fratigu nut Colouial.
Ii'nerems.—Obstacles still impede the progress of the new constitution in the Senate. A meeting took place on Tuesday, when M. Troplong pre- sented a report on the modification; but it was not received with the ab- ject submission expected. The Senate voted that it should be printed be- fore they would take it into consideration. There were strong objections to conceding the power of regulating the tariffs to the Emperor ; to granting him entire control over public works; and to the proposed mode of voting the budget in totals for the various departments.
Meanwhile, the Emperor has been hunting in the regal forests of Com- piegne, with a great attendance of courtiers, wearing the Imperial hunting • uniform of green and gold.
There is a strange story current, variously reported, but as yet nneon- tradicted, that Louis Napoleon has applied to the Moderate Republicans to .enter the Government. Ile is said to have sent for M. Bethmont to the Tuileries, and through him offered places to such men as Cavaignac, Marie, and Carnot. M. Bethmont for himself and his friends rather hotly declined the proffered honour ; but Louis Napoleon bade him take the message to his friends, and bring back an answer from them. He Sal so ; and the result was that they indignantly refused to participate in a Government sprung from the 2d of December. M. Bethraont, it is said, had the courage to bear this message to his Imperial Majesty; who received it in silence.
Another version of the story is, that M. Camot had been sent for : but this is positively denied ; and a paper, purporting to have been drawn up by "some of the most eminent as well as moderate of the Republicans," has been published in the Paris correspondence of the Daily News. In this it is stated, that certain officials, high in place, offered to some mem- bers of the " Republicains de sur-lendemain"—that is, those who rallied to the Republic soon after the 24th February—places on the bench, in the Senate, at the Council of State, and in the Administration. They were told that they had no choice except the Empire or the Bourbons; that they might do much for liberty if they would join Louis Napoleon ; and that even parliamentary government might be recovered. It is said that they steadily refused to listen to these tempting offers ; and that they pointed to the dishonourable examples of men like M. Billault and M. Cormenin, whom they declined to imitate. The exact facts may not be before the public, but from the number of sources by which the story has oozed out, it would seem to have some claim to be regarded as authentic.
As free publicity in France exists no longer, stories must be taken with an allowance. One at present circulating in Paris is, that M. Fould and M. Peraigny have carried a personal quarrel beyond the limits of decency in the very presence of their Emperor. M. Fould was accused of ruining the state, and of being nothing more than a bourgeois. He acknowledged that he was a bourgeois, and was not ashamed of being one ; and retorted upon M. de Persigny that he was a disgrace to the Empire. This quarrel needed the interference of Louis Napoleon to make it up. It is also said that Louis Napoleon, as a condition of receiving a pension from the Im- perial treasury, requested the Princess Mathilde to give up the allowance which, as Princess Demidoff, she receives from Russia; and that the Princess declined her cousin's bounty at such a price. His Imperial Majesty has granted pardons to a great number of men condemned for offences by courts-martial. While we write, the Empire has not been officially recognized either by Russia, Austria, or Prussia ; who, it is stated, will make their recog- nition collectively.
Thiklournal de Commerce of Dunkirk reports that the Government in- tend to form extensive docks there, to connect them with the railway, and to construct an entirely new basin, reserved for the exclusive use of the steamers belonging to the state. The Moniteur of Wednesday contains an elaborate description of the future military organization Si Paris. It is intended to enlarge the barracks near the &tole Militaire, and build other barracks, capable of containing 2100 men, behind the Hotel de Ville. The barracks at the Eeole Militaire will contain the quarters of the Commander-in-chief; and around him will be grouped 6000 infantry, the regiment of Guides, four squadrons of cavalry, and throe batteries of artillery. Thus, it is
said, the Ecole Militaire, at the same time that it will become the centre of the organization of the army of Perin, will form a permanent camp of instruction, such as exists in no other country in Europe.
