Sort* anti Colonial.
NORTH ANERICA.—The mail-steamer Caledonia, which left Halifax on the 4th instant and Boston on the 1st, with intelligence from New York to the 30th Septembet, arrived at Liverpool on Tuesday. The vessel has encountered very severe weather, with violent gales and heavy seas. Off the coast of Wales, it saved two men and a boy, the crew of a water-logged smaels; bound from Liverpool to Newry. The political news is of little importance, with the notable exception of a speech delivered by Mr. Webster at the meeting of an agricultural society in Rochester, New York state He began by considering agri- statue as a social institution ; drawing a distinction between the clad- vation of the soil for the primary object of supplying the wants of the cultivators, and what he called the " plantation interest," or the culti- vation of one product for a foreign market. The former kind of culti- vation is " a home interest always substantially the same, inasmuch as the tiller of the soil always attains his ends, supposing him to correctly
estimate and appreciate them, and secures a competent support for him-
self and family. The independence generated by this mode of life is its social result, and is described as the characteristic of the American
farmer, which constitutes his value as a citizen?' The plantation in- terest, " existing in its greatest force in the West Indies, is uncertain and precarious : it partakes of the vicissitudes of trade and commercial enterprise ; a depression in the price of the planter's products affects him through the whole extent of his annual income ; he raises but one thing for sale, and he must sell to procure other necessaries. On the other hand, the farmer first provides for his own immediate wants, and he has
only his surplus product to dispose of; and consequently commercial embarrassment only affects the value of that surplus, that being all he
has for sale." Mr. Webster contended that Government was bound to protect agriculture, in finding a market for its surplus products, a pro- tection not needed by manufactures, for capitalists can transfer their capital from one pursuit to another, which farmers cannot do-
" I say, that it is in the power of Government—that it is the duty of Go- vernment to a considerable extent, to take care that there should be a demand for agricultural products. (Cheers.) I am not about, gentlemen, to enter upon the debateable subject of a protective tariff, to any considerable extent. But I nevertheless do say—at least, I do think, and why should I not say it? (Cheers, and cries of " Say it " " Out with it !" " Go on !") I do say, gentlemen, that the agriculture of this country is the great matter which de- mands protection. It is a misnomer to talk about the protection of manufac- tures ; that is not the thing we want or need. It is the protection of the agri- culture of the country. (Repeated cheers.) It is a furnishing to the surplus productions of that agriculture a market, a near market, a home market, a large market ! (Cheers, and cries of "That's it! that's what we want!") * You want a market for your productions. You want consumers. You want open mouths and unclad bodies, to eat, and drink, and wear the our- plus productions you have provided for them.• You want a home market, a steady demand for your agricultural products. * * • This neighbourly exchange it is, this neighbourly intercourse among ourselves, this supplying oar own wants from city to city, from village to village, from house to house— this, this it is, which is calculated to make us a happy and a strong people."
He alluded indignantly to the disposition of the Southern States [the " plantation " States] to refuse " protection " to the Northern States. Nevertheless, he urged the benefits of closer commercial intercourse with the States of Northern Europe, and especially with England- " The great power of steam has extinguished distance. England lies close to New York ; twelve or thirteen days only make the communication: and it
is of no consequence whether by some sudden revolution of nature, or by some decree of Providence, the distance between different countries becomes less, or whether by the ingenuity of man the means of transmission and intercourse are increased—because we measure things by time. England is not more than half as distant from us, for every purpose of international intercourse, as she was thirty years ago. Well, then, the countries are lying side by side. How
shall we deal with her, and the other great commercial states of Europe ? Are we to proceed on the principle of repnsals—of hostile or retaliatory legislation ? It has been tried with regard to the tonnage of the United States. We mad*. provisions in favour of our tonnage in cartying on our commerce with England; England made retaliatory provisions to favour her tonnage; and so we came
to carry one way, and she the other. So far as the direct trade is concerned, we have no complaint to make. It furnishes an example of equality, and proves the danger and folly of retaliatory stipulations."
