fortign an Colonial.
efraurt.—The Emperor and Empress arrived at Algiers on the 17th. They had travelled from Toulon to Ajaccio ; and thence by Mitiorea to Algiers. The sea was rough and the passage longer than -usual. The Bey of Tunis had arrived at Algiers, and the brother of the Emperor of Morocco was expected.
A report that the Emperor eras fired at by an assassin in the streets of Toulon has been categorically declared to be without foundation by the Coustitutionnel.
Various designs are imputed to the French Government by foreign journals. With regard to one imputation' the Constitutioratei thus speaks- " Thelndependanee Belge repeats a singular report which it is evident an attempt is made to circulate. " That- journal declare* that the Islands of Sardinia and of Elba, eas eeheant, will indemnify France for the new increase which Piedmont would receive bythe annexation of Naples and of Sicily. " To these persisting assertions we must again give s new and categorical denial.
" And, first of all, the annexation of Naples and of Sicily is not an ac complished fact. Were that annexation completed today the Imperial Go- vernment would not recognize it. " Justice would bid a truce to all these projects of aggrandizement which are so wrongly attributed to us.
"Once more, France neither desires nor asks anything. She.' does not aspire to make conquests, but to pacify."
The Nouvelle says that the treaty of alliance between Belgium- and Holland, the conclusion of which was lately denied by the Conetitatiiero eta in a most positive manner, appears to be definitively concluded; and that it is of a purely defensive character.
M. Grandguillot has written an article on a report of the intended flight of the Pope, which has attracted great attention. He sari-
' There is a party at Rome whose blindness will in the 'end eneriflee the most noble and the most legitimate of causes. It is that party which for the het eleven years has opposed all reforms, and only sought to separate the Pope from the Emperor, and the Holy See from France. It is that extreme party, which, after having recommended to Pius IX. a policy totally devoid of all concession, now advises him to make a dishonourable flight, It is al- ways an act of the greatest gravity for heads of states to abandon their capitals ; history informs us how they leave them, but it does not tell us how they return. For Louis XVI. the journey to Vareuues was. the first step towards the 10th of August ; and for Charles X. and Louie Philippe the withdrawal to Rambouillet or to Neuilly was the first stage towards-exile?' The writer then declares that the flight of Francis II. is quite inexplicable. The defection which took place around him on every side is no excuse what& ever,. our contemporary._ declares, for such spiritless conduct, as he could surety remain alone at-Naples, when Garibaldi did-not hesitate to enter-that city with five officers. The article than goes on to say—". The flight of Francis IL is only a political desertion ; but that of Pius IX. would be worse, it would be a moral abandonment. The King of Naples may explain his precipitate departure by motives of personal safety •; but such reasons could not be brought forward by the Holy' Father; for it is well known at Rome that, in presence of the French troops, insurrection• is impossible." The declaration of Pins IX. on his return to Rome in 1849, is then quoted, in the following terms—" I will not again quit this city ; a King ought not to leave his throne, a Pope ought not to separate from the tomb of St; Peter;" and his Holiness is then reminded that the words of 1849 should be re- membered by him in 1860. What the writer is most anxious about is, he affirms, the well-being of the Popedom, and it is to that end that the French troops are in the Roman capital.
A correspondent of a contemporary is struck with the vast changes going on in Marseilles-
" Whoever has been a few days at Marseilles will probably- have found himself over in the old part of the town, which intervenes between the wealthy city, where merchants and foreigners most do congregate, and the new quarter of La Joliette. Old houses and narrow streets, evttpaiells and gloomy lanes, are the principal characteristics of that portion otMerseilles. There, in houses of which some date from the Middle A.gw:, are to be sought the filth, the misery, and often the crime of the opelent seaport. It is the Cite of Marseilles, and like the Cite of Paris it is intended that it should be treated. At last, a commencement is to be at once made. A letter from Marseilles in the Petrie says that the Emperor has decided that a large street shall be opened through the old town, providing for the double neces- sity of salubrity and of easy communication with the more modern town and La Joliette."
