24 JANUARY 1857, Page 2

tip Ventralio.

The Property and Income-tax Association held a meeting in Exeter Hall on Wednesday ; Mr. Alderman Wire in the chair. It was intended to be a field-day manifestation of public opinion against the Income-tax ; and delegates from about a dozen provincial towns were arrrayed on the platform beside the London originators of the movement. Among these who spoke were three Members of Parliament—Major Reed, Mr. Thomas Chambers, and Mr. Apsley Pellatt. The country delegates were represented by Mr. Joseph Shaw of Huddersfield, Mr. T. Attwood of Birmingham the Mayor of Oxford, Mr. Partridge of Birmingham, and Mr. Gowmg Of Ipswich. lathe resolutions adopted, the meeting did not go beyond the usual demands,--remission of the war ninepence, and an

incomes. But adjustment of the tax on permanent and precarious But two of the speakers looked beyond : Mr. Wire wants "a revision of our whole system of taxation, so as to subject the rich to at least an equal pressure with the poor." An Mr. Pellatt desires to remove the iniquitous' distinction, so favourable to farmers, so damaging to traders, of permitting the former to pay on a presumed profit in proportion to rental, and exacting from the latter a tax on income and property.

The Law Amendment Society met on Monday evening, to receive a report from a Committee on the Testamentary Bills of last session. Mr, Pitt Taylor read the report—an elaborate paper, critically analyzing the three plans, and presenting a fourth, from the Committee. The Committee concur with Sir Richard Bethell, Sir Fitzroy Kelly, and MX. Collier, in thinking that no effectual scheme of reform " can be carried out except by depriving the Ecclesiastical Courts of all jurisdiction in matters testamentary, by ignoring the doctrine of bona notabilia,' and by breaking down the monopoly of the doctors and proctors!' But they differ from all three on various points. Sir Itichard Bethell committed a great error by introducing into his measure the system of procedure that prevails in Courts of Equi,ty. They object to Mr. Collier's proposition, that testamentary jurisdiction should be referred to the Common Law Courts. They object to Sir Fitzroy Kelly's scheme, that it involves the appointment of a sixteenth Judge ; and both to Sir Fitzroy and the Attorney-General when they propose that the new Court of Probate shall aJso be a court of construction and administration. The plan recommended by the Committee is, that a Court of Probate should be formed by selecting a Judge from each of the Common Law Courts, who, when not engaged in tho Court of Probate, might sit as ordinary Common Law Judges in their respective Courts; and that the County Courts should great probate and tiamteistration in all cases under 3901.; sa. appeal lying to the Chief Court. The report was ordered to be printed, and to be distussed on Monday the 9th February.

A recent decision by the Court of Error has caused some agitation in the mercantile eom,munity. By that decision, reversing a previous one of the Court of Exchequer, holders of bills of lading, delivery-orders, or. dock-warrants, having given full value for those documents, or having. advanced money upon them, are not the legal holders or proprietors of the goods which they represent, unless they can prove that the title of every person through whose hands the warrant, &c., have passed is perfatly good. At a meeting of merchants, bankers and others, held at the -Lcindon Tavern on llionday,—Baron Lionel Rothschild m the chair, --the subject was discussed; the Mate of the law was condemned; and a committee CVDS appointed "to confer with the Government, in the view of procuring, by legislative enactment, such a full and final settlement of the state of the law as shall be calculated to afford due security to the negotiations of trade, and to protect the ho_nil lido holder of those oommercial documents which, both by the custom of trade and the necessities of commerce, are recognized as obligatory among merchants!' What the mercantile community require la, that documents of title connected with the transfer of goods should stand on the same footing as bank-notes or bills of exchange.