He dwelt with pleasure on the provision-trade which is growing up under the new English tariff-
" I have the happiness to believe that the tendencies of things are to produce new efforts. I believe that the policy of England is, and has been, and will be, more and more toward a more and more liberal intercourse—an intercourse fa- vourable to our great interests, to all the interests of the North and Middle, and equally favourable to all the friends of the South. It is most certain that within a few months a new and great change has been produced in our inter- course with England—a very great change. Articles produced in your State are yearly becoming more and more introduced—provisions finding a market in
Europe! In the last six months quite a new trade has sprung up between us
and England in the article of provisions. While I was in New York, I took occasion to inquire of some practical merchants and valued friends how the matter was; and they said, quite to my astonishment, that cargoes of lard, batter, cheese, beef, pork, &c., were shipped to England every day, and that a vessel of the largest class, within the last twenty days, had left New York
loaded entirely with the article of provisions, to the exclusion (as it happened in
that case, though I do not mention it as a matter of triumph) of a single pound' of cotton or tobacco. This is quite a new trade, as everybody knows. Who ever thought eighteen months ago, that a large cargo entirely of provisions would go to a London market ? Who does not rejoice and feel the beneficent influence of this upon both nations?"
But the most remarkable part of his speech was the stern lecture which he read to his fellow-citizens on the subject of " repudiation "-
" Mr. President and gentlemen, what is the credit and character of this glo- rious country, to which we all belong, abroad ? We are rich; we are powerful ;
we have all the means of accomplishing whatever virtuous human desire can embrace. But what is our credit ? And I am not one of those disposed to complain of or to stigmatize in any way the efforts of the States of this great Union, who have sought for funds abroad to carry on their enterprises and im-
provements which their sense of utility has projected. On the contrary, I think that the circumstances of the times and the necessities of the case may justify, at least to a considerable extent, the engagements into which some of the States, especially the Western States, have entered abroad. Among those which have thus justifiably become involved is the State of Pennsylvania, the richest state in the Union, in my judgment—perhaps I ought to except New York—but taking her mineral, commercial, and agricultural facilities into con- sideration, I don't know on the face of the earth, excepting England, a richer state than the State of Pennsylvania. [r Go.ernorSeroard—" Take off her debt r] My friend Governor Seward says ' Take offher debt.' Her debt—her debt! What can be the debt of a state like Pennsylvania,that she should not be able to pay it—' that she cannot pay it, if she will bat take from her pocket the money that she has in it ? England's debt is engrafted upon her very soil ; she is bound down to the very earth by it ; and it will affect England and Englishmen to the fiftieth generation. But the debt of Pennsylvania—the debt of Illinois—the debt of any State in this Union, amounts not to a sixpence in comparison. (Cheers.) Let ns be Americans: but let us avoid, as we despise, the character of an ac- knowledged insolvent community. (Cheers.) What importance is it what other nations say of us, or what they think of us, if they can nevertheless say, Yon don't pay your debts? (Applause.) Now, gentlemen, I belong to Mas- sachusetts; but if I belonged to a deeply indebted state, I'd work these ten fingers to their stumps—I'd hold plough, I'd drive plough, rd do both, before it should be said of the State to which I belonged, that she did not pay her debts. (Loud cheers.) That's the true principle—let us act upon it—let us it' to its full extent. (Deafening applause.) If it costs us our comforts, let us sacrifice our comforts; if it costs us our farms, let us mortgage our farms. But don't let it be said by the proud capitalists of England, ' You don't pay your debts.' You Republican governments don't pay your debts.' Let us say to them, ' we will pay them—we will pay them to the uttermost farthing.' That's my firm conviction of what we ought to do. That's my opinion ; and water can't drown, fire can't burn it out of me. (Loud applause.) If America owes a debt, let her pay it—let her pay it. (Deafening cheers) What I have is ready for the sacrifice. What you have I know would be ready for the sacrifice. At any rate, and at any sacri- fice, don't let it be said on the Exchanges of London or Paris—don't let it be said in any one of the proud monarchies of Europe—' America owes, and can't, or won't pay.' God forbid! Let us pay—let us pay.: (Long-con- tinued and loud applause.) Let us say to them, Produce your bond, and take your money, principal and interest. Add it all up, and take your money.' Let us say to them, ' We are not your slaves ; we are not paupers; we will not be your debtors ; we will pay. Produce your bond—here is your money— take it.' (This was followed by repeated and deafening cheers.) And until that is done, my friends, you and I cannot feel as if we could draw a free breath. I don't want to be indebted to the capitalists of Europe: if we owe them any thing, let them produce their bill. If my professional earnings are of any worth—if they are wanted—if my farm is wanted—if the conveniences of life for myself, for my wife and children, are wanted—so far as I am concerned, so far as America is concerned, come and take them. (Cheers.) That's the right ground to take, and let us take it. In the North and South, in the East and West, if there live any who are descended from the fathers of the Revolution, any in whose veins runs a drop of their blood, and in whose hearts lives a part- icle of their proud spirit, let them rise up and say that if we owe Europe, Europe shall he paid. (Loud cheers.) I wish to breathe the breath of an in- dependent man. A citizen of a proud and honoured country, I abhor the idea that my daily happiness is to be marred by the consciousness that any thing disgraceful hangs on the country or any part of it. Let us, gentlemen, be proud of our country; but let ns preserve for that country the character of a just and debt-paying nation. Let it never be said among the nations of Europe that the United States of America—the nation that had its birth in the glorious scenes of '76—the country of Washington—the example and great type of all modern republics—cannot or will not pay its debts !"
