Grenville's last fight in the ' Revenge ' is described
in a very unconventional fashion by Mr. G. Callender, the naval historian, in the July issue of History (Macmillan, Is. 6d. net). He holds that when Lord Thomas Howard was surprised off Flores on August 31st, 1591, by a large Spanish fleet, Grenville might well have retreated with the rest of the squadron, after embarking his sick. He decided to try to break through the Spanish fleet. over fifty strong, partly because he loved a fight, partly because, like Nelson at St. Vincent, he wanted to give the squadron time to deploy. The 'Revenge,' whose heavy guns were superior to any that the Spaniards possessed, engaged and defeated five, possibly seven, enemies. The rest drew near and sent boarding- parties in relays to attack Grenville ; to repel the boarders, his depleted crew had to leave their guns, and were thus exposed to the Spanish fire at short range. After fifteen hours' fighting, Grenville beat off the attack, but he was wounded and his ship was waterlogged. At this stage the captain and master decided to capitulate, and the Spaniards willingly gave them terms for the sake of their supply of gunpowder. Meanwhile Lord Thomas H3ward had pounded the Spaniards at long range. A gale sprang up, in which many of the battered galleons were wrecked. After the gale Lord Thomas Howard captured some of those which still floated. Grenville's self-sacrifice was not therefore simple daredevilry, but led to the crushing defeat of the new Armada.