ALGERIA.—There has been some fighting recently ; and a place called Laghouat has been captured by General Youssouf and General Pelissier. When General Randon proclaimed the Empire in Algiers, on the 12th, he alluded to this frontier conflict in the following terms-
" The army of Africa has been happy in being able, at the distance of 100 leagues from us, to inaugurate the Empire by a victory. Laghouat taken by storm, the breach mounted with cries of 'Vim l'Empereur,' the eagle of the Zonaves spreading its wings over the casbah of the town—that is the way in which our valiant troops led on by the brave General Pelissier wrote the first page of the military history of the new reign. Let us, gentlemen, accept this happy presage of glory, which will render Algeria still more dear to the Emperor ; and on drinking his health let us drink to the happiness of France."
Sem:N.—The Absolutist policy of Bravo Murillo seems to have effected his overthrow. On the 14th instant, his Ministry was abruptly terminated by the refusal of Queen Isabella to accept either of two persons sent in as successors to the War Minister, Urbina, who had resigned. General Roncali was called in, and a new Cabinet was formed by him. Roncali takes the Ministry of Foreign Affairs ; Lara, War ; Mirasol, Marine ; Valley, Justice; Aritizabal, Finance; and Llorente, the Interior. From the immediately subsequent events it was inferred that the Itoncali Ministry would Used in the steps of its predecessor. On the 14th, an order was issued to arrest the printer of the Moderado electoral address, which was signed by about fifty of the most distinguished politicians. The printer was not to be found. The Progresistas had drawn up an ad- dress, and it was placed in the hands of a printer ; but on the 15th, the Police entered his office, seized the copies already struck off, and broke up the forms. But it was afterwards explained that these arbitrary proceedings were resorted to by the Political Chief of Madrid; and that the Ministry are not responsible for them. Accordingly, the Madrid Gazette of the 17th contains a royal order withdrawing the pro- hibition of the circulation of the Moderado address. It is intimated that Ventura Diaz, the Governor of the province, would be dismissed on account of the part he has taken in obstructing legal political movements; that the Fiscal, a kind of public denouncer of the press, Pio de la Seta, would also be dismissed, and the office abolished. This looks like arc- turn to a constitutional policy.
Martinez de in Rosa has been reinstated in the office he so lately re- signed, that of Vice-President of the Royal Council.
GERMANT.—The interest of the German news centres in Berlin. For the first time since the electorate of Brandenburgh became the kingdom of Prussia, the Austrian Emperor has visited its capital. Some miles from the Berlin terminus, the King of Prussia met his Imperial guest, on
the 17th, and attended him to the Palace. That evening was passed "en famille," as the phrase goes. The next day there was a review ;
the Emperor of Austria wearing the uniform of a Colonel of Prussian Grenadiers, and the King of Prussia appearing in the uniform of a Colonel of Austrian Huesars. Among the brilliant staff were the Archduke Maximilian, the Princes Albrecht, Adalbert, Frederick, Frederick William, and George. Looking on as the troops defiled by, from the windows of the palace of the Princess of Leignitz, were the Queen and the Princesses. As the troops approached from the Linden, the King of Prussia drew his sword, saluted the Emperor, galloped to the head of the division, and led it past. As he resumed his place, he shook hands with his young guest. When the Francis Joseph Grenadiers appeared, the Emperor rode off, and led them past the King. It is said that on passing the monument of the great Fritz, the conqueror of Silesia, the young Em- peror of Austria rode round it, and bringing his horse to the front, lifted his helmet in honour of the memory of the greatest of the Hohenzollerns. In the evening there was a grand banquet in the Whitehall of the Palace, at which all the noble and royal blood in the capital was present. As it was the birthday of the Emperor Nicholas, his health was one of the most prominent toasts. Among the guests were two English officers, Major-General Charles Bentinck, and Colonel Torrens of the Welsh Fuaileers. It has been remarked that General Radowitz was present. After the banquet, the party went to the theatre : the drop-scene fell on an allegorical representation of the union of Austria and Prussia.
