Nortign an Colonial.
Faesims.—The Russian purchase of 50,000,000 of French Five per Cents has occupied much public attention during the week. Opinions were by no means unanimous as to the motives. On the Bourse the trans- action has done its work: of course the speculators for the rise were satisfied to gain; but it seems that the intervention of new parties, said to have made enormous sums by the knowledge that the convention was con- templated, has excited the jealousy of all the veteran dealers and specu- lators.
On Monday, the Ministers received a very unexpected chock, in the election of M. Leon de Maleville as Vice-President of the Chamber of Depu- ties, in the room of M. Hebert. There were three candidates,—M. Duprat, supported by Ministers; M. de Maleville, a leading member of the Gauche; and M. de Belleyme, a high Conservative, and formerly one of the Vice-Pre- sidents. On the first ballot there were present 321 Deputies: the numbers were, for M. Dupmt, 122; M. Leon de Maleville, 101; M. de Belleyme, 43; other votes were given at random to Deputies who were not candi- dates. Neither had the "absolute majority," or clear majority of voters, and fresh ballot was therefore necessary. There were now 346 Deputies present: for M. Duprat, 166; M. de Maleville, 136; M. de Belleyme, 34; other votes being thrown away as before. A third ballot was ordered; and noW a different rule came in force—that the contest should lie between the two candidates having the greatest number of votes. Ministers sought to whip in truant Deputies, and the number present advanced to 356: for M. Dm- prat, 178; M. Leon de Maleville, 179; majority against Ministers, 1. The disappointed M. de Belleyme had given his own vote and those of 34 friends against the rival klinisterialist and for M. de Maleville!
After the election of a Vice-President, M. Duvergier de Hauranne brought forward his plan of electoral reform. His proposition is of a very moderate character, involving these points,—first, a slight diminution in the qualification of electors; second, an augmentation in the number of electors in colleges where they are under 400; third, the addition of voters by the admission of physicians, advocates, and other professional men; and, fourth, a more equitable division throughout the kingdom of the Deputies co be elected, which would have the effect of creating 79 new members. The discussion occupied the whole of Tuesday's sitting, and was not expected to close till Thursday. The Chamber was startled by an unforeseen incd., dent on Wednesday : M. Moulin was speaking with energy against the pa- position; suddenly he stopped, turned pale, and was caught in the arms of several Deputies who rushed forward to support him. He had, however, only fainted; and, after retiring for half an hour, he resumed his speech.
M. Hebert had been formally appointed as the new Minister of Judie' and Public Worship. M. Delangle has been named Attorney-General of the Royal Court Of Paris, in the place of M. Hebert.
In many parts of France the price of grain had &grin to deolins;
disorders more or less grave have occurred at Orleans, Montarges, Belle- garde, Revin, Vervius, Avesnes, Dax, and Joury-sous-Bois. There seems an under-current of political discontent.
At St. Malo, the British Consul, Mr. Thompson, got into trouble. A sack of flour of 50 kilogrammes, offered at first for sale at 32 francs, was bought by Mr. Thompson for 35 francs. A mob quickly congregated, and cried, " Down with the Englishman! down with the forestaller!" The gendarmes on duty immediately repaired to his assistance; but invited him to retire from the market, where the people were becoming rather riotous. It appears that Mr. Thompson does not understand French. He admitted his indiscretion, and the people were satisfied. The following placard was posted on the gate of the Town-hall of Saint Ay on the 18th instant- ' The day of vengeance is arrived ! We must have bread, pillage, or death. You have no want of rich men; kill them if they refuse to give you their money. Burn their houses, and murder their wives. You know the inhabitants who have sold their wine: you must go to their houses. Pillage the cellars of the others. Fear not the gendarmes; you shall be supported. Moreover, as a choice of deaths, it is better to die in killing than to die of hunger. Courage—forward--pillage, blood and death for ever!"
The " inauguration " of the Paris and Havre Railway took place on Saturday.
The Toulonnais of the 18th instant reports, that on the preceding day, the steam-corvette Cassini, having on board M. Waleski, Envoy of the French Government, set sail for La Plats.
