forrigu ant Culnial.
Si a I 4.—The last ship of the French fleet quitted Gaeta on the 19th instant, and it is stated that Admiral Barbier de Tinan intercepted pro- visions sent from Rome for the fortress, a curiously sudden change of tactics. Admiral Persano has arranged for a strict blockade of the har- bour, and the statement that the Russian Government will refuse to re- spect it is formally denied. The King has announced his intention to stand by the fortress to the last, and has sent a way even the Spanish
vessel in readiness to convey him to Cadiz. The batteries on both sides opened fire on the 19th, the Sardinian, by the latest accounts, proving the heavier. The garrison is said to be reduced almost exclusively to mercenaries, but all accounts from Gaeta, via. Turin, must be received with some distrust. The most probable statement fixes the strength of the garrison at 8600 men. The weather, it is said, is unfavourable to the operations of the army. The Opinione, the semi-official paper of Turin, publishes an article be- lieved to foreshadow the intentions of the Government. The writer lays down the principle, that Europe really dreads, not a war between Italy and Austria, but an excuse for a second French intervention. Italy, therefore, should strengthen herself to cope with Austria single handed. Such a project requires time, preparation, and organized forces. The "partisans of a war in the corning spring are either blind or senseless," and deceive themselves by recollections of the easy conquest of Sicily and Naples. "The war party," continues the journalist with a scarcely concealed allusion to Garibaldi- " The war party is agreed with us in its principles ; it recognizes, like us, Victor Emmanuel as the head of Italy ; but it is necessary that this recognition should not be contradicted by the facts. Victor Emmanuel is King of Italy, and as King he alone has the right to declare war. It would be ridiculous for any one individual to profess obedience to the head of the nation, and then to substitute himself for that head by provoking a war, and by involving the nation in dangers which the King wished to avoid." He calls, therefore, upon the electors to remember their responsibility. The idea, at first widely prevalent, that the new Parliament would un- seat Count Cavour, is dying out. It is now acknowledged that the Ministry will have a working majority. Northern Italy has adhered to the statesman, and many of Garibaldi's own nominees, like General Bixio, are men who weigh arguments and can comprehend the courage of delay. It is therefore presumed, though as yet without much rea- son, that the Italian Parliament will vote for armaments, but not for
There is a lull in Neapolitan emeutes. The Prince de Carignan ar- rived in Naples on the 12th instant, and was enthusiastically welcomed by the populace. By a decree, dated the 7th of January, the Prince is invested with the full executive powers of the Sovereign, subject always to his instructions from Victor Emmanuel. His Ministry, presided over by M. Nigra as Secretary-General, will control all departments except War and Marine, which will remain in the hands of the Ministry of Italy. The control of foreign affairs rests of course, ad interim, with Count Cavour. The new Cabinet, with Liborio Romano as Secretary of the Interior, is popular. There is partial quiet also in Sicily once more, and by the latest accounts, the reactionary party in the Abruzzi have sustained sonle severe checks. The details, however, are contradictory
to a degree. The one fact certain seems to be, that large bands of the disbanded army of Naples are wandering through the interior, checked occasionally by Volunteer corps of the respectable inhabitants, and always defeated when they encounter the King's troops, but still striking terror into the towns, and finding allies among the peasantry.
An attempt has been made from Rome to excite a movement in Umbria, but it failed. A body of Papal Zouaves, despatched secretly to Correse, retreated on the first appearance of some Volunteers. National Committees have been organized in Rome on a great scale, and the peo- ple applaud vociferously any chance allusion to unity in the theatres. The National Committees, however, prohibit outbreaks.
A statement has been published, showing the rapid increase of trade in Northern Italy under a free regime. It proves that during ten years of Constitutional Government, the trade of Piedmont was doubled. The annual value of the commerce of all Italy on the average of the ten years ending 1858, is estimated at seventy-three millions. Should it increase under free institutions, as fast as that of Piedmont, the poorest of Italian Provinces, Italy in ten years will be one of the great commercial powers.
