Archa3ology has of late years attracted marked attention from anti- quaries of all ranks, and the annual meeting of the British Archreological Association becomes an event of some public importance. This year its sitting has been held at Newark, under the presidency of the Duke of Newcastle. The proceedings were opened on Monday, in the Town- hall, with the presentation of an address from the Corporation of Newark to the noble chairman, and the Duke's reply. Following this came his address to the members of the Association.
The Duke of Newcastle began by modestly confessing his deficiencies in the knowledge of archreology. He came there as a pupil, not as a teacher. He could not strike out any new theory, or explain any great discovery ; he must content himself with the humbler task of laying down principles. "In this the ninth year of its existence, it could hardly be necessary to state that the British Archreological Association was founded for the investigation of our ancient monuments, whether architectural, documentary, or of other descriptions—for the better preservation of relics and memorials of the past, which tastelessness and neglect were fast consigning to destruction—for the elucidation of the arts and sciences, the manners and customs of our fore- fathers, and, further than this, to concentrate into one focus, and thus ren- der more generally available, the researches of such learned men as were
assembled here today, and to contribute to the instruction of those who had not leisure and opportunity to pursue arehmology as a science, but must con- tent themselves with cultivating it as an amusement. So well aware were the ancient Greeks of the value of these investigations, and such importance was attached by them to these objects, that magistrates were created specially to insure their entertainment; and in Athens three men of distinction were appointed and maintained by the state, styled the Exegetw, whose duty it was to afford information to all who sought instruction by inspecting the an- cient monuments of their country. The members of this Association would be found, he was sure, fully as zealous as the functionaries of Athens to im- part to others all the knowledge which by much labour and research they had acquired."
He pointed out the important bearing which archmological studies have upon the elucidation of history,1 especially our own history between the third and the eighth centuries ; the effect of the study of legal and judicial antiquities, instancing the projected translation of the Brehon Laws ; and the admirable mental exercise which the study afforded. His visit to Egypt and inspection of the "sepulchral mysteries of Egyptian tombs, and the rock-hewn temples of Luxor and Cameo," had made him aware of the full bearing of " archx- °logical science on questions vital to our gravest and loftiest interests." Descending to particulars, he appropriately selected the antiquities of Not- tingham and Newark. "To begin with the capital of the county, few of our towns could boast of higher antiquity than Nottingham. Without pre- tending to trace its foundation to the year 980 before Christ, as did Rouse, a monk who wrote under Henry the Seventh, and without assigning the title of 'city' to the rude collection of hovels which perhaps was all that it could show in the times of the Roman domination, there could be no doubt that it had existed for a thousand years. Whether or not it were more ancient than the Romans he could not decide, but very early it became a place of consi- derable importance. Under the Saxons it was known as Snottingaham, and shared in the vicissitudes of those troublous and stormy times. The history of the caves which formed one of the most striking features of its situation was well worthy of fuller investigation than it had yet received. Few re- mains of its ancient castle were still to be traced, but there was hardly any similar edifice which had played a more important part in the various wars of which this district had been the theatre in early times. Under the Kept- archy it sustained sieges from Danish invaders ; and its later history, from
the days of the into to those of Henry the Seventh, in whose reign it was suffered to fall nto decay, must be familiar to them as students of his- tory. The town in which they were now assembled could boast of several objects of attraction to archmologists, and had been most fittingly chosen as the place of their meeting by the Council of the Association. With respect to the origin of its name, Stukely told us that our Saxon ancestors used the termination werk ' in the same sense as the Roman castra ; and it was certain that the town had been known by its present name from the days of Edward the Confessor ; whence it might be inferred that the old buildings were 'of a date anterior to his. Stukely believed that Newark was identical with the Saxon Sidnaceaster, which was erected into a bishopric in 687. If the suggestion of some able and zealous archreologists, that Roman as well as Gothic work could be distinguished in the walls of its castle, were well founded, then must the magnificent Alexander, Bishop of Lincoln, be de- prived of the honour of having founded it in the troublous reign of King Stephen."