The Courrier Francais announces that M. Gnizot is about to visit the baths of Hombourg. This journey is to coincide with the arrival of Prince Metternich at Johannisberg.
A fire broke out in the dockyard at Cherbourg on the 17th instant. None of the ships were injured; but the building in which the fire origi- nated was damaged to the extent of 75,000 or 80,000 francs.
SPAIN.—The Daily News of Monday published, and the Morning Post of Tuesday vouched for, the following statement respecting the Spanish Court— The account given by us, in common with our contemporaries, of the nature of that marriage into which the menaces and manoeuvres of the King of the French and his Ambassador flung the young Queen of Spain, has proved unfor- tunately correct. Every letter from Madrid, many of them published, tells the same tale, gives the same picture of the newly-married royal couple. Don Fran- cisco, the King Consort, after moping alone and unhappy all day, listening to the prophecies of an inspired nun, and believing himself favoured by the visitation of the Holy Ghost—displaying, in short, every symptom of bigoted idiotcy—creeps to bed at ten o'clock in the evening. Her Majesty Queen Isabella retires to slum- ber about the hour when her husband Don Francisco is rising. Her scrupulous care is, if possible, never to meet him; never to allow her regard to fall upon the odious personage to whom the moral King of the French sacrificed her—his Am- bassador assuring her, that if she did not marry Don Francisco she should never marry any one.
" We shall not follow the young Queen through her daily scampering and her midnight racket, which evince her royal eagerness to drown care in noise, domestic misery in bustle and in the semblance of pleasure. No serious blame can be at- tached to her conduct, except that it is not of that dignified and orderly kind which Spaniards require even in dissipation, and the want of which in that country monstrously diminishes the respect and loyalty which should hedge the throne. When any courtier, bolder than the rest, ventures to hint that incon- siderate behaviour in her Majesty bath the terrible effect of increasing the chances and partisans of the Conde de Montemolin, Isabella is said to reply, with a deep feeling of weariness and disgust, that her cousin is welcome to take a throne stuffed for her with thorns and shared by an idiot." The correspondent of the Morning Chronicle, writing from Madrid on the 16th instant, makes no allusion to the domestic affairs of the Palace, but gives a minute account of Queen Isabella's position in reference to her Ministers. Alluding to the series of Ministerial crises which have occurred within the last few weeks, the writer goes back to the transactions of the year 1843, when the Moderado leaders succeeded in crushing Senor Olo- zags, on a charge of extorting from the Queen a decree for the dissolution of the Cortes. The Queen, then only thirteen years of age, was made the instrument of the Moderado party: she is now said to be coerced by them with the view of crushing General Serrano. The favour in which this Progresista General stood at the Palace was viewed with great jealousy; and the Ministers determined on an effort to get him sent away from Ma- drid. To this end, on the night of the 12th instant, they presented to the Queen for signature a decree nominating Serrano Captain-General of Na- varre. She refused to sign it. Next morning, the Duke de Sotomayor sent for Serrano, and pressed the appointment upon him: but the General declined the honour; alleging his connexion with the Progresista party, and the consequent difference between his political opinions and those of Ministers. The Duke would not recognize these objections as valid; pro- fessing to see in Serrano only a General, whose duty was to obey orders. When the Ministers waited on the Queen, next day, her Majesty still re- fused to sign the decree; but intimated that if Serrano accepted the com- mand she would sign. Foiled in this, the Ministers tried another plan. They devised a commission to inspect troops in Navarre and the Basque Provinces; which was sent to Serrano on the Sunday, with a passport and peremptory orders to quit Madrid in the course of the day. But Serrano was not to be found.