&man 4.—There are rumours of a fierce reaction in Court circles at Vienna. The Hungarians, who all along have demanded their Consti- tution, have employed the privileges granted by the recent Patent to re- vive their ancient provincial organization. At first, it was believed that the Emperor would yield, but a letter from Pesth, of 21st January, thus condenses an ordinance just received- " An Imperial ordinance, published by the Aulic Chancellerie, has reached the Government of Buda. It annuls the elections by the comitats of persons who fled for political causes. The same ordinance proclaims the intention of the Government to act severely against all who refuse to pay taxes, and other decisions adopted on that subject.
" The tribunals which have hitherto existed, and the civil and penal legis- lation, cannot be modified, except by a decision of the Diet. The reesta- blishment de facto of the clauses of the law of 1848 is forbidden. The Go- vernment will oppose it by the most serious measures ; and, in case of opposition, the proceedings of the comitats shall be suspended. " The assemblies in the comitats are forbidden, and all the previous ordi- nances executed by force.
"None of the ordinances of the diploma of October to this day shall suffer any modification, in consequence of the present decree. The concessions made to Hungary shall be maintained intact." It is believed in Hungary that this order is the result of tranquillizing assurances regarding an attack from Italy in the spring. The patents promised to the remaining provinces are not yet issued ; and it is now asserted that the Emperor, before granting them, will call together an Assembly, composed of the elected representatives of Gallicia and the German provinces. Fifty-six landholders of Lower Austria, meeting in the Palace of the Estates, have signed a programme, demanding repre- sentative institutions, and a general Assembly of the whole empire. The Nord believes that the reactionary spirit manifested at Vienna will de- stroy the Empire ; and rumours of the intention of Hungary to trust to arms, increase in Paris.
The Comitat of Honth has replied to the Imperial rescript by an ad- dress, declaring that it has not transgressed the limit of lawful rights-
" The Comitat has not trangressed, and will not transgress, the limit of lawful rights. It will, however, preserve all its ancient rights, and will maintain the laws of 1848, until the Diet shall have resolved upon a change in the same.
" The Comitat is of opinion that, without the existence of an indepen- dent Hungarian Ministry, which was guaranteed by the laws of 1848, Hun- gary cannot be considered to be lawfully governed. The Comitat will gladly submit to the decision of such a Ministry." The members of the Comitat, it must be remembered, are liable to sentence of death for treasonable combinations.
The Wiener Zeitung, of the 20th of January, contains an ordinance for a loan of 30,000,000 florins-
" The subscriptions to thedoan are to begin on the 21st of January, 1861. The conditions are as follows-1. Each subscriber of 88 florins Austrian cur- rency. will receive a State bond for 100 florins; 2. The bonds to bear 5 per cent interest ; 3. The sum subscribed will be repaid in five years, and in five equal parts. The first part (one-fifth) will be paid on the 1st of De- cember, 1862, and the last on the 1st of December, 1866."
The ordinance is signed by eight members of the Cabinet. The King of Prussia, at a levee of all the generals in Berlin, made the following address-
" This is the first time that I find myself in your midst as your military chief. I never should have thought that Providence would call me to so difficult a dignity. I never thought I should have survived my beloved brother. In my youth, I was of much more delicate health ; so that, ac- cording to the laws of nature, there seemed little prospect of my succeeding to the throne of my ancestors. That is why I devoted all my energies to the service of the Prussian army ; I have done so with zeal and perse- verance, thinking that, by so doing, I was heat fulfilling the duties of a Prussian prince towards his King and country. " The impenetrable decrees of the Almighty have now called me to the throne, which hitherto it had been my sole care to defend. This event has taken place at a moment pregnant with dangers, and with the perspective of struggles in which, gentlemen, I shall, perhaps, stand in need of your devotion. If my efforts, and those of the princes who, like myself, wish to maintain peace, do not avert the storm which is brewing around us, we shall have to collect all our strength to resist it and overcome it. " I am happy to see at your head, in such excellent health, Field-Marshal General Wrangel. As regards you, my dear Minister of War, Roon, 1 have never put you on a bed of roses, and you will have to work vigorously to make the army what it ought to be for Prussia's future. Let us not de- ceive ourselves. If I do not succeed in averting the struggle, it will be a struggle in which we must conquer, if we do not wish to be annihilated."
