining a separate appropriation of funds, or other exclusive privileges, for the education of Catholic children. Similar religious bickerings took place in Philadelphia, and the feeling of jealousy was much deepened by discussions of the question. " Therefore it was, that within the last eighteen months a new party, distinct diem the two great American parties of Whigs and Democrats, was formed, Ender the title of the' Native Americans.' This party soon became so strong, that it carried the late city elections in New York, and polled a considerable vote in Philadelphia. It opposed foreign influence, but was particularly di- rected against Irish and Catholic power, required a longer period of residence for naturalization of aliens than under the present law, (tire years,) and con- tended that the Irish Catholics, unlike the immigrants from all other nations, sought for places and offices under the general State and Municipal Govern- ments, to the too extensive exclusion of natives. At the same time, the presses and orators of the new party contended that the supremacy of the Pope, a Foreign Potentate, to whom the Irish Catholics were all bound in fealty, (it should be remembered that this fealty is merely spiritual,) was unrepublican, and pregnant with danger to the free institutions of the country. " Meanwhile, the Repeal Associations arose, which interested themselves in a foreign and not an American question. But these associations handed the Irish Catholics together in a mass, as one body, separate and distinct from Americanism ; and it was observed that the members of these institutions usually voted all one way. Their votes, though by no means a majority, were sufficiently numerous in some cases to give them the balance of power. They uniformly voted the Democratic tickets; but on one or two occasions they have voted for one or more Whigs, placing those favoured individuals in power, while, perhaps, all the rest of the election, having received their votes, was -carried by the Democrats. Thus, in the city and suburbs of Philadelphia, their vote is probably 4,000. Well, suppose the two parties voted nearly -equal—the Irish Catholic vote would turn the scale by an immense majority ; And the' Native Americans' complained that they thus carried the elections, in cities especially, and might, in the spirit of clanship, if the naturalization- laws were not altered, ultimately, by wielding the balance of power, prove the governing influence of the land. The Irish contended that they acted under the constitution."

Thus much for introductory explanation. Our narrative of the recent events is abridged from several accounts.

On Friday the 3d May, a " Native American " meeting was held in Ken- sington, a large town, but still a suburb of Philadelphia. No sooner was it organized than it was attacked by a large body of the Irish, the meeting dis- persed, and the American fl is; torn by the assailants, and trampled under their feet. For the time, no further disturbance seems to have ensued.