The "unemployed operatives connected With the building trade" held their secondmeeting in Smithfield on Monday. The numbers present are variously estimated at-from WO to 15,000. Mr. laugh Pearce again took the chair. He traced the "abject condition" of the Briti.,sh worknum to "the times of William the Conqueror," when the people were "reduced" to the condition of slaves. The power and wealth of the

rich he attributed to the principles of association. The rights of the working men he laid down with emphatic distinctness. "The Poor-law says that every man has a right to live; and, acting on that principle, the people have aright to an equal division of property, until their wants are satisfiecL" Let the working men associate, impress upon the Government that they want a living, and that "while they see grandeur and luxury about them they mean to have it." Mr. Macray said that the Sovereign holds the land on behalf of the people, and the people have a right to the unoccupied land. "God helps those who help themselves." Government have spent millions in civilizing Turkey ; they are about to spend millions in civilizing China; and the money thus spent would place the unemployed people of this country in ease and comfort. An address adopted by the meeting recommended them to regain possession of the land of their forefathers, wrested from them by the law ! The meeting also resolved, that until means of existence are placed within their reach "by useful and profitable employment in agriculture and matmfoctures," they would "fall back upon their ancient and indisputable right to parochial sasistance, unaccompanied by the insulting, debasing, and infamous conditions at present persisted in."

The number now out of employment is estimated at 35,000.

The boot and shoemakers of London held a meeting on Monday at the Freemasons' Tavern, roused to activity by the alarming rise in the price of leather. From the statements made by the speakers it would appear that profits are eaten up by the cost of the raw material—leather having increased above 75 per cent, hides above 400 per cent in price.

Mr. Medwin, the chairman, stated the ease. Formerly France sent us a great many hides ; now she consumes them all herself. Ten years ago, perhaps fifteen out of every twenty Frenchmen wore wooden shoes ; now he did not believe there are ten in that number who wear sabots. The same sort of thing has happened also in Germany. In Buenos Ayres and other countries in South America, there were formerly vast herds of wild or semi-wild cattle, which were killed only for the sake of their skin ; and nearly the whole of that stock has been destroyed. Again, a great demand has sprung up in the United States. The American people are not a beef or a mutton eating people; they prefer pork : but they nevertheless require boots and shoes ; and so they are becoming immense customers to France and Germany as well as ourselves. From Liverpool and other ports there are thousands of hides daily sent away. In a word, he did not see any prospect whatever of increasing the supply, and he believed that prices would within twelve months be double their present exorbitant rate.

Mr. Hewitt said he had hoped to hear some plan by which they might do without leather. Why not try pig-skin, which is now thrown away ? why not pannus cerium? why not American cloth ? He had known people buy it and think it was seal-skin.

The meeting resolved to raise the price of boots and shoes.

The Committee of the Privy Council on Education have arranged that an "Educational Museum" shall be opened "in the spring" at the "New Buildings, South Kensington." The books and objects exhibited will be grouped under the following divisions-1. School buildings and fittings forms desks, slates plans, models, &c. 2. General education, including reading, writing, grammar, arithmetic mathematics, foreign languages, histories. 3. Drawing and the fine aril,. 4. Music. 5. Household economy. 6. Geography and astronomy. 7. Natural History. 8. Chemistry. 9. Physics. 10. Mechanics. 11. Apparatus for teaching the blind and the deaf and dumb.

At a meeting of the Society of Arts on Wednesday, Mr. E. G. Squier read a paper on "Central America and the proposed Honduras Iuteroceanic Railway." The route of this line is from Puerto Caballos in Honduras Bay to the Bay of Fonseca in the Pacific ; length 161 miles. Mr. Sprier, who when American Minister in Central America examined the route himself, states that there would be no heavier gradient than one from 60 to 80 feet in the mile.