Negotiations are on foot for a commercial treaty between France and the Zollverein, and the French Commissary has arrived in Berlin.
Brazark.—Summaries of despatches addressed by Lord John Rus- sell to our Ambassador have been published in the German papers. Her Majesty's Government holds that the Government of Denmark is bound by the declaration of the 29th of January, 1852; that is, he is bound to secure equal rights to both nationalities in Schleswig, and to grant the Duchy a constitution. Had these promises been violated, the Diet would have a right to interfere ; but they have no claim to regulate details of the Administration, or the rules for each church and school. The pro- posals of the British Government, not published, have, it appears, been rejected, and Denmark is arming for defence.
/MIL—The poor are suffering in Paris as well as in London, and the Emperor has'taken the initiative in charitable relief, by placing 20001. at the disposal of the police, to be distributed in bread and firing. The rich and charitable are almost commanded in the Moniteur to follow this example. The Ifoniteur publishes an art cle, condemning the premature pub- licity given to the facts connected with the claim of M. Jerome Bona- parte. The official journal calls the claimant M. Jerome Paterson ; and Prince Napoleon, "sole heir" of his father, asserts that the American marriage of the Prince, was annulled by two decrees of the Emperor Napoleon I. of 11th and 30th Ventose, year XIII., takes credit to Prince Napoleon for not "invoking the special jurisdiction of the Imperial family," and declares that the authenticity of the documents in M. Berryer's Memoir on the case will be impeached. It must not be for- gotten, that the Rioniteur does not always reflect the individual deter- mination of the Emperor.
A night fete has been given by the Count de Moray on the ice, on the lake of Longchamps in the Bois de Boulogne. It was attended by the Emperor and Empress, and all the elite of Parisian society. The Emperor, who skates well, pushed the Empress's sledge, and the scene, with its various coloured lights reflected from the ice, its crowds of well dressed skaters, and somewhat bizarre accompaniments, seems to have made a strong impression on the Parisians, who attach, perhaps, an undue value to the personal confidence shown in them by the Emperor. The American crisis is but little felt in France.
A pamphlet on the Turkish loan has been published in Paris by M. de Teihatchef, a Russian of some distinction in science. He asserts that the guarantee given to M. Mires by the "map of gigantic ruins which people are pleased to call the Ottoman Empire," is an absurdity and an illusion, that the promises made neither will be, nor can be kept, for the regeneration of Turkey is impossible without a fusion of nationali- ties, which the Mussulmans would justly regard as their death warrant. The whole of the loan will be exhausted merely in the payment of the arrears of the army, while to create and pay a new one will require an additional annual outlay of 1,500,0001. The pamphlet was ready imme- diately after M. Mires' proposals for the loan ; but no newspaper dared notice it, and no publisher issue it till after the 5th of January, on which day the loan closed. The Noniteur affirms that the publication of books and pamphlets is free, and that, consequently, the Imperial Government cannot be held responsible for the brochures so liberally ascribed to it. The official cha- racter of the recent pamphlet on Napoleon and the Papacy is specially denied. M. Emile 011ivier, representative of the Republican party in the Corps Legislatif, has been officially refused permission to establish a newspaper. It was supposed that, after M. de Persigny'a recent circular, any Frenchman might, under the condition of loyalty to the constitution therein laid down, establish any journal. The refusal is considered a proof that the Imperial Government is not yet prepared to face even a partially free press. It is stated that a project for supplying the entire army with six- barrelled revolvers is under consideration. The infantry will carry the new weapon hung by an iron hook from the belt, the cavalry in a holster. A detachment of the 5th Hussars, thus armed, killed in a skirmish near Jhansee more than their own number. The weapon, however, will be a costly addition to the soldiers equipments. A private letter from Toulon, of 21st instant, reports immense activity in the French arsenals. At Toulon, shipbuilding is going on rapidly, and an increase has been sanctioned of 1 admiral, 4 vice-admirals, 16 rear-admirals, 30 captains of line-of-battle ships, and 20 captains of frigates. All the troops of the new levy are being carefully drilled, and the instruction is to cease by the 1st of March. The camp at Chalons is to be formed in the spring under Marshal M'Mahon, and include 60,000 men.