Attempts had been made by the Irish at New York to keep up some kind of Repeal agitation ; but without success, the subject being stale, and exciting little interest.
The commercial intelligence is satisfactory. " Money is even more abundant. The fall trade is nearly over ; and it has been excellent, goods of all kinds having risen in price. The Secretary of the United States Treasury is about to issue 1,500,000 dollars in Treasury-notes of 50 dollars each. With very large deposits, the banks are now unable to employ their means to advantage, and interest on good securities is very low. All favourite stocks are high, comparatively speaking, and still rising ; but the reviving spirit of speculation has caused a few ' lame ducks in the alley,' in New Yolls."
Mr. Maeready had experienced a " splendid" reception at New York, in the character of Macbeth.
A tremendous hurricane visited Florida on the 13th September ; by which very great damage was done throughout the country, and the city of St. Leon was almost destroyed.
The Canadian Parliament met at Kingston on the 28th; but Sir Charles Metcalfe's opening-speech had not yet been delivered.
The forests of Beanharnois had been ravaged by a dreadful fire, which destroyed several houses and farms. At St. Pie, in Lower Canada, some Baptist missionaries were attacked by the Catholic populace, and a riot ensued; forty rioters were arrested, and peace was restored.
FRANCE.—The Duke d'Aumale left Paris for Italy on Saturday. He will proceed to Sicily, and thence to Constantine.
M. Emmanuel de Cessaiac, nephew of M. de Lamartine, has been ap- pointed one of the Attaches of the Embassy to China.
The Moniteur publishes the official returns of the indirect taxes of France for the nine months of the current year ending on the 30th September. To an abstract of the returns the Times appends a remark- " The total receipts amount to 557,093,000 francs, or nearly 22,284,0001. sterling; and exhibit an increase, as compared with the receipts of the corre- sponding period of 1841, of 35,652,000f., and over those for 1842 of 10,280,000C The augmentation in the last three months of 1843 was 7,267,000E over those of 1841, and 3,355,000f. over 1842. The receipts of the registry-duties figure in these returns for 153,982,000f., the stamp-duties for 26,612,000E; the cus- toms for 78,921,000E ; the import-duties on colonial sugars, 27,146,000f.; on foreign sugars, 5,145,000f.; on domestic sugars, 4,902,0001.; duties on salt, 43,945,0001.; on liquors, 71,704,000f.; on public carriages, inland navigation, &c., 28,043,000E ; on the sale of tobacco, 77,093,060f. ; of gunpowder, 3,614,000E ; postage of letters, 33,653,000E ; mail-coaches, 1,531,000E ; mail- packets, 732,0001'. The augmentation bore principally on the registry-duties, customs, sugars, liquors, tobacco, postage, and stamps ; and the items on which there was a falling off were the duties on foreign sugars, salt, gunpowder, mail- coaches, and domestic sugar. The receipts per quarter were—first quarter, 183,190,000E; second quarter, 187,184,0001.; and third quarter, 186,719,000E ; showing an excess in the latter of 3,529,000E over those of the first, and a diminution, as compared with the second of 465,000f. "The tendency of this publication would be to create the belief that pro- sperity was constantly increasing in France. Nevertheless—and this we state with regret—we are assured that extreme distress presses upon most of the manufacturing and commercial establishments of that country. One of our correspondents who lately passed through Valenciennes transmits to us proofs of the correctness of this statement that leave no doubt upon it."
