27 SEPTEMBER 1845, Page 5


The Repeal party have long threatened a declaration by the Roman Catholic Bishops against the " Godless " Colleges Bill: it has appeared, and proves to be a mere reiteration of the protest on which the Bishops in synod agreed in May last. It runs as follows- " Lest our faithful flocks should be apprehensive of any change being wrought in our minds relative to the recent legislative measure of academic education, we, the undersigned Archbishops and Bishops, feel it a duty we owe to them and to ourselves, to reiterate our solemn conviction of its being dangerous to faith and morals, as declared in the resolutions unanimously adopted in May last by the

assembled Bishops of Ireland—

'f M. SLarrEay, Archbishop of Cashel. Joule, Archbishop of Tuam.

THOMAS Come, Bishop of Clonfert. PATRICK MNICHOLAS, Bishop of Achomy. t JAMES KEATING, Bishop of Ferns. t PATRICK M`GETTIGAN, Bishop of Raphoe. t CORNELIUS &sax, Bishop of Ardfort and Aghadoe. T EDMUND FFRENCHLBishop of Kilma:cduagh and Kilfenora. T WILLIAM HIGGINS, Bishop of Ardagh. t JOLLY CANTWELL, Bishop of Meath. t MICHAEL BLAKE, Bishop of Dromore. t WILLIAM KINSELLA, Bishop of Ossoiy. t GEORGE J. P. BROWNE, Bishop of Elphin. t BARTHOLOMEW Caorry, Bishop of Cloyne and Ross. + NICHOLAS FORAM, Bishop of Waterford and Lismore. t THOMAS Firearr, Bishop of ICillala. CHARLES APNALLY, Bishop of OlogheT. t LAWRENCE O'DONNELL, Bishop of Galway." On this document the Dublin Freeman remarks-

" This protest against the attempt of the Minister to force an obnoxious system of education upon this country bears at present the signatures of eighteen Pre- lams, viz. two Archbishops and sixteen Bishops; and it pronounces the opinion of the Irish Church as broadly and distinctly as becomes a mild but unswerving hierarchy when addressing a faithful and obedient people. Of the remaining por- tion of the Prelacy, the sentiments of one member are yet undeclared. Another Prelate is unhappily too feeble in health to take part in the discussion of public matters of any nature: and six Prelates, therefore only remain—two Archbishops

and four Bishops—whose sentiments can either therefore, or apparently have fallen from those entertained by their Lordships when they agreol to memorialize the Government against the bill then before the Legislature:" The following are the Prelates who have withheld their signature from the document— Dr. CROLLY, Archbishop of Armagh, and Primate of all Ireland.

Dr. MURRAY, Archbishop of Dublin, and Primate of Ireland. Dr. RYAN, Bishop of Limerick. Dr. MURPHY, Cork.

Dr. DENVIR, Down and Connor.

Dr. BROWNE, Kilmore.

Dr. KENNEDY, Killaloe.

Dr. HEALY, Kildare and Leighlin.

Dr. liPLouoinas, Derry.

The Wesleyan Methodists have just purchased a magnificent house in St. Stephen's Green, Dublin, to be appropriated to the use of a new college, for the education of persons intended to become preachers in their society.

Government have issued circulars to the Lords-Lieutenant of countiee directing them to prepare for an inspection of Militia- Several conjectural rumours are abroad respecting the object of the intended inspection. The Dublin Evening Mail hazards the following solution: but it should be pre- mised that the Orange Mail, now a bitter opponent of the Government, is an indifferent authority in such a matter-

" When the monster-meetings and other rebellious demonstrations struck terror even into the heroic heart of Field-Marshal the Duke of Wellington, two years ago, when his Grace, in the plenitude of his love for Protestants, (there is no love without fear,) fortified the barracks with brick and mortar redoubts, and awed armed traitors by the construction of tiny loop-holes—when stores of ammunition, and provisions, and muniments of war, were poured into this country for the defence of towns, and armed steam-vessels' were cruising off the coast for the reception of the poor Protestants whose lives were threatened—it occurred to the magnani- mous mind of the great Field-Marshal, that the reorganizing of the Militia of both countries would be the best and the most speedy means of establishing an army; and his intention was to send twenty thousand of English troops so raised to Ire- land,—taking our Militia, who were not to be trusted, like old clothes, in ex- change.' A new and soothing system of policy, which by an inverse calculation seemed to yield security to our leaders just in proportion as the real danger was increased, arrested the progress of the contemplated reconstruction of this force, and the intention was abandoned. Whether such apprehensions have been ge- nerated or whether new fears have been excited by the Orange demonstrations in the North, we cannot take upon ourselves to say; but we have reason to think that our surmise is correct, when we state that the present movement is a mere practical carrying out of the plan then conceived; and that it is intended really to make the Militia staff available for some other purpose than that of supplying and training cripples for county-hospitals and subjects for dissection-tables.

