27 JUNE 1896, Page 12

The Structure of Man. By Dr. R. Wiedersheim. Translated by

H. M. Bernard. Edited, with Notes, by G. B. Howes. (Macmillan and Co.)—The special object of this work will be indicated by the words, "An index to his past history." It is, in fact, a most interesting discussion of what may be generally called survivals in the human frame. The most obvious example is that of the papilla' in the male ; but there are many others with the existence of which only the student of anatomy is acquainted. We may quote from the " Concluding Remarks " the following :—" Man has gradually lost a great number of advantages once possessed by his ancestors, and the question arises whether he has acquired any others in exchange for them." [Among these losses are the hairy covering, the better position of the ear, the keener sense of smell.] "This is certainly the case, and this, indeed, must have been so, otherwise the species Homo would have failed in the struggle for existence. We have thus a series of exchanges, based (if we take only the most important organ into consideration) upon the unlimited capacity of development of the human brain. This one acquisition, supported by an increased functional efficiency of the hand, and by the development of articulate speech, has entirely compensated" for the more advantageous arrangements that have been lost. Professor Wiedersheim, by the way, gives the vegetarians a hard nut to crack. Among these " advantageous arrangements " was " a longer intestinal tube" better suited for vegetarian diet. Would it be legitimate to infer that if man went back to vegetables, he might recover his longer " tube," hairy covering, more developed ear and nose, but lose in brain-power and capability of the hand P