On the same evening, the Queen sent for Sefior Pacheco, and consulted him as to the formation of a new Ministry; but, finding that the Cabinet had neither resigned nor been dismissed, Senor Pacheco declined to under- take the task until either of those events had taken place. The Ministers held a conference; and although they had threatened to resign, they deter- mined to remain in office until formal ejection,—which they could prevent by refusing to countersign the decree of dismissal. They determined to apply to the Senate for authority to bring General Serrano to trial for disobedience of orders. Serrano, meanwhile, had addressed a petition to the Senate, informing them of the circumstances; and expressing his doubt whether his charge as a Senator or duty as a military man ought to influence him, although he inclined to the former opinion. The petition was read at the meeting of the Senate, and, at the instigation of Ministers, was referred to the ordinary Committee on petitions, instead of being dealt with immediately and specially; a proceeding con- sidered to be unfair. An application was immediately afterwards made to the Senate by the Ministers for leave to prosecute Serrano. A special Committee was appointed on the spur of the moment, and the House ad- journed for half an hour to enable them to meet on the question. On re- assembling, the Committee reported in favour of the authorization; which was voted by 88 to I. Serrano's only advocate seems to have been Sefior Luzuriaga; who pleaded hard for delay, and a fair consideration of the question.
On the Monday evening, the Queen sent for the Minister of War to sips the decree dismissing his colleagues : but he staid away from the Palate, excusing himself on the score of illness.
The Espaiiol quotes letters from Algiers which mention that numbers of Carlist emigrants were preparing to enter Spain from the French terri- tory in Africa: many had been arrested. A Spanish lady resident at Al- giers had busied herself in enrolling men as they were discharged from a foreign corps in the French service.
Poartroar..—Portuguese affairs continue to be conducted with their characteristic imbecility. Up to the 15th instant, Oporto remained unin- vested by Saldanha; whose operations were limited to raising some volun- teer battalions. A junction had, however, been effected between a part of his forces under Vinhaes and Laps with Casal. Casal with his division had been dodging the forces of Almargem in order to pass from Minho to Tras-os-Montes: he was at length obliged to cross the Spanish boundary to effect his object. The conduct of the Spanish Government in allowing this violation of neutrality is much commented on.
Schwalback had appeared before the fortress of Evora; and summoned it to surrender in three hours, under pain of extermination. The garrison took no notice of the threat; and Schwalback retired without firing a ahot..
The forces of the insurgents, after a sally in the province of Minho, ha& again retired to Oporto.
Provisions had reached a very high price at Lisbon, and much distress prevailed. Bread was aid. per pound. The Diario do Governs states that, with a view to reduce the discount on Bank of Lisbon notes, the Govern- ment has issued 2,400 contos of new inscriptions of the National Debt; the. produce of which is to be applied to cancelling the notes.
The Junta had ordered the Branch Bank of Lisbon in Oporto to deliver up, before the 16th of the present month, all its bills of exchange, and to. negotiate at a discount of 50 per cent. The acceptors and indorsers of the bills are to be answerable for the full amount.
ITALY.—Advices from Rome, to the 18th instant, are untoward. First, they reported a misunderstanding between the Austrian Ambassador and the Papal Government. It was believed that the Envoy had gone so far as to demand his passports; which the Pope ordered to be placed at his disposal. It was added, that a recent conspiracy at Ancona had some- thing to do with the affair; and also that a formal demand had been made by the Roman Government, to the effect that the foreign garrison which now occupies Ferrara should be forthwith withdrawn, no necessity existing for its continuance.