After hearing mass, on Sunday, the Emperor inspected his own regi- ment in barracks, and returned to the Palace with the Prince of Prussia ; where he held a levee, attended by the staff and officers of the garrison. He spoke to them as follows- " I am rejoiced to see around me so many representatives of the Prussian army, with which I made acquaintance yesterday. The army of your illus- trious King has always remained steadfast in fidelity during times of severe trial. It is the spirit of honour and fidelity which forms the link between all good armies. It is this noble spirit that has conneoted my army with that of Prussia ; and I therefore proclaim aloud in this place the firm con- viction that both armies will stand firmly side by side in brotherly comrade- ship, come what may." On the following day, the King of Hanover and the Duke of Bruns- wick arrived at Potsdam, whither the Emperor and Court had gone. Francis Joseph was to return to Dresden on Tuesday ; and it is intimated that he will probably go to Warsaw, to meet the Emperor of Russia. Another event has attracted much attention. On the 10th December, the Count and Countess of Chambord dined with the Emperor of Aus- tria at Vienna. At table the Countess sat next the Emperor, and the Count next to the Dowager Empress ; and in the evening the Emperor paid a visit to the Count and Countess in the Palace of the Duke of Modena, where they lodge when at Vienna.
ITs.f.y.—The Senate of Turin discussed the Civil Marriage BM on the 15th. It was defended by M. Boncompag,ni, Count Cavour, and M. Ste- cardi, on the ground of liberty of conscience, and the necessity of se- parating the civil and the ecclesiastical powers. An institution not con- demned by the Church either in France or Belgium, or any other Cathohc country, could not be looked on as hostile to the Church. Either the bill must be supported, said Count Cavour, or the supremacy of the Church admitted ; and then all reform would be impossible. The Archbishop of Augennes opposed the bill : he did not look upon marriage as a contract whether blessed by the Church or not. M. Della Marmom thought the bill inexpedient. The discussion was continued on the 16th and Mk but the result has not reached us.
M. His de Butenval delivered his new letters of credence to the King of Sardinia on the 15th; but it is still reported that he only remains at Turin pending the selection of his successor.
The Rieorgionento announces that M. Solaloja, who, after having been so long imprisoned at Naples, has had his punishment lately commuted into perpetual exile from the kingdom of the Two Sicilies, has obtained letters of naturalization as a Sardinian subject, and has been staying at Turin.
It appears that the five men who were hanged at Mantua were sub- jected to great indignity and suffering. They were all respectable in sta- tion. Their judges were Benedek, well known in the Gallician massa- cres, Belga, a nephew of him who was spared by the Milanese in 1848, and Rossi, both accuser and judge. Even the officer who signed the sen- tence of death had been spared by the Venetians in 1848. They were tried before a secret tribunal ; and were tortured during the trial, with the stick, in the vain hope that they would confess. They were hanged in a new and peculiar manner, partly supported by the waist and feet,—a mode inflicting great and protracted punishment; so that the fifth man was an hour and a quarter witnessing the death-struggles of his friends.
Therm Brea-Ea.—By the America, which arrived at Liverpool on Monday morning, from New York, we have the President's message, bearing date December 6.