A deputation, consisting of the Rector, Churchwardens, and Vestrytaert of St. James's, Westminster, waited on Sir George Grey on Saturday, to call his attention to the prevalence of "houses of ill-fame and betting-houses" in that genteel parish. The difficulties of legislating on the subject were fairly enough stated in a memorial presented by the deputation; showing that the present state of the law rendered them powerless either for suppressing those houses or clearing the streets. They suggest that an enactment similar to the law applied to betting-offices should be passed in reference to the other description of nuisance ; and that there should be an inquiry to ascertain why the betting-office act is a "dead letter." Sir Richard Mayne, called up by Sir George Grey, explained that the difficulty of getting evidence was the cause why there are not more prosecutions. Sir George Grey promised to refer the whole question to the Attorney-General.

General Williams, Commandant of Woolwich, drew out the whole regiment of Artillery there on Thursday, formed them into three sides of a square, and addressed them on the disgraceful occurrences that have recently taken place at Woolwich by ruffians in the Artillery uniform. He was sure, he said, that the majority look upon these acts with as much disgust as himself; and he exhorted them to endeavour to check any evil habits which the better-disposed might at any time perceive in any of their comrades.

A case of considerable interest was opened in the Court of Queen's Bench on Saturday. A writ of Habeas-corpus had been issued from the Court directing the matron of the Sailors' Orphan School at Hampstead to bring up the body of Alicia Race, a child of ten and a half years of age, in order that she might be delivered to her mother. From the affidavits it appeared that the girl was the daughter of Lauman Race, late Sergeant of Marines, killed in action off Petropaulovski in 1854; that in 1855 she had been placed in the asylum at Hampstead, and her brother John Race in the Sailors' Orphan boys' Home at Chardstook, Dorset ; both institutions under the control of the Patriotic Fund. John Race had been removed from Chordate& by his 'mother; and she desired to remove her daughter from Hampstead, but here appeared she met with difficulties. Mrs. Race is a Roman Catholic ; Sergeant Race

was a Protestant ; the little girl at Hampstead—so it from the affidavits—desired not to "go to the Roman Catholic schoo " not "to bow down nor prayto the Virgin Mary, or other images," for that would be, she said, " disobeying Anus." She said to her mother—" Mother, i can't go ;

I not go." She desired "to remain under Protestant teaching." As, however, "the gentleman" who had promised" to get a school for the boy." said be could "not take one without the other," Mrs. Race, although it went to her heart" to take the girl from Hampstead, persevered : henoe this action. Mr. Sergeant Shee appeared on behalf of Mrs. Race. He contended that the Court ought to give up the child to the custody of the mother, as the testamentary guardian under the will of her late husband. He read the following letter, written by Sergeant Race.just before going into action.

" Her Majesty's ship Pique, at ilea, Mth. August 1854.

" My dear Wife and Children—I now sit down to write a few lines to you previous to going into action. 'When you receive this I shall be no more, as it will not be sent to you if I survive. I hope you are all quite well, as I am at the present time. bly dears, I write to bid you an eternal farewell, if such is God's will that I am to be cut off; but I trust in Providence, and hope I may be spared to meet you again ; but as we cannot all expect to survive to tell the tale, and I nifty be one that Is doomed to die in defence of my Queen and country, therefore, my dear wife, it wsU be a consolation that I died in defence of liberty, and done my best, as in duty bound by my oath, when I took to the profession of arms. My dear Alicia, I have. made my will to you, and I trust you will carry it out according to my wish. I wish, my dear, that you will remain a widow until the children are capable of taking care of themselves. I hope, my dear, that you will not disregard this my last wish, as I should not die happy if I thought a stepfather would be over my babes; but I feel confident that you will not forget my last wish. My clear wife, I have not received a letter from you, or any one else, since I left England. I should feel very lumpy to hear from you before I am called into eternity ; but the Lord's will be dune : we must bow to Ills command. My dear Ally, I am but ill prepared to meet my Maker face to face, but I trust He will have mercy on my poor soul, and forgive me my transgressions, as I forgive all men that have done me any wrong, before I die. I have settled all my worldly affairs as far as I can. My dear wife, kiss my dear children for me, as a last embrace from a loving father, and tell them that his last thoughts were for them, and bring them up in the fear of the Lord. My dear wife, I think I see poor Alicia by turns weeping for the loss of her poor old man, and then -I see her rejoicing at kis return—but, alas ! such dreams ! My dear, I have written is farewell letter to my mother, brothers, and sisters, and all friends and relations, and I trust you will not be forgotten by Mum. My dearest wife, give my dying love to your mother and sister, and all your friends that may befriend you or my dear children. May we all meet in Heaven is the last prayer of one that you know how to prize, although lie will be in eternity when you receive this last letter he ever wrote, as we are only waiting for the morning to dawn to go into Petroimoloka [Petropauloyski], and commence the work of destruction. It is a Russian colony, and we are bound to take it or die in the attempt. My dear wife and children, it is late, and I require seine rest before I commence the work of carnage that to morrow may bring forth. My d...ar, I have not set my foot on shore but twice since I left England, and then only for a few hours on duty,