The Senate assembled on the 22d instant, and the senatus-consultum, authorizing the publication of full debates, was referred to a Committee. Two new Senators—Vice-Admiral Itigault de Genouilly, recently in command in Cochin China, and Count de Lesseps—were introduced.
Official trade returns for December, 1860, just published, show a fall- ing off in some branches of trade ; the export, as compared with De- cember, 1859, markedly in wine, brandy, spirits, articles of luxury, china, glass, and silks. The total tonnage also has fallen off no less than 973,119 tons. The export of machinery has improved, the increase being chiefly to Germany, Spain, Sardinia, and Switzerland. There has been a marked improvement also in the export of plain cottons and prints.
�BIkr1(.—The whole of the Druses arraigned before the tribunal at Beyrout have been sentenced to death. All the Turks tried at the same time, for the same offence, have been condemned to exile. Fuad Pasha, instigated by General d'Hautpoul, had sanctioned the levy of a fine of 1200 piastres on every adult male Druso in the Lebanon. He also sanc- tioned fines on the population of Damascus, amounting to 35 millions of piastres; or three years rental of the city. In the first instance, the energetic remonstrance of Lord Dufferin caused the remission of the fine. In the second, the English Commissioner prevailed on the Pasha to refer the question to Constantinople.
an i if tf t aiP5.—The latest American news is to the 11th of Janu- ary, and is on the whole decidedly unfavourable to the maintenance of the Union. The correspondence between the President and the Carolina Commissioners has been published. On the 29th of December, the Com- missioners called on the President to order Major Anderson back to Fort Moultrie and evacuate Charleston harbour. Major Anderson, it will be remembered, had evacuated Fort Moultrie, spiked his guns, and moved his troops to Fort Sumpter—a much stronger position, commanding Charleston harbour. The President, on the 30th of December, replied in a determined letter, declaring that he had never promised not to resist attack, but distinctly ordered Major Anderson to resist to the last ex- tremity, though he did pledge himself not to reinforce forts in Carolina. As to withdrawing the troops, such a thought never entered his mind, and he would not do it. On the 1st of January, the Commissioners reply by a searching diatribe on the President's vacillation, and, ns they think, violation of his word. They announce their intention to quit Washing- ton on the following day. They also telegraphed to the South to fire on the United States frigate Brooklyn, should that vessel be sent to Charles- ton to collect the State revenue in the harbour. Mr. Buchanan has fur- thermore authorized the despatch of 250 " artillerists" and supplies of provisions to Fort Sumpter. They were shipped on the Star of the West, and the Carolinians fired upon the vessel, as described below. On the 9th of January, the President, in a regular Message, remitted the whole question to Congress, as " the only human tribunal possessing, under Providence, the power to meet the emergency." The tbllowing are the most important sentences in the Message, which is throughout weak and badly written-
" The proposition to compromise by letting the North have exclusive con- trol of the territory above a certain line, and to give Southern institutions protection below that line, ought to receive universal approbation. In it- self, indeed, it may not be entirely satisfactory, but when the alternative is between reasonable concession on both sides and destruction of the Union, it it is an imputation on the patriotism of Congress to assert that its members will hesitate fora moment. Even now the danger is upon us. In several States which have not yet seceded, the forts, arsenals, and magazines of the United States have been seized. This is by far the most serious step which has been taken since the commencement of the troubles. This public pro- perty has long been left without garrisons and troops for its protection, be- cause no person doubted its security under the flag of the country in any State of the Union. Besides, our small army has scarcely been sufficient to guard our remote frontiers agOist Indian incursions. The seizure of this property, from all appearances,'has been purely aggressive, and not in resist• ance to any attempt to coerce a State or States to remain in the Union. At the beginning of these unhappy troubles, I determined that no act of mine i should increase the excitement in either section of the country. If the poli- tical conflict were to end in civil war, it was my determined purpose not to commence it, nor to furnish an excuse for it by any act of the Government. My opinion remains unchanged, that justice as well as sound policy requires us still to seek a peaceful solution of the questions at issue between the North and the South.