The President congratulates the country that the choice of a chief magis- trate has been made by the independent suffrages of a free people, undis- turbed by those influences which in other countries have too often affected the purity of popular elections. He thanks Providence for the removal of pestilence, and for crowning the labours of the husbandman with abundant harvest.. He notices the death of Daniel Webster; whose "commanding talents, great political and professional eminence, and long and faithful ser- vices in the most important trusts, have caused his death to be lamented throughout the country, and earned for him a lasting place in history." The President then treats of the fisheries question. Great Britain gave notice last summer, that orders had been sent to protect the fisheries upon the coasts of the British Provinces against encroachment. It was at first thought that Great Britain intended, by an increased. naval force, to carry into effect the interpretation of those provisions of the convention of 1818 in reference to the true intent of which the two Governments differ. Satisfac- tory explanations, however, were given both at Washington and London, that Great Britain had no such design. The unadjusted difference was still a matter of importance. "American fishing-vessels within nine or ten years have been excluded from waters to which they had free access for twenty- Eve years after the negotiation of the treaty. In 1845 this exclusion was re- laxed so far as concerns the Bay of Fundy ; but the just and liberal inten- tion of the Rome Government, in compliance with what we think the true construction of the convention, to open all the outer bays to our fishermen, was abandoned, in consequence of the opposition of the Colonies. Notwith- standing this, the United States have, since the Bay of Fundy was reopened to our fishermen in 1845, pursued the most liberal come towards the Colo- nial fishing interests. By the revenue-law of 1846, the duties on Colonial fish entering our ports were very greatly reduced, and by the warehousing act it is allowed to be entered in bond without payment of duty. In this way, Colonial fish has acquired the monopoly of the export-trade in our market, and is entering to some extent into the home consumption. These facts were among those which increased the sensibility of our fishing interest at the movement in question."
This healed President Fillmore to think that the time is favourable for placing the coast fisheries of the British Provinces on a more liberal footing. &eat -Britain is understood to desire to include in one comprehensive settle- ment not only the subject of the fisheries but the commercial intercourse between the United States and the British Provinces. The President thinks that this should be done in two conventions, and that it may be done this winter.
The affairs of Cuba still remain in an "uneasy condition, and a feeling of alarm and, irritation on the part of the Cuban authorities appears to exist." It has led to interference with regular commercial intercourse, and to some acts of which the United States have a right to complain. The Captain- General of Cuba has no power to treat. The newly-appointed Minister to Mexico, however, visited Havannah, and was respectfully received by the (laptain-General; but no permanent arrangement was effected. The Captain- -General's refusal to allow the passengers and mail to be landed in certain eases, "for a reason which does not furnish, in the opinion of the President, even a good presumptive ground for such a prohibition, has been made the subject of serious remonstrance at Madrid" ; and had, no doubt, been re- zeived with due respect. With the exceptions above referred to, the conduct -of the Captain-General of Cuba indicates no general purpose of interfering with the commerce and intercourse between the island and the United States.
"Early in the present year, official notes were received from the Ministers of France and England, inviting the Government of the United States to become a party with Great Britain and France to a tripartite convention, in virtue of which the three powers should severally and collectively disclaim, now and for the future, all intention to obtain possession of the island of Cuba, and should bind themselves to discountenance all attempts to that effect on the part of any power or individual whatever. This invitation has been respectfully declined, for reasons which it would occupy too much space in this communication to state in detail, but which led me to think that the proposed measure would be of doubtful constitutionality, impolitic, and unavailing. I have, however, in common with several of my predeces- sors, directed the Ministers of France and England to be assured that the United States entertain no designs against Cuba; but that, on the contrary, I should regret its incorporation into the Union at the present time, as fraught with serious peril." The President detest that were Cuba unin- habited, or occupied by a kindred race, he should, if voluntarily ceded, re- gard it as a "desirable acquisition"; but under existing circumstances, its incorporation in the Union would be "a very hazardous measure." In reference to the relations existing between the United States and the South American Governments, hopes are entertained of adjusting the .ffiffer- enee with the Mexican Government respecting the rejected convention for the protection of a transit-way across the Isthmus of Tehuantepec.. Ne- gotiations are still in train for the reconcilement of Costa Rica and Nicara- gua, "indispensable to the commencem :at of the great ship-canal between the two oceans, which was the subjelt of the convention between the United States and Great Britain of the 19th of April 1850." Together with France and Great Britain, the United States Minister at Rio de Janeiro had been instructed to negotiate with the chief of the new confederacy for the opening- of the tributaries of La Plata; and a treaty of commerce has been concluded with Uruguay.