Finally, after noticing the relics of other towns in the county, the Duke hoped "that there might be found some endowed with the knowledge re- quisite to turn their labours to account, and to unveil from the dust of ages those treasures of antiquity which we are only beginning to appreciate." The speech of the President having been fittingly acknowledged, two papers were read, on the Robin Hood ballads. Mr. Gutch contended that Robin Hood was a real and not a mythical personage ; citing the evidence of the existence of a Robert or Robin Hood receiving threepence a day as yeoman porter in the service of Edward the Second, lately discovered in the Exchequer Records, and by the Reverend Joseph Hunter, an "emi- nent antiquary and critic." "This person appeared to have entered the King's service a little before Christmas 1323, and to have remained in the Royal household somewhat more than a year. It is known from existing documents that Edward the Second at this time spent several weeks in the neighbourhood of Notting- ham on his return from a progress into Lancashire. This would explain an allusion in one of the Robin Hood ballads- " Ala& and well-a-day ! If I dwell longer with the King, sorrow will me slay." On these grounds he believed that Robin Hood was a real personage, born about 1285 or 1290."
The other paper was written by Mr. J. 0. Halliwell, and was read by Mr. Pettigrew. Mr. Halliwell denies that there are sufficient grounds for believing that the Robert Hood mentioned is the Robin Hood of the ballads-
" The first mention of Robin Hood was by Fordun in the latter part of the fourteenth century ; and the passage relating to gim was found only in a late manuscript of that writer in the Harlejan collection. Had he really existed, it is incredible that mention should not have been made of him by Matthew Paris, Benedictus Abbas, and other writers, who lived nearer to his own time. The writer inclined to the belief that Robin Hood was a mythic personage, and that the name was a mere corruption of 'Robin of the IN cod,' or Robin from a Wood,' as some forest. robber of the day may have been termed."
The last paper read was by Sir Fortunatus D warn's, on the "Forest Laws, Courts of Customs, and the Chief Justices in Eyre, North and South of the Trent."
The members of the Association visited Thurgarton Priory on Tuesday. Thence they proceeded to Nottingham ; where Mr. Planchet) paper on the Peveril family and its connexion with Nottingham was read. After- wards, they successively examined the various relics of antiquity in the town ; and proceeded to Newstead Abbey, where Colonel Wildman re- ceived them in the grand drawingroom. Here Mr. Pettigrew read an es- say on the history of the Abbey. The members returned to Newark in the evening.
The princely domain of Clumber was visited on Wednesday, at the ex- press invitation of the Duke of Newcastle. After a splendid luncheon, the guests, having amused themselves in the house and grounds until six o'clock, set out for Worksop,—which they had visited in the morn- ing,—and thence by railway to Newark. Here three papers on subjects of local interest were read at the evening meeting in the Town-hall.
Twenty-four loyal Orangemen were arrested in the streets of Liverpool on the 12th of August. They formed part of a procession, which at- tempted to parade the street in celebration of the battle of Aughrim. The majority of the promenaders wore orange scarfs two had naked swords in their hands, several had truncheons with Models of the Bible and crown at one end. Many also wore pistols loaded and capped. The Police promptly interfered with their projects, and arrested the number mentioned above. Ten were discharged, and fourteen, on being brought before the Magistrates, were committed to take their trial at the Assizes. They were admitted to bail, on entering into their own recognizanc.es of forty shillings and finding two sureties of twenty shillings each.
Southampton has now fairly become an emigration-port, in connexion with the South-western Railway. Mr. Wyndham Harding, Secretary of the Company, has fitted out the Ballengeich at his own personal risk ; and on Wednesday a farewell meeting took place on board between 250 emigrants and their friends. They are grouped on Mrs. Chisholm's plan ; the Ballengeich being expressly fitted up to receive them. With one or two exceptions, they have all paid their own passage-money.