The Journal the Havre publishes a notice from M. Prevost, " Notary to the Society established for the salvage of the Telemaque," announcing to the shareholders that the question as to the value of the cargo was quite settled: it consisted of fifty-two pieces of timber, which have been landed, and barrels containing tallow and oil, the remnants of which only remain ; but no treasure.
The Journal des Dibats has a long story about some proceedings in Tahiti, the substance of which may be told in a few words. The cor- vette Allier arrived there on the 19th March ; and Captain Lavand found that Queen Pomare had departed from the engagement entered into with Admiral Dupetit-Thottars, under the pretext that it had been compulsory. This retractation is imputed to an intrigue, in which Mr. Pritchard, a Missionary, and Sir Thomas Thompson, Captain of the English corvette Talbot, are assumed to have participated. Captain Nicolas was then present in the Vindictive ; sad his assent having been
obtained, Captain Lavaud reprimanded Mr. Pritchard, and obliged Queen Pomare to reinstate the Provisional Government established by Admiral Dupetit-Thouars, until the pleasure of the French and British Governments should be known. On the 3d April, when M. Lavaud took his departure, Tahiti was tranquil.
PORTUGAL.—Intelligence from Lisbon, to the 12th instant, makes known another attempt at revolution in that restless capital. The Queen and some of the leading Ministers were absent, her Majesty being on a tour in the Alemtejo ; and some Septembrists wade an effort to corrupt the army. Officers who had been detected in aiding their designs were arrested, and the revolution seems at present to have been crushed in embryo.
SPAIN.—The counter-revolutionists of Spain rather lose ground ; but yet the Government does not appear more at ease. " Alarming re-
ports" continue to arise in Madrid ; there was a rumour of an intended insurrection on the 7th instant, and the troops were kept under arms; but down to the 10th nothing had happened. It was understood that the opening of the Cortes would not be deferred beyond the 15th. On the Queen's birthday, the 10th, her Majesty held a levee ; went, amid the cheers of the people, to lay the first stone of a new palace for the Cortes ; and reviewed the troops of the garrison. The 3liuister of the King of Holland has delivered his credentials to the Queen ; thus recog- nizing her majority and the existing Government. Barcelona still held out against Sanz, who was waiting at Gracia for reinforcements. The Junta, growing fiercer as their position became more difficult, had recommended foreigners to leave the town ; and
several French residents had embarked, while the foreign Consuls re- tired to Barcelonetta. The Patulea, or irregular free corps, had tried
to force their way through the besieging troops ; but unsuccessfully. On the 10th, the batteries of both sides turned their fire into honorary salutes for the Queen's birthday. Prim was to attack Gerona on the 15th : he had permitted the wo- men and children to leave it.
Concha arrived before Saragossa on the 5th ; and he was waiting for reinforcements. Martell, a Centralist leader in Arragon, was reported to have surrendered to the commandant of Tortola ; but a later account represents him as threatening Calatayud. Order has been restored in Grenada and Almeria ; and in the other places mentioned as the seat of renewed disturbance, it seems to have subsided.
Senor Aguilar, the Minister of Spain in Lisbon, has been super- seded, on the ground of apathy respecting the negotiations for a com- mercial treaty between England and Portugal ; which is considered 14- jurious to Spain.
On the 16th September, on the receipt of official communication from the new Government at Madrid, the Government of Cuba quietly acquiesced in the counter-revolution ; and the Governor, Senor Valdez, vacated his post ; which General O'Donnell is on his way to assume.
The Morning Chronicle announces a kind of Post-office reform in Spain-
" A letter from Iron says, the Director-General of the Spanish Post has just called a meeting of all postmasters from Irun to Madrid, in order to establitsh quicker modes of conveying despatChes to France and England, and
by that means answering the activity now required in relations between these countries. This assembly took place on the 8th, at Burgos. All the post-
masters have adhered to the proposals of Government ; so that a service of
mails like that of France has been organized, which will bring despatches from Madrid to Bayonne, and vice versa, in fifty-four hours, the distance being 219
leagues. Independently of this service, the late events have convinced Govern-
ment of the utility of establishing lines of telegraphs; and in order to this, M. Miranda, Director-General of the pants et chaussies, is causing preparations
to be made for the establishment of three great lines—viz. from Bayonne to Madrid, from Madrid to Barcelona, and from Madrid towards the South, with an embranchment upon Cadiz and Malaga."