The "temporary wrong" done to Peru by the late Secretary of State, "from want of information," has been "repaired by an unreserved acknow- ledgment of her sovereignty " ; and Peru has agreed to freight on its own account those American vessels which set out to fetch guano from the Lobos. The Japan expedition has been sent with a view of opening the opposite regions of Asia to a mutually beneficial intercourse. The commander of that expedition is instructed to obtain some relaxation of the inhospitable and anti-social system pursued for about two centuries ; to remonstrate against the cruel treatment of shipwrecked American sailors; and to insist that they shall be treated with humanity. Should this expedition be successful, as in the case of China, the advantages will be equally enjoyed by all the marl- tune powers. In all the preparatory steps, the Government of the United States has been materially- assisted by the King of the Netherlands. The President marks the growth of business, by recommending a further subdivision of the office of the Department of State. The cash receipts for the year ending 30th June 1852, were 49,729,386 dollars ; the expenditure 46,007,886 dollars ; (of which 9,455,843 dollars was on account of the debt ;) leaving a balance of 14,632,136 dollars in the Treasury on the let July. Since that time, further purchases of the princi- pal of the public debt, to the amount of 2,456,547 dollars, have been made ; and the Treasury surplus will continue to be applied whenever the stock can be purchased at the price authorized by law. The value of imports of the year has been 207,240,101 dollars ; exports— domestic, 149,861,911 dollars—foreign, 17,204,026 dollars; exports in specie, 507,285 dollars ; imports of specie, 6,262,643 dollars.
iecordmgthe fact that his views as to a protective tariff are unchanged, President Fillmore complains that the manufacturers of the United States are broken down by competition ; that the gold of California finds its way directly to Europe, as fast as it is coined, in payment for goods. He recom- mends the laying on of import-duties so that the " domestic manufacturer may fairly compete with the foreigner in our own markets," but not so high as to exclude the foreign article. He recommends also the adoption of specific duties on imports, levied according to the cost of the article at the place of shipment; instead of ad valorem duties levied by the revenue-officers on the -word of the importer as to cost. The evil of the present system is that the dishonest importer pays only a part of the duties paid by the honest im- porter ; and the Treasury, besides, is so far defrauded.
The message reports that the status of the Indians in Oregon and California is very unsatisfactory, as there has been no recognition of their exclusive right to any parts of the country ; and he recommends prompt action on the subject. Steps have been taken to remove the last of the Seminole Indians from Florida. It is recommended to Texas, that she should assign a small portion of her vast domain for the provisional occupation of the Indians within her borders ; otherwise the fulfilment of the treaty with Mexico will be a subject of embarrassment to the Government. The report of the land Office shows that 13,115,175 acres of land have been sold and located under land-warrants ; being an increase of 569,220 acres over the previous year : but the increase on the whole amount, sold, located under warrants, reported under swamp grants, and selected for inter- nal improvements, exceeds that of the previous year by 3,342,372 acres. Surveys have been completed of the River Gila from its confluence with the Colorado to its supposed intersection with the Western line of New Iles:ice; and of the Rio Grande from the "point where it strikes the bound- ary of New Mexico" to a point 135 miles below Eagle Pass, which is about two-thirds of the distance along the course of the river to its mouth. The further prosecution of the survey is stayed ; owing to a difficulty in the act authorizing the appropriation of the funds, which seems to leave it doubtful, not only whether the work can be carried further, but whether even arrears can be paid up under its provisions. The President recommends that the building of the forts for defence of the seaports from Boston to New Orleans be proceeded with ; but he states that there is a growing belief that the system of fortifications adopted in 1846 re- quires revision. Certain improvements in the Navy, with a view to check the "increasing spirit of insubordination resulting from our present system," and to establish a corps of naval apprentices, are cordially recommended. The postage receipts, under the cheap rates, had decreased 23 per cent on the preceding year; but the policy of returning to higher rates is questioned.