The Envoy did not avail himself of the permission to have his passport, and the report of his stay was followed by an event that struck the friends.' of the Government with astonishment—the issue of an edict imposing a heavy stamp-tax on newspapers, and establishing what is described as "a rigid censorship under terms of apparent liberality." The act is exclusively imputed, by the correspondent of the Daily News, to Cardinal Gizzi, the Secretary of State; and it is said that the Pope was to the last kept in ignorance of it,—which appears to us to be unlikely. The promulgation of the edict was succeeded by an agitation which, though limited, looked formidable- " That the Secretary of State alone is to blame in this foul concession, is the opinion of all Rome. The Pope is supposed to have been kept in ignorance of the - intended blow: and hence the firm determination on the part of the public not to submit to this return of old tyranny. A public meeting of the proprietors,. editors, and printers of the sixteen journals published in this city, was held yes- terday, at the office of the Cotemporaneo; and it was unanimously resolved, that `not a single newspaper should be published in Rome until the revocation of the offensive edict.' The Marquis of Azelio attended, and spoke in indignant terms of the servile act of the Government; as did Monsieur Gazzola, with Professors Masi and Gigli, editors of the Cotemporaneo; Professor Generali, editor of the Saggiatore (essayist; Doctor Pompili, of the Farfalla; Pinto, of the Italics; Cerotti, of the Giunsinvdenza; and Professor Morelli, of the Roman Advertiser. An energetic address to the Pontiff was resolved on, and received thirty signatures of editorial representatives on the spot. Today an adjourned meeting takes place,. and is going on while I write: a crowd of upwards of three hundred printers, with their wives and children, are about to march up to the Quirinal Palace; and such an 'agitation' prevails as no one could have foreseen, in a country so newly initiated in the blessings of freedom. "I have confidence that our Sovereign will instantly revoke this blundering act of his Minister. The press of Europe is, after all, the main support of Pius and of his reforms. Of this I have reason to know that his Holiness is fully aware, and that no churchman has so keenly appretiated that mighty modern revolu- tion through which the pulpit itself has been so effectually superseded by the printing-machine. The only result of the edict of yesterday (which may, if not annulled, prove as disastrous as the Jesuit Lettellier's revocation of the edict of Nantes) would be the circulation of clandestine publications like the Sentinella. del Campidoglio, of which I spoke in a previous despatch, besides a host of irre- ligious broadsheets printed in Switzerland, and smuggled, during Gregory's sway, MI thousands among the people."
Monsignor Grasselini, the Governor of Rome, had given great satisfac- tion by a new reform; in future the police were to have regard to actions only, not to opinions. Ho had also inspected the prisons; released a few prisoners confined in the worst cells of the Palazzo Madame, and ordered a general improvement of that gaol. Very little is known of the alleged conspiracy at Ancona: it was of course directed against the Pope; and, according to the Aix-la-Chapelle Gazette, several monks were at the head of it. Some persons were arrested; and an extensive correspondence with conspirators at Rome had been detected. The clergy are said to be deeply implicated. The Pope has determined on creating an order of knighthood for reward- ing persons distinguished by virtue or merit, without regard to creed or nation. It will be divided into two classes; one of which is to confer on the menfoers hereditary nobility, and the other personal nobility. His Holiness has permitted the theatres to continue their performances during Lent, so as not to deprive the persons connected with them of their means of living during this time of scarcity.
AUSTRIA—The Augsburg Gazette of the 14th instant contains a remark- able announcement. For the first time the debates of the Austrian Diet are published; and for the first time also we learn that the citizens of Vienna are claiming to take part in the deliberations of the assembly. Until last year the privilege to which the burghers were admitted con- sisted solely of a permission to stand in the door-way to hear the Imperial ordinances read: they were next allowed to sit down: it is now proposed that they shall speak and vote. At the recent session, on a question of
taxation, Count Breuner raised the question as to the right of the Com- mons to take a deliberative part in the proceedings; proposing a declara- tion that it was the duty as well as the right of the Commons to have a share in legislative measures. Baron lEfft and several other members followed in support of Count Brenner's suggestion. The question is un- decided.
GERMANY.—By letters from Munich, dated the 11th instant, it appears that the King of Bavaria had been confined to his room by illness; but his indisposition was not of a serious character.
There was a talk of the promulgation of new regulations, framed in a liberal spirit, for the Bavarian press.
According to the Cologne Gazette of the 19th instant, the Austrian Ambassador to the Court of Bavaria left Munich on the 14th, with the whole personnel of the Embassy, leaving only a secretary behind. This sudden departure is said to be in connexion with the late events; and it was reported that the Ambassador departed without demanding a farewell audience of the King. Some disturbances, caused by the dearness of provisions, took place at Prague on the 14th instant. The mob broke into four bakers' shops, and plundered them. Troops were ordered to be in readiness in case of their services being required; and the wealthier inhabitants had taken measures for supplying bread to such as may be in want.