It is announced "on authority," that the Honourable William Browne is about to retire from the representation of Kerry. Two candidates are mentioned,—Mr. Denis S. Lalor, a Repealer, we believe; and Mr. Henry Arthur Herbert, of Muckross, a Liberal, who is understood be a recent convert to Repeal.

The funeral of Mr. Thomas Osborne Davis took place, in Dublin, on the 19th instant, and was attended by a great concourse. After some private carriages bearing the relatives of the deceased, followed the Lord Mayor's two state-coaches with his Lordship; several coaches with members of the Corporation; the members of the Eighty-two Club, on foot, in uniform, with the appointed crape round the left arm; several scientific, literary, and other societies, to many of which Mr. Davis belonged; and a long string of pedestrians of all classes. The procession occupied nearly three hours in performing its march from Mr. Davis's house in Baggot Street to the Mount Jerome cemetery.

The meeting of the Repeal Association, on Monday, was crowded with persons anxious to exhibit their regret for the loss of Mr. Thomas Davis: the platform benches were crowded with members of the Eighty-two Club in uniform, the galleries with ladies. Mr. O'Hea, the barrister, was called to the chair, and delivered an eloge on the departed patriot. Mr. John O'Connell read letters from his father and Mr. Smith O'Brien, on the same subject. Mr. O'Connell's letter was short, and its style may be gathered from the paragraphs which are its exordium and peroration- " My dear Ray—I do not know what to write. My mind is bewildered, and my heart is afflicted. The loss of my beloved friend—my noble-minded friend—is a source of the deepest sorrow to my mind. What a blow—what a cruel blow—to the cause of Irish nationality! • •

"I can write no more; my tears blind me; and—after all—' Fungar Loath muaere.

"Yours ever, DANIEL O'Coaisinma"

Mr. Smith O'Brien urged the erection of a monument. Several other members delivered addresses on their recant loss. Mr. John O'Con- nell observed, that in May, Mr. Davis renewed the pledge to his country to labour in her cause till death: he redeemed that pledge—he died for Ire- land; and Mr. John O'Connell, standing by his remains, had renewed it also.

In the midst of these funereal orations, Mr. Broderick made a speech in which he attacked the Government for not pursuing the Riband Societies with sufficient activity. He asserted that Government had been furnished with information as to the existence of the society by Mr. M. O'Connell, which had never been acted upon: so remiss were they, that he almost thought the Society was under the influence of Sir James Graham; for a man who would break a letter would do anything. Mr. John O'Connell made whet professed to be his final strictures on the letters of the Times Commissioner; whom he denouned, in terms more familiar than courteous, for advocating the landlord against the tenant, and for disparaging the Celt in comparison with the Saxon on the point of physical strength. The rent for the week was 2041.

The Derry Sentinel on Saturday makes some further report of the Orange movement-

" On Thursday last the 18th instant., pursuant to notice, a very numerous and influential meeting of District Masters, Masters of Lodges, and County Officers, was held at Ballymena,. to meet a deputation from the Grand Lodge of Ulster, for the purpose of thoroughly organizing this great county. The utmost unanimity pie- veiled, and but one note was heard at the meeting—namely, a determination to stand by the Orange Institution, as originally constituted, as their only safeguard in this their hoar of need, and to carry out to the fullest extent those principles which have ever proved the foundation of the British throne. The following re- solutions were unanimously adopted-

" 'Resolved—That the Grand Lodge of Ulster possesses the full confidence of this meeting. That said Grand Lodge be requested to extend its operations to other counties ; that the County Antrim be identified with its proceedings; and, In order to a mutual and satisfactory arrangement and amalgamation of sentiment and feeling, that a meeting of the County Officers and District Masters of the County Antrim and officers of the Grand Lodge of Ulster be convened at as early a date as possible, to effect and carry out the details of such union.

" ' That this meeting view with the greatest alarm the Intended Enniskillen confe- deraUon, as having a tendency to supersede the Orange Institution, as originally consti- tuted immediately after the battle of the Diamond ; but that, as a Protestant confe- deration, secondary to and assisting Orangemen, we gladly hail its establishment.'

"We understand the intended meeting of the Grand Lodge of Ulster, in this city, is fixed for the 30th of this month ; when arrangements will be entered on for securing the return of a stanch and uncompromising representative of the city of Derry."