"It is said that serious apprehensions are to some extent entertained, in which I do not share, that the peace of this district may be disturbed before the 4th of March next. In any event, it will be my duty to preserve it, and this duty shall be performed.
"In conclusion, it may be permitted to me to remark that I have often warned my countrymen of the dangers which now surround us. This may be the last time I shall refer to the subject officially. I feel that my duty has been faithfully, though it may be imperfectly, performed, and whatever the result may be I shall carry to my grave the consciousness that I at least
meant well for my country. " JAMES BUMA1AN. " Washington City, January 8."
Congress, meanwhile, is occupied with plans for compromise. The one most feasible is that suggested by Mr. Crittenden. It is contained in substance in the annexed proposal, submitted by the representatives of the Border States. Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, &c., from the North, have agreed upon propositions for an adjustment of pending diffi- cultic's, by amending the Constitution as follows- 1. Recommending a repeal of all the Personal Liberty bills.
2. That the Fugitive Slave law be amended for the preventing of kid- napping, and so as to provide for the equalization of the Commissioners' fee, &c. of the United States ; that in all North of that line slavery shall be prohi- bited, and that South of that line neither Congress nor the Territorial Legis- latures shall hereafter pass any law abolishing, prohibiting, or in any man- ner interfering with African slavery ; and that when any territory contain- ing a sufficient population for one member of Congress in any area of 60,000 square miles shall apply for admission as a State, it shall be admitted, with or without slavery, as its constitution may determine. The South rejects this compromise, unless slavery be made a condi- tion of admission into the Union South of the line. A " caucus," or non- official meeting of Republican representatives, was also "harmonious " against compromise.
On January 7th, Mr. Adrain, of New Jersey, proposed a resolution ap- proving Major Anderson's act in evacuating Fort Moultrie, and pro- mising to support all constitutional measures to enforce the laws and preserve the Union. The resolution was carried by 124 to 53, a ma- jority supposed to be decisive of the willingness of the House to pass a Coercion Bill.
Mr. Lincoln has authorized compromise on any ground which New York and Pennsylvania will accept, and has named Mr. W. H. Seward, of New York, a moderate on the Union question, as his Premier. Meanwhile, the movement spreads—North Carolina and Louisiana have seized and retained their federal forts. Alabama seceded on the 1 lth of January, carrying the secession ordinance by a vote of 61 to 37. Mississippi had preceded her on the 10th, and Florida on the same day passed the secession ordinance by 62 to 7. The legislature of Virginia waits for further information. Five states have thus openly seceded, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and Florida, and North Carolina and Lousiana are in open rebellion, having seized the Federal forts.
The first direct collision between the general Government and the South occurred in Charleston Harbour on the 9th of January. The Star of the West brought troops to reinforce Fort Sumpter, but as soon as theeignals were seen by those on guard there, Morris Island was astir with men at their posts before the orders could be given them to prepare for action. They remained in action suspense, but ready for what they believed was sure to come—a volley from Fort Sumpter. The Star of the West rounded the point, took the ship channel inside of the bar, and proceeded straightforward until opposite Morris Island, about three-quarters of a mile from the battery. A ball was then fired athwart the bows of the steamer. The Star of the West displayed the Stars and Stripes. As soon as the flag was unfurled, the fortification fired a suc- cession of heavy shots. The vessel continued on her course with in- creased speed ; but, two shots taking effect upon her, she concluded to retire. Fort Moultrie fired a few shots at her, but she was out of their range. The damage done to the Star of the West is trifling, as only two out of seventeen shots took effect upon her. Fort Sumpter made no demonstration except at the portholes, where guns were run out bearing on Morris Island. Lieutenant Hall, commanding the steamer, had an interview with Governor Pickens, and the steamer returned. Major Anderson at first threatened to stop any vessel entering the harbour, but ultimately agreed to await instructions. The South proposes to establish a Provisional Government for the States at Montgomery. It is stated, that it is no longer safe even for alaveholders in Carolina to oppose secession. New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Tennessee, Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, and