By a letter from Coblentz, of the 17th instant, we learn that the General commanding the forces in that district had just received intelligence from Berlin that the King had this year countermanded the grand manauvres of the corps, in consequence of the dearness of food and the general distress.
TnaKEv.—Accounts from Constantinople, to the 9th instant, mention that Count Stormer, the Austrian Internuncio, had received a despatch from Prince Metternich, sent by special courier, expressing the great dis- pleasure of the Austrian Cabinet at the peacemaking line taken by the Count in the existing difference between the Porte and the Greek Govern- ment. The prospect of a breach has already produced some effects; and the coasting trade carried on by the Greeks has suffered materially from the loss of confidence in the security of the ventures.
The Morning Herald, whose correspondent mentioned a secret conspi- racy, now says that letters announce the hushing up of the affair. It had been directed against the Grand Vizier. Punishment had been warded off, it was said, by lavish expenditure of money. A letter from Bucharest, of the 25th February, reports that the General Assembly of Wallachia had just adopted a law by which 14,000 families and 60,000 Gipsies, all serfs belonging to the State, were emancipated. The measure originated with Prince Bibesco, and was seconded by the Metropolitan Bishop, but opposed by the clergy. The Gipsies who are thus freed will pay a poll-tax of 33 piastres, (about 12 francs) which will be employed in the purchase of serfs belonging to private persons.
UNITED STATES.—By the arrival of two sailing-packets, advices have been received from New York to the 6th instant.
The sitting of Congress had been brought to a close. The Three Mil- lions Bill had passed; but without the insertion of " the Wilmot proviso " against slavery. Another bill was carried, after a severe contest, author- izing the appointment of additional officers in the army. A third bill had received legislative sanction, for building four war= steamers, to be used to carry mails between New York and Liverpool.
The House of Representatives had refused to sanction the levy of a duty on tea and coffee.
A bill authorizing the appropriation of 500,000 dollars for the relief of the starving poor in Ireland add Scotland, which passed the Senate, had been thrown over in the House of Representatives, by a vote of 102 to 53. It was argued that such a donation would be insulting to the British Government.
Colonel Benton was charged to proceed to Mexico to give effect to the Three Millions Bill, and to neentiate a peace.
Mr. Rush, of Pennsylvania, had been appointed Minister to the Court of dance.
The corn-markets generally were lower, and freights had receded.
Subscriptions for Ireland were going on vigorously: the New York sub- scription alone amounted to 55,000 dollars. The shipment of eleemosy- nary supplies of food had commenced.
From Mexico there is nothing positive in the way of news; but rumour attributed to Santa Anna the intention to make a vigorous attack on Gene- ral Taylor's army at Saltillo.
CAPE OF Goon Horx.—The accounts brought by the Plumstead from Algoa Bay are by no means satisfactory. They come down to the 12th January. The Kafirs continued their depredations, and had succeeded in more than one instance in getting clear off with their booty. In an attempt to recover stolen cattle, a party of the Graham's Town Hottentot levy, under Lieutenant Glisten; had been roughly handled, and one of the men was killed by a shot. Four or five thousand cattle were recaptured from the people of Cobus Congo and of his brother Pato; but the engagement with these people was severe. The troops in camp near the Kei had been put on half rations of biscuit; no store-waggons having arrived there.
INDIA.—The overland mail brings no news of importance. The dates from Bombay are to the 16th of February. The affairs of Lahore continued to be administered by Colonel Lawrence and his assistants with regularity. No troops were to be sent to the fron- tier station at Peshawur. Some of the mountaineers in the Hazareh dis- tricts had revolted, but had been defeated by the Sirdar Gholab Singh. The accounts from Afghanistan are contradictory. Akhbar Khan had returned to Cabul from Candahar, accompanied by one of its Sirdars. The visit of Host Mohammed's son is said to have been of a friendly and not a hostile kind; and the report that he had captured the city and made pri- soners of his uncles turns out to be untrue.