Bel SOL—The session of the Dutch Legislature at the Hague was opened on Monday with a speech from the King, who congratulated the country upon the satisfactory state of its affairs, with reference to the finances, foreign relations, and internal prosperity of the State. His Majesty announced that the public health had improved sine° last year, and certain measures of medical reform would be proposed to the legisla- ture. The harvest had been plentiful, in spite of the continued rains of this season. The fisheries had been productive, manufactures busy, commerce tolerably thriving, but the- shipbuilders were not so well off. The colonies-in-the East India Archipelago were doing well : Boni bad been subjugated, and the kingdom of Banjermassing brought under the direct administration of Holland. Amongst the projects of 'linv for the ensuing session would be one for the suppression of slavery in'the West Indian colonies. A simplification of the customs' tarK and the con- struction of Canals for shipping communication between Rotterdam, Am- sterdam, and the North Sea, are also mentioned.
ifT11111111.—The Northern Powers are about to meet at Warsaw.
Count de Toll, Aide-de-camp General of the Emperor of Russia, has arrived at lrienna,.the bearer of an.autogrwit letter from the Czar, in- viting the Einperor of Austria to an interview- at Warsaw. The Prince B.egerit_will arrive at Warsaw on the evening of the 13th of October. The Emperor Alexander, the Prince ,Regent, and the Emperor of Aus- tria will meet on the 14th of October.
Some very striking.debates have-taken-place in the Reiebsrath. Several 'members have complained of the military pension-list--able-bodierl men receiving pensions, says M. Meager; too much money spent on-military seminaries, says Count Hartig; a Military administration which swal- lows up 'more than that of France, says Count Barkoezy. When the civil departments came under discussion, there was great desire ex- pressed for a "radical change in the administrative organization" which brought 'Count Rechberg into the field. The Minister-President began by remarking that the authors of the report appeared to be of opinion that no change was intended, and concluded by stating that the Govern- ment would realize,the promises made by the Emperor in his autograph letter of the 19th of April, 1860. Count F. Hartig, who is a man of vest note in the empire, drily remarked, that the programme whiel'had ,been made public On the 1st of January, 1852, had never been carried out. Count Apponyi (Hungary) expressed a wish that the subject might be dropped, as the moment for discussing questions of such high politital importance had not yet come." Count Recliberg, however, re- peated that a change of system was intended.
Some remarks made by the Committee on the efficiency of the police led to a very animated and interesting conversation on the state of the Austrian press. M. Meager (Transylvania) averred that the will of the Emperor, as expressed in his Patent Laws of 1852 and 1858, had never been carried out. " The police," said he " exercises a kind of preven- tive censure. It suppresses everything Which is not to its taste, and issues orders that certain subjects are not to be touched on. It is so arbitrary that it often prohibits the reproduction of an article which has appeared in an inland paper. The result of the present system is that the inferior authorities often do not know what to allow and what to pro- hibit. It would be no easy task to count the warnings which have been given during the present year. The police is plaintiff, witness, and judge, and the accused are condemned without having an opportunity of defending themselves. The Austrian press is not allowed to speak on matters which are of vital importance to the State. Thus, the Vienna papers have received orders not to recommend a representative and con- stitutional form of government for Austria. The same measure, however, is not meted out to all, for while some of the political papers are treated with the greatest severity, others, which have the protection of the Church, do almost as they please, and continually excite the other con- fessions against the Protestants and Jews." M. Manger then moved that the Committee in its report should express a wish that the press might be treated according to law. Messrs. Petrino (Bukovina) and Mailath (Hungary) warmly seconded the motion ; but M. Toperzer, the burgo- master of Grosswardein, was of opinion that the matter, "being of in- ferior importance," might be brought forward on some future occasion. On hearing this Count Barkoezy rose, and "with extreme energy" re- primanded his fellow-countryman. The noble Count, while lauding the behaviour of the Austrian press, took occasion to express his contempt fer the Augsburg Gazette, which he said was in the pay of the Austrian Government. The assertion was subsequently refuted by Count Rech- berg. Maager's motion led to a long debate, in which Counts Auersperg, Hartig, Szechen, Clam, Apponyi, and other distinguished men, took part. All the speakers were more or less favourable to the Austrian press, but they recommended M. Meager to withdraw his proposition "until the -general principles of government should be discussed."