Last week we published the letter of a passenger who was on board the Severn when she was discovered to be on fire off Madeira. An investiga- tion into the circumstances was made on Tuesday, by the officers of the Royal West India Mail Company. Captain Austin, R.N., Admiralty Superintendent, conducted the inquiry. Captain Chapman, Mr. Stratt, Mr. Richards, Mr. Bruce, and John Reed, officers of the Severn, were ex- amined; but their evidence discloses nothing of the origin of the fire. The ship was inspected by the officer of the watch every half-hour, and Bruce the midshipman had duly performed that duty. Incidentally it was shown, that the boats were amply sufficient to have carried off all the crew and passengers.
It seems probable that "crystal palaces" on a small scale will become a common feature in the provinces. A scheme is afloat to raise one in Sydney Gardens at Bath. The cost is estimated at 60001.; Fox and Henderson would undertake to build it in twelve weeks; and it is pro- posed to raise the money by the issue of 51. shares.
Sandgate in Kent, a pleasant little watering-place near Folkstone, of- fers an instance of what may be done under the Public Health Act. For 28501. the town has been supplied with good water and thoroughly drained. The water is obtained from the Greensand 'Frills, immediately in the rear of the town, by deep under-drainage of a small area ; it is re- ceived into two small covered reservoirs, and distributed by gravitation on the principle of constant pressure. It is softer than the water hitherto obtained from wells. Every house is drained by means of stone-ware pipes ; and the sewage is carried into the sea at low-water mark. Sand- gate has a population of about 1500: the money has been raised on the security of the rates, and the debt will be liquidated in thirty years by a charge of is. lid. in the pound upon the present house property—of course to be reduced as building extends.
The Stockport rioters finally received their sentences on Monday. George Pell, William Buttery, and Mark Gleave, had been found guilty of active participation in the disgraceful scenes at Edgley. Gleave, on the ground that he was in the thick of the rioting at all points, was sentenced to two years' imprisonment with hard labour • Pell and Buttery, to eighteen
months' imprisonment and hard labour. labour; other English prisoners were acquitted on Saturday.) The Irish prisoners were sentenced to terms of im-
prisonment with hard labour, varying from fifteen to two months. . Matthew Mulligan was tried on Monday, for the murder of Moran during the riot on the 29th of June. The Jury found him guilty of "man- slaughter," and the Judge sentenced him to fifteen years' transportation.
At Liverpool Assizes, on Tuesday, George Farance was tried for burglary with violence. It was proved that he was one of a gang of armed and masked men who broke by night into a farm-house at West Derby, near Liverpool, beat the owner with a life-preserver, and ransacked the house. The Police encountered six men near the place, and tried to arrest them ; the prisoner wounded one of the Police in the face with a pistol, but he was taken while the rest of the gang escaped. A verdict of "Guilty" was re- turned, and sentence of death recorded ; but the punishment will be trans- portation for life.
At the same Assizes, on Thursday, Policeman Blaney was tried for the murder of an old woman, who was killed during an election-riot. The woman died from a violent blow on the temple,. such as a constable's staff would inflict; that blow was dealt while the Police were struggling with the mob in a court; but the evidence was not conclusive that Slaney struck the blow. Policeman Doane, who was one of the body engaged in the fight, has since absconded ; it was suggested that he was the homicide. The Jury acquitted the prisoner. When he appeared outside the court, the crowd cheered, and he was borne along in triumph on men's shoulders.
During the trial of John Fawell, for highway robbery, a curious piece of information came into possession of the Court. The prosecutor, Thomas Weldon who was robbed of 6s. 6d. on his way home on a Sunday morning, described himself as a vocalist, singing at free and easies at the rate of a penny per pint on all the ale that was drunk by the customers,—York Herald. Alfred Waddington, a very dissolute young fellow of Sheffield, has mur- dered his illegitimate child, and attempted to kill its mother, Sarah Slater. The mother had taken out a summons because Waddington had not paid for the child's support ; on Thursday evening he got the infant from a girl who was nursing it, carried it to a wood, and cut its head off, leaving the remains in the wood ; then he went to a place where the mother was, called her into the street, and with a large clasp-knife attempted to cut her throat; but she held up her hands and saved her neck at their expense, and Waddington ran away. After this he met Sarah Dobson, and when she questioned him, he cut her on the face with the knife, and again fled. He subsequently sur- rendered himself to the Police. Before the Magistrates he appeared gene- rally very unconcerned.