Another Orange meeting was held at Belfast on Friday; of which the proceedings were kept secret. The Belfast Chronicle gives this shadowy report-

" On Friday last, a meeting of the nobility and gentry of the North of Ireland, dissenting from the policy of Sir R. Peel in respect of the dismissal of Mr. Wat- son, and desirous of forming a union of Protestants for the purpose of protecting their mutual interests, was held in this town. The meeting was merely prelim-

, and as all such should be, strictly private: we are therefore precluded from making public any account of the pro.--ngs. There were present, among many others, the Earl of Roden, the Earl of Enniskillen, Viscount O'Neill, the Marquis of Downshire, the Earl of Mountcashel, Colonel Verner, M.P., the Honourable So- merset Maxwell, M.P., J. R. Cleland, Esq., James Watson, Esq., &c. The meet- ing occupied a considerable length of time; and we have reason to believe that the result of their deliberations, when thoroughly matured, will be at once satisfactory and beneficial to the powerful party of which these gentlemen are the acknow- ledged and trusted leaders."

The Dublin correspondent of the Morning Chronicle says that the object of the meeting was to reconcile the conflicting sections of Orangemen, the Ulster Grand Lodge party and the Enniskillen party; and that for this purpose a general Anti-Ministerial association is proposed.

The Earl of Erne, one of the Irish landlords that most encourage their tenants, holds an agricultural meeting in the spring and autumn of each year on his vast estates in the county of Fermanagh. At these periodical reunions, premiums to a liberal amount are distributed to the tenants who have so far waived their prejudices as to abandon the system of farming followed by their forefathers, and have adopted the new and improved methods of agricnitnre. In fact, every inducement is held out to the small farmer to better his condition: yet, so averse are the bulk of the Irish peasantry to such changes, that, after ten years' drilling on the Erne estates, "not one-third" of the tenantry holding under twenty acres of land have redeemed their reiterated promises to avail themselves of the advantages literally thrust upon them by their landlord. These defaulters were lectured by Lord Erne at the meeting on Friday last; and the reproof was received with frequent cheers— "1 well recollect, ten years ago, that you all promised use you would adopt the improved system of agriculture: when I say 'all,' I mean the small farmers under twenty acres on my estate. Yes, I well recollect the day, for my heart beat with joy when I thought brighter days were in store for you. Now, I should like to know have you all adopted the system ?—have one-half of you adopted it, or even one-third? I say, I fear not: and may I ask you why you have not? I have often and often asked the question; but it would take up too much of the valuable time of this meeting if I were now to tell you the laughable and foolish excuses and answers I have received. But I know well the reason—it is simply this, the system is a troublesome one: it keeps you at home too much; it pre- vents you going so often to fairs, and going about kaileing ; and it would prevent you from going to your landlord and having the grievance to make that your land was worked out, and that there was no good in it. However, lain proud to see now standing before me twenty, ay, thirty men, who have taken my advice—men who have adopted the system, and can bear witness to the truth of what I stated to you ten years age—men who, I know, have grown rich by following the system, and I know will not deny it, nor will they give it up; and I can say that, to my knowledge, no one that ever tried the system has given it up. I see a man stand- ing before me who lives on the highest spot of land, I believe, on my estates in this county, who, if he can speak sufficient English to make himself understood, can also give testimony in my case: yes, he has partly tried the system, and I know he has sold more than 101. worth of potatoes last year which grew upon ground that never reared a vegetable before. I see another tenant whose farm I visited last week, and I am happy to tell him I was delighted with it. I then saw what ten years ago I pictured to myself I should see on visiting all your farms—a comfortable and clean farm-house, seven cows in the byre, a tank at the cow-house-door, and a dunghill, and ten tubs of butter made since June. I then visited his farm, where I found as fine a crop of turnips as I have ever seen; it would have done credit to any farmer in England or Scotland; and in 411 the other fields of his farm the crops were equally good: and I am glad to tell him he is to get the first premium for turnips in his district. Now, there is no reason why all my tenants should not have farms under the same system as Walsh, and twenty others I could name. Therefore, let me entreat of you at once to deter-. mine to adopt the system. Send for the agriculturist; follow strictly his orders ; give up the old system of scratching over your land; remain at home; and employ all the men, women, and children in your house; and I shall hope to see you healthy, wealthy, and wise.'" The Times Commissioner writes a letter from Sligo illustrating the pre- vailing wants in Ireland—of funds and of enterprise. There is more about the neglect of the internal water-communication, the neglect of the natural facilities afforded by the river Garogue, and the neglect of the natural water-power for machinery furnished by that river. Coals are im- ported into the town for want of carriage for coals which exist in mines within twenty miles. Iron also is imported— Some ten years ago, the iron-mines at Arigna, on the borders of Lough Allen, were extensively worked by an English company, under the superintendence of an English manager. Great numbers of people found employment at them. Every man who chose to labour could find work, and those who had horses and carts found plenty of employment for them. This gentleman was reputed to be a kindhearted, good man. His house, however, one night was surrounded by a gang of ruffians, whose object, it seems, was to plunder it of the money intended to pay the labourers; and he was shot dead on putting his head out of tbe window. Since then, the iron-works have been at a stand-still, and there is no employment to be got."