ITALY.—From all parts the news is of the usual confused kind. Ac- counts from Rome, of the 4th instant, declare that every thing had be- come perfectly tranquil in Italy ; but other accounts render the asser- tion quite incredible. Leghorn letters of the 6th instant state that the disturbance continued in Naples and the Abruzzi, in Sardinia, and in Piedmont ; King Carlo Alberto having fortified his palace (at Turin?) as if to sustain a siege. A new insurgent band had shown itself near Ancona. The military commission at Bologna had pronounced several sentences, but none of them had been carried into effect. These state- ments are corroborated by one in the Malta papers-
" We are informed by a person coming directly from Bologna, that ten days ago the insurgents were in the mountains. The Swiss troops were employed against them, and continually suffered such considerable losses in killed and wounded that they at last refused to march. In the city they were greatly abused by the people, and many of them killed in the riots. It was publicly rumoured that those troops were ordered hack to Rome, to prevent greater in- conveniences, and substitute them for the garrison of the castle and other prin- cipal points of the city. At Bologna such persons as are met with going to- wards the insurgents are all arrested."
Austria is said to have concluded a navigation-treaty with Naples, on the principle of reciprocity. A letter from Rome, dated on the 27th September, mentions a strange attempt to assassinate the Pope " A physician, who is n great Revolutionist, but driven to desperation by want of money, went one day to the palace, and, although he has a wooden leg, entered as nimbly as if it was his own house. Being met and asked who he wanted, he replied that he wished to speak to his Holiness on very urgent affairs. With much difficulty he was induced to withdraw. On reaching the court, he fired a pistol, without its being perceived that it was he who caused the explosion. The next day be returned again; and went on until he met Csjitanino, the Pontiff's valet, to whom he insisted on being immediately allowed to see the Pope on matters of high interest. His entrance was again refused, and he went away ; but he was arrested on leaving the palace. A loaded pistol was found upon him." GREECE.—The Times having asserted that "the Greeks had made more rapid progress in education, civilization, and wealth, than could have been reasonably expected," a correspondent, who spent the months of February and March last in that country, confirms the assertion- " I can especially bear witness to their progress in education, and their.ss- traordisary love of learning. I shall never forget hearing Professor Osopulels lecture on Grecian antiquities, in Greek, and to Greeks, in the University of Athens. Not that I understood much of what he said ; but it was the deep and eager attention of the immense audience of all ages and classes, old and young, from the veteran warrior, with his white moustache, down to mere boys—rich and poor, from gentlemen of the modern school, and chieftains in their pic- turesque dresses, down to the bare-footed peasant—many taking notes, and all intelligently listening—it was that which surprised and delighted me. And I was told that this was the case with all the public lectures; which are open to everybody gratuitously. if it be a Getman professor lecturing, of course in Greek, on German metaphysics, it is just the same—there they all are taking notes, and doing their utmost to get something from it. I venture to say, that they will soon be one of the best-educated people in Europe, taking them as a
"There are several booksellers' shops in Athens, full of the ancient classics
and a rising modern literature. They have magazines and several newspapers, admirably conducted.
" As to the material civilization of the country, true enough there are but few roads yet made, though there are many projected; and to travel in the interior you must be content to go on horseback, and sleep night after night in your capote, with perhaps the rain coming down upon you through the roof of the caravanserai, and the lightning shining through the crevices of its atone walls : but at Athens at all events every comfort can be found."
Morocco.—Advices from Tangier, to the 5th instant, announce the suppression of a revolt in the province of Zemor-Chelg. The payment of tribute and the local administration of justice were the grievances that provoked the outbreak, and the insurgents assembled in consider- able force. At the end of August, however, the Emperor mustered a large force at Alequinez, marched into the disordered province, put the insurgents to the rout, ordered a vast number of heads to be struck off, and on his return to the seat of government carried off several hostages.