David Davies, landlord of a public-house at Lower Swinford, has been com- mitted to Worcester Gaol for murder, perpetrated under very extraordinary circumstances. His son, a boy of fifteen, has also been committed as an ac- cessory before the fact; but he has been allowed to put in bail. Some rail- way labourers who had been drinking at the public-house turned out to fight, ana then went back to the house, where they made a great disturbance ; in consequence, a crowd assembled outside, consisting mostly of noisy boys. Davies, who had been from home, now returned, and attempted to disperse the mob, striking several with his stick. The boys hooted and threw stones. Davies withdrew into the house, threatening to shoot them. He had two guns, which his son now loaded ; and the father went to an upper window and fired into the crowd, using violent language. The guns were reloaded, and again fired. This bloodthirsty violence ended in the death of one person and the wounding of four others. Mrs. Pardee, wife of a collier, with six chil- dren was shot dead in the act of looking for one of her children in the crowd. Mrs.'Brentall, a middle-aged lady, was wounded in several places while at- tempting to aid the deceased, who was formerly her servant. The other suf- ferers were two men—one a miner, wounded in the neck, it is feared mor- tally; and a bricklayer's wife, who was shot in the legs.
About four o'clock on the afternoon of Friday last, a discovery was made that some person had obtained entrance into the steward's office of the new convict prison, Portsea and had broken open the cash-box therein and ab- stracted 40/. in gold, during the temporary absence of the steward. What sort of vigilance such a fact as this exhibits in the new convict prison, we leave our readers and the public to judge.—Portsmouth Times and Naval Gazette.
The investigation into the cause of the accident at Standen Bridge, lying between Whitmore and Stafford, on the North-western Railway,—where, on the 5th instant, an engine-driver was killed by the express-train running into the Velocipede,—was resumed on Wednesday. But as Price, the stoker of the express-train, had not recovered, and.could only give a portion of his evidence, the inquirLwas again adjourned.
A party of twenty-seven men, who had been working on the Orinoco in the Southampton Docks, attempted to get ashore by means of a flat-bottomed stage used by caulkers ; the raft turned over, all were immersed, and three perished.
A young lady has signalized the day when she attained her majority, by rescuing a woman at Cleethorpes in Yorkshire, who had been seized with a fit in the sea. The young lady, while bathing, noticed that the woman was turning about in the most extraordinary manner ; she thought her neighbour must be a skilful swimmer, and was trying to imitate her evolutions, when shouts from the shore announced that the supposed feats of natation were the struggles of a drowning person. The lady made towards her, and, peril- ling her own life by venturing beyond her depth, got hold of the sufferer, and drew her to shore, bleeding at the mouth and nostrils and insensible.
In consequence of a stoppage in a pipe leading from a well at Douglas in the Isle of Man, a workman uncovered the well, and began to descend by means of steps made in the shaft : presently he was heard to fall into the water. Mr. Cain, the owner' followed the man to see what was amiss : he also fell to the bottom. A third man had a rope fastened to his body before he ventured down : while he was trying to tie a rope to one of the sufferers, the foul air began to take effect u n him also, and it was necessary to dmw him up.
Eventually, the two ies were got out by means of drags : both were dead. The men had fallen victims to the common neglect to ascertain the state of the air before entering such places.
A melancholy death, the result of what is termed a "practical joke " oc- curred in Mildenhall, Suffolk, a few days since. It appears that a poor hail- wilted gardener, of West Row, was married about a month since; and that on Wednesday week, between twelve and one o'clock in the morning, some one got admittance into the house, and crept under the bed in which the pair were asleep, and raised the bed in such a manner as to cause both hus- band and wife to roll on the floor ; which so alarmed them that they both ran down stairs and into the road, screaming frightfully. The poor woman sickened from that time, and died on the 29th. An inquest was held on the body ; when the husband, who could not indentify the person sufficiently, ex- pressed his suspicion of the guilty party. After a lengthened investigation, the Jury retired, and ultimately returned a verdict of "Manslaughter against some person or persons unknown."—Norfolk Chronicle.