Here is a curious instance of tampering with an old custom, half-shod: ished half-retained-

" The country-people complain a good deal about the way in which the butter- sales are conducted. .A weighing master and inspector are appointed to weigh the batter and brand its quality, as let, 2d, 3d, &c.; and the butter was formerly sold according to the -brand of these officers. The brand is still retained, but, under an act of Parliament passed in 1830, the trade is thrown open, and it is optional on individuals to adokt the regulation of the market or not- Under this system, the weighing-master s brand is regularly altered, and inferior butter is sold as first quality butter. This, it is said, tends to injure the character of the market, and to promote the production of an inferior article. The brand of the officer has ceas.d to be of any value, and each cask has to be examined and tested by the purchaser. In this manner the farmers are often imposed upon: they cannot sell their butter by the market-price of the brand; the dealers test it with their augers, and bid what they choose for it less than the branded value. The farmers are generally dissatisfied with this price, and hawk their butter about from one dealer to another till it gets so bored into as to become deteriorated in value, and they are then compelled to sell it for less than its worth. It. would. seem advisable either to resort strictly to the old law, and make the officer's brand the test of the quality of the butter protected by penalties, or to do away with the brands altogether, as they are now merely deceptive."

Supine yielding to natural difficulties, which may be overcome by the easiest means- " On the coast of Sligo, near the bay, large districts of country, and some of the finest lands of the county, have been destroyed by the drifting of sea-sand. The sand blows with the North-west wind from Bathlye Point, and from Knocklain Hill, to the neighbourhood of Ballymnllary. Upwards of a thousand acres of arable land have in. this =miler been destroyed. Above a hundred acres of land have thus been destroyed by the sand from Knocklain Hill during the last two years. The cottages of the small farmers are often covered up with sand, and they are obliged to shovel it away to creep down to their doorways. They are frequently obliged to shovel the sand from the thatch of their houses, to prevent its weight breaking through the roof. Lord Palmerston is one of the owners of this distnet of country, and has done much to prevent this evil. He has planted about a thou- sand acres of bent—a coarse kind of tall grass—in a line with the sea-shore; and this has been found to have the effect of arresting the blowing of the sand. Fine grass then grows under the bent, and affords good pasture. Many of the land- lords, however, have not taken this necessary precaution; and the result is that the sand is gradually creeping over and destroying their lands: and it is of little use for one landlord to plant bent, unless he has a very large extent of country, if another will not."

Among the witnesses before the Land Commissioners, was Mr. Francis Barber, a small farmer near Sligo and a tenant of Sir Robert Gore Booth's, who has acquired considerable means entirely by his own industry, which was liberally and wisely fostered by his landlord. This farmer was asked, in respect to Sir Robert's improvements, "Do you perceive the tenantry much improved in their condition since ? " He answered, "Yes, I do; but I think that the people will fall away again if they are not kept to it: they have not a spirit of industry about them, they require a person to keep them as a spur to it." Mr. Barber's evidence, and the remarkable contrast which he affords to his own class induced the Times Commissioner to seek him out; and his history is sketched: it is extremely interesting-