The sitting of the Reichsrath on the 14th was marked by some smart debates ; by one especially on the provincial governments. Count Clam accused the Minister of the Interior of not having kept his word to the Grand Committee, inasmuch as he had united the Governments of two provinces, although he had promised that no more changes should be made until the fundamental principles of the future organization of the empire had been definitively settled. The reply of Count Goluchowski was that, as the order to unite the two Governments had been given, it could not be revoked. Count Auersperg then protested against the dis- solution of the provincial GOvernment of Carniola. Baron Reyer gave the Reichsrath to understand that the people of Trieste might cease to be the "most loyal" of subjects if the provincial Government were re- moved to Laybach, the capital of Carniola. Baron Herbert claimed complete autonomy for Carinthia. Dr. Hein upheld the rights of Silesia to a separate Administration ; and M. von Mocsonyi raised his voice against the amalgamation of the Banat with Hungary. A conversation between the Bishop Schaguna, a Walachian from Transylvania, and M. von Jakabb, the representative of the Szekler districts in the same pro- vince, deserves notice, as it shows that there is not yet a perfect under- standing between the Rouman and Magyar races. M. von Jakabb spoke feelingly of the " good old times " of 1848, which effusion induced the Wallachian Bishop to observe that, in those good old times, hundreds of thousands of the Rouman inhabitants of Transylvania were deprived of their political rights, " which they only regained by force of arms." Some of the representatives of the more remote provinces gave enter- taining accounts of the manoeuvres of the Imperial employes in order to obtain an extra allowance for travelling expenses and " aliment money."
When the question relative to the expenditure of the Department of Justice was mooted, Baron Salvotti (a member of the Standing Council of the Empire) declared that, in his °pit:tient a Ministry of Justice was superfluous. In the course 'of the debate 'which thereupon ensued, Dr. Polansky (Galant) spoke in favour of public and oral proceedings in judicial matters "whether criminal or civil ; " and Count Nodasdy, the Minister of Justice, made some observations on the subject, which in- duced his hearers to believe that the Government will make those` altera- lions which the public consider necessary. Before the sitting was at an end, Counts Apponyi and Szechen remarked that the Hungarians had re- mained pant during the debate, because they intended to observe the standing orders of the Assembly, and not to discos any of the funda- mental principles of the future organization of the empire until the question relative to the supplies for the year 1861 had been settled. TheCblogne Gazette publishes a circular, addressed by the Prussian Governilient to its representatives at the German Courts, explaining "the attitude which the Prince Regent's Government has assumed with regard to certain important questions pending in the Federal Diet "— "The Government of the Prince Regent, as I have no need to assure you, -considers the existence and the maintenance of the Confederation as of the highest importance. It kuowirthat in this letter all the confederitte go- vernments are perfectly in with at. it ..e.o knows that the niajority of its confederates share ibirki an (hitt ilirrignriization of the.Confedera-
tion is capable of, and requi ,,,iirnelioratlen-lt finally shares with them the opinion that a reform of the federal organization can only be undertaken by religiously respeCting the rights of 'all, and can have a chance of success only in eireurnstances favourable to the solution of such a difficult question. The Prince Regent's Government cannot consider the present as a propitious moment ; and it has, consequently confined its,efforts to obtaining an appli- cation of the existing organization in a manner in accord with the veritable spirit and the real mission of the Confederation. " The German Confederation is an association according to international law, the essential object of Which, in the "eyes of the Prince Regent's Go- vernment, is to protect the security and the independence of Germany, and of each pf its members, in presence of foreign nations. Same of otir eon- federates, however, appear to turn their attention principally to the uniform development of internal politicaborgaiaization, and especially to the consti- tutional institutions of each co-fdderateState according to a system which, if carried to its extreme conseqUences,wouldlead to the establishment of a suprenie federal authority interfering with the internal organization of each State. . . . .
" The action of the Federal Diet, as regards the internal organization of States, and especially their constitutional institutions, ought to be reduced to the most restricted measure of its generally recognized ,jurisdiction. In fact, the confederation of a certain number of. States differing in extent, in character, and in power, and yet enjoying equal rights in that Confedera- tion, cannot overcome the difficulties arising from such a situation,-unless the tie which binds its members together touches as little as possible their
internal independence. . . . . 4. " The Prince Regent's Gevernment is certain in advance to obtain that adhesion when it 'proclaims its conviction that the first and the highest mission of the Confederation, and that which principally led to its establish- ment, was nothing more than to protect from all danger and all violence from abroad the independence of each German State separately, and the absolute integrity of the national territory.