" The last from your affectionate and loving husband, " LAMOND RACE.'

He also read the concluding sentence of the will, which said" do hereby nominate, constitute, and appoint mg wife, Alicia Race, executor of this my will and testament ; feeling confident that she will do justice to my dear children, as a wife and mother."

On the other hand, Mr. O'Malley and Mr. Bovill argued against the surrender of the child ; contending that her "religious convictions" ought to be respected ; that her "conscience ought not to be forced" ; and that the rule is to follow the religion of the father in educating orphans in our military and naval wheals. The father always brought his children up as Protestants, and sent them to Protestant schools. He always attended the worship of the Church of England. Considering that his wife was ma Roman Catholic those acts showed strong will. It was found also, that for eight mouths lifter their father's death the children attended a Protestant school and Protestant worship, and the mother went with them. That was tho way she interpreted her husband's wish that she would " de justice to-his children." The mother might have got the Commiesioners to place her children at Roman Catholic schools, but, with her full approbation., they were placed at a Protestant school, and the girl continued there for aixtemi months without any complaint from the mother. At that time, the mother came under the influence 'of others, who did not propose any means or educating the child, but merely desired that it should be got away from a Protestant school. She said it went to her heart" to take the child awey ; but she said that the girl' could not do anything for the boy unless she took away the girl also. The application was not made bona fide by tics mother ; 'but the object was to place the child under the care of priests, who. would frustrate the father's dying wishes.

Lord Campbell delivered judgment on Wednesday. Reviewing at great length the arguments on both sides, the legal authorities, and the precedents applicable to the case, he decided that Mrs. Race is the guardian of her child "for nurture," having the same parental authority which might have been exercised by the father had he survived. Sergeant Race had not constituted his wife testamentary guardian of the children with instructions to bring them up its Protestants, but, by his letter, had left their education entirely to her discretion. Lord Campbell therefore ordered the infant Alicia Race to be delivered up to her mother:

Mr. O'Malley immediately applied to the Court to stay the execution or its order, on the ground that a motion had been made before Vice-Chancellor Kindersley to make the child it ward in Chancery. Lord Campbell refused to listen to this application : he said the order ef the Court of Queen's Bench must be immediately executed. The child was accordingly delivered up te her mother in the court.

In Vice-Chancellor Kindersley's Court, the application, was ordered to stand over; Mr. Fleming undertaking on behalf of his client, Mrs. Rate, that the girl should not be removed beyond the jurisdiction of the Court.

A Mr. Rankin has brought an action in the Court of Common Plette against a Mr. Payne, to recover 601., alleged to be due for his services in having introduced a gentleman of rank and influence as director to " 'fht Western Bank of London," in accordance with an agreement entered into with Payne to the effect that he should pay to Rankin 601. for every fit and proper person whom he might succeed in inducing to become director of maid bank. The case will be heard further next Tuesday. Mr. Justice Wines said, he thought that the occupation of entrapping men ta lend their names to bubble schemes was one which should be looked upon with suspicion, to say the least of it. The defendant had only pleaded the general issue; and it is a question whether he should not ho allowed to add a plea which will raise the point of fraud and illegality, Mr. lb' binwsn, for the defendant, denied that "this" was a bubble scheme, or that the director was entrapped. "The concern is at work, and quite firm."