" I found him precisely what I had anticipated—a clever, shrewd, active, re- spectable man. He detailed to me his history: as it forwards the object of my letter, and may give encouragement to farmers to follow his example, I shall re- late it just as he told it to me. His father occupied a farm of twenty-seven acres, under Sir Robert Gore Booth, for which he paid 401. rent. His father died before he was fourteen years of age; leaving his mother and ten children depending on the farm, and binimelf as a mere boy to manage it.. /Es father was 1831. in debt and hit whole stock was two cows, a heifer, and two horses; two-thirds of the farm were in wretched condition, growing little beyond thistles and weeds. The first year he expended 21. 15s. in draining a field; the following year he expended 41. on another field. Finding the benefit he derived from these improvements, the third year he spent 101. in draining. The following year he was about to carry out more extensive improvements in draining and trenching; but the people of the country and his neighbours went to his mother and advised her to prevent hira laying out more money on the farm, as they said he would destroy the family.' His mother, in consequence, took the charge of the farm out of his hands. He begged for half an acre of rough land to manage for himself, and pursued the same plan on this half-acre; the produce of which he sold the following year for a profit of 41. Effir mother then let him have another acre of waste land, unfit for anything else. On this he expended 10/. in draining and trenching. He had but his 41., and bor- rowed 51., and got credit for 11. worth of labour from a neighbour who helped him, thus making up the sum. His half-acre again left a profit of 41., and the crop on the acre of land sold for 71. He had thus cleared himself, and had got an acre and a half of good land. His mother, seeing that he succeeded, let bun have two more acres of waste land. On these two acres he kid out 161. in draining and trenching, borrowing part of the money, and the neighbours helped him; and he sold the whole produce of his three acres and a half for 151. profit the following year, over and above the cost of bringing in the two acres. Ma mother then, finding that he had gained so much by the improvements, gava him back the charge of the farm. He then continued improving to a greater extent, according to his ability; and he found the farm paid him for all his expenditure as he went on. The agent, taking notice of his improvements and perseverance, said he was eutitkd to have a larger farm, and added fifty acres to the extent of his farm. He continued improving the remainder of the farm; and having laid outs large sum of money upon it, his landlord gave him a lease at a reduced rent of 4s. 6d. an acre. He continued this course, and his landlord became so pleased with him that he extended his farm to one hundred and sixty acres. The whole of this land he has improved, and has laid out upon it no less a sum than 1,3001., every shilling of which was created by his own industry. He has paid off his father's debt; supported his mother and her family; and, according to the custom of the country here, has given portions befitting their station, as farmer's daughters, to six of his sisters. As first one and then another of his sisters married off, he was often left without a shilling, in order to pay them their portions. From having a small farm at will, much of it swamp and feeding snipe and wild-duck, he has now got a large well-cultivated farm on lease, which will amply repay him all his outlay, and is a substantial farmer. The same spirit of energy has induced this farmer to contract for making the sewers through the town. In making these sewers, he has unexpectedly come upon an extensive foundation of solid rock, through which it is necessary to blast. Instead of throwing up his contract as a losing concern, he is persevering through it to the admiration of everybody; and there can be no doubt that the gentlemen of the county and the Grand Jary will not permit him to lose by it. It is also proper to add, that he was fortunate in having a good landlord. Had he been badly treated, and had his rent been raised in proportion to his exertions' the re- sult would have been disheartening to himself, and the example of his treatment would have had a most injurious tendency, instead of being beneficial to the neigh- bourhood.

"It may be said that this example of energy subverts my own theory as to the general want of it. The build a,ud appearance of Mr. Barber induced me to ask him the question, and he informed me that he is of English descent, as his name also would indicate. It would, however, be very unjust to conclude that there are no examples of energy and enterprise here. I wish only to show the fact that these qualities are not common, and that the want of them accounts for mach of the poverty and misery that prevail." The Commissioner much recommends agricultural schools, with Govern- ment premiums to competent parties, to encourage and urge on the pea- santry to habits of cleanliness and persevering industry.

Some of the O'Connell journals have circulated a report that the Repeal War- dens of Belfast have detected a Riband conspiracy in that town: but much doubt is thrown on the tale; especially as the Repeal Wardens, instead of bringing the culprits before the proper authorities, have kept the inquiry in tJasir own bands.

Long lists of agrarian outrages are published. These two, which occurred in Westmeath county, are specimens. A. man residing near Boyle was visited by a

party of fourteen men, who made him swear to give up his land. In the same neighbourhood, seven fellows assailed the house of one Maguire, and made him swear to discharge his servant-boy, and take back another whom he had dis- charged some time before.

Sexton' the man accused of murder in Clare county, has been arrested. It is add that he is charged with the crime "upon the voluntary information of a man

who was witness to the deed, and who has declared his conscience would not per- mit him to withhold the fact." No reward had been offered for the apprehension of the murderer.

One Boulger has been committed to prison by the Magistrates of one of the Dublin Police-offices, for refusing to give evidence against four of his fellow workmen, in the employ of Mr. Grey, an axletree-maker, who threatened him with violence for not joining them in combination for a rise of wages.

Upwards of twenty children were left in a dying state near Caherciveen, last week, by a quack impostor, who inoculated them with the smallpox virus. The unhappy ,parents have been in search of a Magistrate to punish the offender.— Freeman s Journal.

A pleasure-boat belonging to Major Snow was capsized in a squall, on Satur- day, while sailing across Lough Swilly ; and the crew, four in number, all perished. They seem to have been entangled in the rigging, and were carried down with the boat; no trace of which could be perceived by those who hastened to the spot to give assistance.