" At no epoch has this mission been more imperative for the Germanic Confederation than in presence of the existing political situation. But the spirit which animates the nation facilitates the accomplishment of it. Since the foundation of the Confederation, the idea of nationality has become stronger and stronger among the Germanic people, and the Governments will only anticipate their wishes by zealously joining in giving to the military forces of Germany the development and the organization calculated to inspire in the nation, on the appearance of a foreign danger, a well founded hope of the success of the efforts which in that eventuality it would be called on to make."
f lirill.—Telegraphic information from Beyrout to the 9th of Sep- tember brings proofs of the vigour of Fuad Pasha's rule in Damascus. A telegram says-
" We learn by an express which has just arrived here from Damascus that the ex-Muchir, Ahmed Aga, the commanding officers at Hashbeya and Deir-el-Kumar, Osman Bey, and Abdul Belem Bey, as well as some other officers of inferior rank, have been shot at Damascus. Fuad Pasha is at Gebail, and tomorrow he will enter Beyrout. His energetic conduct has produced the best effect. A brilliant reception is prepared for him by the people." Another telegram, coming from Constantinople, September 12, says that, according to advices from Beyrout, Fuad Pasha, after having con- sulted with General Beaufort d'Hautpoul, had called together the chiefs of the Metualis, and prohibited their giving any refuge to the Druses. It was said that military oPerations, would commence after the hot weather, It was asserted that Fuad Pasha had prevented the outbreak of an insurrection at Nablous. '
The Times correspondent at Beyrout furnishes some singular docu- ments. One is a letter from " the humble among the high priests, Sephronius, Bishop of Tyre and Sidoni!' to the people of Rasheya, dis- tinctly invoking them to a war with the Druses, on the authority of the exalted Patriarch, speaking of expected support from "those who hold high power," and referring to a meeting in the Lebanon of the chief men from the Maronite cities. The Druses regard this as an essential piece of evidence on the side of the defence. They say they were compelled-to fight to protect themselves. In a narrative, the substance of which is communicated, they give a plansible 'account of the beginning' of • the affray,' showing bow the Maronites were the aggressors,- but make no- torious omissions which throw suspicion on the whole. Nevertheless, it is pretty clear that the Druses had received great provocation, and that' the Maronites, incited by the Jesuits and Greek priests, were about to make war. The third document is a petition to Queen Victoria, praying her, in the name of. God, to see justice done to .them. The documents, especially the narrative, are unfortunately too eitensive for reprinting in our columns.
Lord Dufferin arrived at Beyrout from Constantinople on Sunday, the 2d of September; Monday, the 3d, he remained all day in conference with Admiral Martin and ?dr. Moore, the Consul-General ; Tuesday he started for Damascus, arriving there late on Thursday. The next day he had a long interview with Fuad Pacha ; and on Saturday the execution of the four fanatical traitors took place.
311'Xit11.--Important qtelvices have been received from Mexico by way of New Orleans. A battle was fought at Lagos between Miramon and Degollado on the 10th of Auguat. -Miramon, with 2000 men, tried to cut his way-through, but his force -was' surrounded by Degollado with 2800 men. The fight lasted five days. --Miramon was badly wounded, but escaped with a few of his cavalry. He lost al his artillery, and the balance of his army were made prisoners. General Pachico was killed, and General Megia made, prisoner. Miramon was in full flight. There was great rejoicing at the capital and throughout the country in conse- quence of Miramon's defeat.
SU /1 ill.—The vacant seat in the Legislative Council through the re- tirement, of Sir Janice Outram has been conferred on Mr. Cecil Beadon, who was sworn in on the 11th of August, in presence of Sir Barnes Pea- cock, Sir Bartle Frere, Sir MordauntlVells, luta Hes*. Forbes Sconce, and Harrington. The vacancy in Council caused .4 the desX.h of the late Mi. Le Geyt has-been filled by the appointment:Of 14; ,. J. Ers- kine. It is not so easy, however, to find a succesaotite the late Finan- cial .Commissioner. . - -11-4' .11,,f. IL., The Oude libel case has terminated in a 'verdict for the plaintiff, the proprietors of the Oude Gazette being fined 3000 rupees damages and 500 rupees costs; A pnblio:'subeeription, -however,--has been instituted ,11 :nun RAT.Ort4 for tkciosp9,444Ad, unt yng the defendanta, and in a very kew w ays 1540osaaa9e1'tua ribed for that purpose in Bombay alone. '-,,-The.geiodefaitWef the ,Nizain daring the late troubles has not been _allowed to pais without due recognition, The debt of 65 lakhs due to the British Gbvernment has been remitted, and the districts of Dharaseo, Raiepore, and Shorapoer, yielding an annual- revenue of 14 lakhs, have been ceded to his highness, who in return- gives up certain lands on the Goelavery Worth 20,00Ors. per annum. A khillut, consisting of British manufactures to the value of 10,0001., will be presented to the Nizam,. and others valued at 39001. each to the Nawabs Saler Jung and Simms- ool-Oomrah. Infeligr rewards and gratuities will also be conferred upon 'Men of less note.