The last paragraphs of the message refer to the great question of nonin- tervention. Hitherto the policy of the United States has been to abstain from all interference in the domestic affairs of other nations ; and the Pre- sident enumerates the beneficial consequences of that policy. But it has been -said that this policy must be changed ; that the United States should "interfere between contending sovereigns and their subjects, for the pure of overthrowing the Monarchies of Europe, and establishing in their place Republican institutions." This the President calls a "seductive but dan- gerous appeal to the sympathies of freemen" ; but he denies that the "de- grading motive of a conscientious weakness" has caused the patriots who have gone before to refrain from intervention. "The truth is, that the course which they pursued was dictated by a stern sense of internationat justice, by a statesmanlike prudence, and a far-seeing wisdom, looking nol merely to the present necessities, but to the permanent safety and interest of the country." And he refers to the example of France, which by the fra- ternal decree of her Convention involved herself in war with all the rest of Europe, and was carried by the force of arms back to the unquestioned as- cendancy of monarchical principles. After pointing out that American in- stitutions are not the offspring of revolution, he says—" Our policy is wisely to govern ourselves ; and thereby to set such an example of national justice, prosperity, and true glory, as shall teach to all nations the blessings of self- government, and the unparalleled enterprise and success of a free people." Amid this exuberance of enterprise, it is not strange that some individuals should mistake change for progress, and invasion of the rights of others for glory ; and that, led by some irresponsible foreigner, the young and igno- rant should engage in a wild crusade against a neighbouring people, under the delusive pretence of extending the area of freedom. But these reprehen- sible aggressions retard tine progress, and they should receive the indignant frowns of every good citizen. Recommending the harmonious action of Conservatism and Progress as the principle of future legislation, and claiming only to have discharged his duties to the best of his ability for the public good, President Fillmore re- tires from office, leaving the country in a state of peace and prosperity. The difficulties at Havannah have been settled by the Captain- General's consenting to accept the affidavit of Purser Smith that he did not furnish the false intelligence of which complaints had been made, and to admit the Crescent City with the Purser on board into the port of If avannah.
The statement, which reached us from Spain, that the English and French naval officers off Havannah had offered their services to Cafiedo, and had publicly dined with him, is now contradicted.
The Hew York Herald and the Tribune contain letters of some import- ance respecting the slave-trade carried on by the connivance of the Cap- tain-General of Cuba. The Lady Suffolk (" named after some race- horse, as only race-horses have titles in the 'United States ") is a Balti- more clipper, built expressly for the slave-trade. From Baltimore she sailed to New York, shipped a new crew, and went thence to Marie! in Cuba ; which is not a port of entry, but which she nevertheless entered ; a Spanish war-steamer and corvette looking on. From Mariel she went to Bahia Honda ; and there, on the 15th November, a Spanish war-steamer
brought her the equipments and armament of a slaver, together with a crew and captain. She sailed on the 22d, being towed out to sea by the steamer Sirens. The American sailors were detained prisoners until that night. As she has no regular papers, she is, of course, a ptratical vessel. It is reported that the real object of the English men-of-war off Cuba is to catch some of the many slavers constantly running cargoes on various points of the coast. Within the last twelve menthe, it is said, not fewer than 3700 slaves have been landed under the eyes of the authorities. The correspondent of the New York Tribune says there were nineteen " expe- ditions " preparing at the time he was writing.
WEST INDIES.—We have news from Jamaica to the 29th November. The Legislature was then sitting ; but no step of importance had been taken, as there was a disposition to wait and see what relief the Derby Government might be disposed to accord. Mr. Thompson, one of the late delegates to England, had given notice, on the 11th, of a motion to atop the supplies, except what might be needed to pay the interest of the debt of -the island. Subsequently, however, he withdrew that motion, and substi- tuted another, simply postponing the consideration of the supplies until the intentions of the Imperial Parliament on Colonial fiscal regulations should be known.