the Eastern States generally, have expressed themselves favourable to the maintenance of the Union by force. Maryland, Virginia, Kentucky, are still doubtful. Only Pennsylvania has as yet voted forces for the purpose. With re- spect to foreign nations, the policy of the South is explained in the fol- lowing programme, which is too important to condense- " The cotton crop will be moved for account of whom it may concern,' and an accredited agent will proceed to Europe, bearing the needful au- thority to hypothecate the crop thus shipped. The commissioner will be intrusted also with the political negotiations growing out of this cotton movement for direct trade with Europe. The plan of execution is simply this—If the United States Government attempts to collect the revenue on foreign imports at the South, by placing revenue cutters off the different harbours, then the seceding States, not deeming it expedient to declare war, will pronounce for direct taxation, as their exclusive source of revenue, passing an ordinance to that effect. The foreign Ministers resident at Washington will then be informed that the ports of the cotton States are thrown open for the entrance of foreign merchandise free of duty, and that any duties imposed by the United States Government are levied contrary to law, and without authority from the Southern Confederacy. The revenue question will then be transferred from the South to Europe. It will be- come a question with France or England, whether or not it will defend the free-trade rights thus conferred on its manufacturers against the revenue duties of the Northern States. And in such an appeal to British or French cupidity, it is expected the national sympathy for free Negroism will yield to the national interest in favour of free trade. This plan, which I submit to your readers without comment, for moving the cotton crop through the already organized machinery of direct trade,' as well as the free trade counter movement against the Federal Government's revenue policy, was devised by Mr. C. G. Baylor, who has been intrusted with the delicate mission of putting the design in operation. The Southern commissioner to Europe is a man of distinction, and acts in harmony with Mr. Baylor's direct-trade programme."
3111xirn.—It is reported that Miramon has sustained a total defeat, and that Juarez, leader of the Constitutional party and a pure Indian, has been summoned to Mexico. He is already in possession of the coast.
Snaia.—Operation against Sikhim have been suspended until the arrival of reinforcements from the plains.
The Indian public are eagerly discussing a grant made by Sir Charles Wood to Gholam Mahommed, grandson of Tippoo Saib. It appears that a despatch has been received by the Government of India, ordering that a sum amounting to 430,0001. should be invested in order to grant to the Mysore family an increase of income. As the local Government had not been consulted, the order created great irritation ; and the Chief Justice, Sir Barnes Peacock, moved in the Legislative Council for the production of the despatch. Government refused ; but, on division, two of the paid nominees voted with the twojudges, and the motion was car- ried by a casting vote. It is not probable that the papers will be pro- duced, as Sir C. Wood is not responsible to the Legislative Council. A monster meeting of all classes, Native and European, had been called ; and, according to a telegram just received, had been assembled to protest against the grant. On Sir C. Wood's side, it is alleged that the Mysore Princes were entitled to large grants under the Mysore treaty, and that
the money is to be paid out of the Mysore fund. No such fund is shown to exist in the Mysore accounts, and the " treaty " has always been con- sidered a mere promise mado as an act of free grace. It is alleged that Sir C. Wood assigned as a reason for the grant that "he could not afford to let Rupapugla become a Delhi," and that Lord Canning has protested against the grant as insulting to his high office and injurious to the State. Both statements require confirmation. The indigo dispute proceeds. In the majority of factories, the pea- santry still refuse to cultivate ; but in others, they are begging for per- mission to sow. Such of the planters as are also zemindars are demand- ing all their arrears of rent, hitherto waived on condition of growing indigo. As the rent laws are summary in their action, this weapon may be employed most effectively.
tY I tl a.—The latest intelligence is a telegram of 30th November.
The first instalment of the indemnity had been paid. The 31st and 67th Rifles, Military Train, and two batteries, remain at Tien-twin; the rest of the Army, we presume, returning to England and India. Lord Elgin and Sir Hope Grant have gone to Japan, probably to demand the fulfilment of the commercial obligations of the treaty, steadily set at nought by the Japanese nobles. The troops were healthy, and the weather intensely cold.