Sir Charles Napier had proceeded to Hyderabad. Previously to his de- parture from Kurrachee, he issued a general order on the breaking up of the Army of Scinde; detailing the results of his campaigns and occupation of the -territory since 1842-
" To the Army of Scinde," he says, "is due the tranquillity of this noble pro- vince. To the discipline and orderly conduct of all, and the support which the officers of this army have given to me by their jest and conciliating conduct towards the people, England is indebted for the tranquil possession of a country which the valour of the troops had conquered." Sir Charles contends that the operations have been rather profitable than otherwise. The ordinary and extra- ordinary expenses of the civil government of Scinde (including a police of 2,000 horse and foot) amounted to 15 lass 1754 rupees. The revenue for the same pe- riod was 41 Lacs 42,912 rupees; and the 25 lace surplus was applied to defraying the expenses of the occupation of Scinde prior to 1843. The conquest of Scinde has not cost the East India Company anything; for had the Ameers continued in power, not a soldier could have been withdrawn from the force which oecupied
the country in 1842. "Not a man has been added to army of occupation in consequence of the conquest Scinde was conquered e, troops which pre- viously occupied Sukkur." The former frontier had to defended by troupe;
the advancd frontier has therefore a right to the troops ' ly,-etattoied`on
the frontier extending from Bhooj to Balmeer. These pls11*(44 lengst4Olvkl
garrisons; and consequently, the conquest of Scinde has entitila necessity of additional troops. The increasing revenues are thrown into the Indian treasury. An immense increase of revenue has been derived by the Government of Bombay since the conquest of Scinde. Commerce is already actively commencing between Kurrachee and Sukkur. There is rfect harmony in the territory. The people have not been conquered, but fi from a degrading tyranny of sixty years du- ration, established by the Ameers over the country of their murdered sovereign. "Such, soldiers! have been the results of your labours and your dangers; and those regiments which return to their respective Presidencies return with the be- coming pride of men who have well performed their duty and gained the approba- tion of their Sovereign and their Governments—the greatest reward that well-dis- ciplined soldiers can receive. For myself, I remain at my proper post as Gover- nor of Scinde and the Commander of that division of the Bombay Army stationed on the new line of frontier. But it becomes your General, who best knows what you have done, and what you have suffered, to make known, on the breaking up of this army, the things which it has achieved for India, his admiration of its merits, and his gratitude for its assistance. The high military spirit which ani- mated the force that marched last year to Bhawulpoor was probably never sur- passed. No army was ever more worthy of India, nor more fully possessed the confidence of its commander."
The interior of India was generally tranquil. The Governor-General was expected at Meerut about the middle of February. He had issued di- rections for the discontinuance on Sundays of all public works through- out India.
Sir George Pollock was about to return to England, on account of ill health.
A sword, value 300 guineas, had been voted to Sir Henry Smith by the community of Calcutta, in token of admiration for his services in the late Sikh campaign. The General was to quit India for England immediately.
Binutan.—The King of Burmah has been assassinated by one of his Woongies, who has usurped the throne of Ave. The murdered Prince was made Regent on the deposition of King Tharawaddie, and succeeded him on his demise. The accounts of this transaction are very meagre.
BORNEO.—There are accounts from Singapore to the 6th of February. On the 19th January, the Queen's ship Iris arrived from Borneo, with the news that the island of Labuan had been formally taken possession of in the name of the British Government, on the 24th of December last. The British flag was hoisted on that day under salutes of cannon brought oa shore from the Iris and Wolf, in the presence of many Malays from various quarters. Captain Monday addressed a short speech to the chiefs present, to the effect that the British at Labuan would exert themselves to suppress piracy and maintain a good understanding with the Sultan.
Captain Gordon, of the Queen's ship Wolf, died at Labuan, of the jungle fever; and many persons belonging to that vessel and the Iris were suffering from sickness. On the 14th of January, Mr. Hum a German missionary, was busy preparing a house and chapel preparatory to com- mencing operations for converting the Dyaks.
The Amelia, a brig from Singapore, on an experimental trading voyage to Borneo, was at Labuan on the 28th December: the Natives, assembled to witness the taking possession, purchased largely. By their advice, the supercargo carried the residue of the stores to Bruni, the capital of Borneo; where they were selling at 100 per cent on the original cost.