In the Court of Bankruptcy, on Monday, Commissioner Holroyd gave a further hearing to the "new shareholders "of the Royal British Bank who claim to prove as creditors, as they were induced to take the shares by fraud. Mr. Holroyd intimated, that as yet he took an unfavourable view of the new shareholders' non-responsibility as regards the creditors of the bank. On the same day, Leopold Recipeh was brought before Commiesionor Goulburn to pass his examination ; but WI the convict bad intinaated his determination not to answer questions respecting his rotate aind effects, an adjournment sine die took place. Redpath is thus described btaboreporter —" In person the bankrupt is somewhat brawny and athletic, nearly six feet in stature and -fifty years of age. He has more the appearance of a burly stage-coach driver or frequenter of prizesfights than of a gentleman who dealt in millions yearly in stocks and shares, or who could feel at home in an elegant drawingroom in Regent's Park, surrounded by costly articles. of vertet."

Anderson and"Join Seward," the alleged confederates in a gang of forgers, evidence of whose deeds has been obtained from the confessions of Attwell and lIardaicke, two others of the gang now convicts, were again.

examined at the Mansionhouse on Wednesday, and fresh corroborative testimony was brought in support of the charges. They have been again

remanded for a week.

Some weeks since, Mrs. Martha Bacon was arrested on a charge of murderingther two children. Her explanation was, that "a man" had got into the house, killed the children, and carried off divers things. She was thought to be mad. On investigation, facts came to light casting suspicion on her husband. He was interrogated about the missing property, and he gave very conflicting answers. On Wednesday, husband and wife were brought before the Lambeth Magistrate. Bacon again prevaricated. In the midst of the proceedings, his wife out the matter short by handing up a letter, which at her request Mr. Elliott read as follows. " Sir—I must confess I am an innocent person, and he who committed the dreadful deed is my husband; and there was no money on the drawers. He took the little boy down stairs, put him in a chair, and there cut his throat. He then went up-stairs and cut the httlo baby's throat. MARTHA BACON." The letter produced a sense of horror in the court, and had a visible effect

on the nerves of Bacon. Both husband and wife are remanded on a charge of murder. Mr. Elliott directed Inspector Young to write and request the authorities at Stamford to exhume the body of Bacon's mother, who, it is suspected, had been poisoned with arsenic a year ago.

Further evidence has been discovered tending to show the guilt of Bacon —blood-stained garments hitherto concealed. Mrs. Bacon states that her husband attempted her life at the time he murdered his children; which would account for the marks of a knife on her throat. She now manifests the greatest horror and fear of her husband, and has begged that he may not be allowed to approach her. Bacon, it is stated, bears an ill name at Stamford, where he carried on business as an ironmonger. He was not only guilty of seduction there, but has beentried for arson, and suspected of murder.

Gifts of coals to the poor are now made through the Police Magistrates. Lord Ward has contributed fifty tons for this purpose.

Last week, a constable complained to the Worship Street Magistrate that a woman in great distress was cruelly refused admission into the St. Luke's Workhouse at night, the porter representing that he was acting under orders in so doing. Two Sergeants of Police stated that such occurrences were frequent : the knocker is " secured " after nine, and the steps are frequently crowded with poor wretches. On Saturday, the Master of the Workhouse and other parish officials explained that the Board had not given directions to exclude persons; it was "the porter "—not the "paid porter." "Whoever it was," said the Magistrate, "such conduct may occur again unless the man is removed." Mr. Creed, a Guardian, said—" I think it is very hard if we are compelled to take in all ablebodied paupers who apply as casuals,' burdened with numbers as our house already is." Mr. Hammill replied—" Yes, it may be so, but I do not see how you are to avoid it."