On Monday the 6th, the Native American party held a meeting in the market-house, to denounce this insult to the fl ig; and strong resolutions were proposed. IS bile one of the number was speaking, a man, assumed to be as Irishman, said to a companion, " Now, let's make a noise, so that he won't be heart "; and accordingly the two began to make a noise. They were desired. to desist; and refusing, were silenced by "a severe flogging "! "This fight caused a little excitement," which " was raised to an intense degree," several shots b.ing fired from the upper windows of the Hibernia hose-house. A mob of Irish had now collecte I : they were attacked by the Native Americans, and routed; and they took refuge in several houses. The houses were attacked, and much damaged ; but the Irish rallied, and beat off their opponents. The tumult continued with varied fortunes, until, at ten o'clock in the evening, a cry was raised of '• Ga to the Nunnery "; and the mob went to a Catholic girls-school; to the fence of which they set fire. A volley of musketry was fired from a house opposite, by which two men were wounded and two were killed. The Native Americans retreated; and at midnight the city was com- paratively tranquil. On Tuesday, the disturbance was renewed. A large crowd of persons pa- raded the streets bearing the American flag, inscribed, in large letters, " This is the flag that was trampled upon by the Irish Papists." They carried it to Kensington and nailed it up. A large crowd attacked the Hibernia-hose house ; were beaten off with tire-arms; rallied, broke into the building, and destroyed the apparatus. After this, shots were freely exchanged ; several houses were assailed, and set on fire; possession was taken of the market- house, which was burned down. It was now seven o'clock in the evening, and now the authorities interfered! The military were called out under General Cadwallader ; cannon were stationed in the streets occupied by the rioters ; the General addressed the people, asturing them that the law would be enforced ; and the Sheriff arrested a few armed persons. The result of the day's cam- paign was, that thirty-nine houses and the market-house were burned, seven people were killed, five mortally wounded, and al s teen less dangerously wounded. Among the wounded was a man shot by one John Taggart ; who was arrested, examined before Alderman Boileau, and committed to Moyamensing Prison. He did not, however, reach it in safety : " He left the Police-office," says the United States Gazette, in charge of two officers and a number of citizens; but when near Beaver &red., the crowd took him violently out of the hands of his conductors, tied a rope round his neck, and dragged him some distance along the street. His captors then passed the rope over the end of an awning- post and pulled him up, for the purpose of hanging him; but the beam broke, and he fell to the earth : he was then dragged for some distance, and finally left lying in the street, to all appearance dead. He was, however, alive when taken up, and remained so up to ten o'clock at night. He cannot, however, survive." One gentleman had a remarkable escape. " S. Abbott Lawrence, a nephew of Abbott Lawrence, of Boston, was standing on the outskirts of the crowd, when a bullet struck him and caused him much pain. It appeared, upon examina- tion, that the ball had struck his waistcoat, and lodged against a cent that was in his pocket, by which its course was stopped. The cent was completely bent up, and the escape of Mr. Lawrence may be certainly considered providential." The journal already quoted *salmis curious praise to the authorities. " Sheriff M'Michael was unceasing in his efforts to put an end to the riots. The military miscalled out at four o'clock in the afternoon, and they were put in motion at seven o'clock. Had they arrived on the ground at four o'clock, the terrible de- struction of life would have been prevented, and the conflagration would not have taken place." The Catholics held a meeting " for the purpose of adopting measures to allay the excitement " ; and the Bishop of Philadelphia issued. an address to the Catholics, calling on them to shun all public places of as- semblage, and to do nothing that in any way should exasperate. The military remained on the ground during the greater put of the night. On Wednesday, the riots were again renewed, and several more houses were .burnt down. " The Catholic Church, called St. Michael's, on Second Street above Master, was fired ; which, with the dwelling of the priest, on the North, and small frame-dwellings on the South, were destroyed. The priest, under the pro- tection of the military, quitted his residence, and was carried away in a cab. It was with extreme difficulty that he secured a safe retreat." Among the buildings destroyed was a " female seminary "; and the house of Alderman Hugh Clark was plundered. Attire o'clock appeared Sheriff 111•Michael, with General Cadwallader and the soldiers : " the military arrived upon the ground after the mischief was done." After eight o'clock, however, there was another outbreak ; more houses were burned, and the Church of St. Augustine was menaced by a large crowd. " Mr. Scott, the Mayor, immediately repaired, upon horseback, to the spot, with a body of the City Police, and addressed the crowd. The Police were posted around the chapel The mass still increased. The first city troop were immediately ordered out, and were upon the ground in a short time. The crowd still continued to in- crease at the church; and at ten minutes before ten o'clock fire was communi- cated to the vestibule of the church, it is 'said, by a boy about fourteen years old. At twenty minutes past ten o'clock, the cross which surmounted the steeple, and which remained unhurt, fell with a loud crash, amid the plaudits of a large portion of the spectators. In ten minutes afterwards, the steeple, which stood till burnt to a mere skeleton, fell, throwing up a mass of cinders.' " The magnificent library of books attached to the church " was taken out, and turned into a bonfire. At this place, several of the Police were knocked down ; and the Mayor was struck on the breast with a stone. The mob had now left Kensington, and had dispersed itself " in squads " about the city; and by this time two hundred families had been compelled to remove from their homes. " During the night, hostile demonstrations were made against the Cathedral Church of St. John, and St. Mary's Church. At the former, Gene- ral Cadwallader informed them that martial law had been proclaimed; and, al- lowing the crowd five minutes to leave the ground, the snob dispersed. At the latter, the United States Marines enfiladed the street, and were brought to a charge. The mob dispersed." Governor Porter arrived in the city on Thursday afternoon, and "promptly" issued a proclamation for the suppression of the disturbances and the arrest of rioters. There was no further attempt at disturbance. According to an official list, fourteen persons had been killed, and thirty-nine wounded; but it is sup- posed that many sufferers were omitted in the list. The total amount ofpro- perty destroyed is estimated at two hundred and fifty thousand dollars ; which the county would have to pay.