fortign nut' Culnuint.
Intim—The arrangements for a conference on the neutrality of Northern Savoy are in progress. It is, indeed, stated that the Great Powers have fixed on Paris as the rendezvous, and that a definite plan to work upon is all that has to be completed. The Court of the Tuile- ries has, it is said, framed one, which is now submitted fbr the acceptance of the other interested parties. France thinks the object of the con- ference should be limited to a simple examination of Art. 92 of the final act of Vienna, which contains the stipulations relative to the neutralized districts of Chablais and Faucigny. To render the task of the conference still easier, France adds that for her part she is quite ready to assume the same obligations which Art. 92 imposed on Piedmont in favour of the neutrality of Switzerland. Should the contracting powers of the final act of 'Vienna be of opinion that those obligations require modifi- cation—as, in consetjuence of the incorporation of Savoy with the French empire, the strategic conditions of Switzerland undergo a change— France will accept every new combination which would not in any way involve either an alteration of the rights acquired by the treaty of the 24th of March, or any dismemberment whatever of Savoy.
As regards the Powers who will be represented, France raises no objection to the admission of Switzerland with the eight Powers who signed the final act of Vienna, on condition that Piedmont should be admitted upon an equal footing. The Conference would therefore be composed of the ten following Powers:—Austria, Spain, France, Groat Britain, Portugal, Prussia, Russia, Sardinia, Sweden, and Switzerland, who will be represented by their Ambassadors and ordinary Minister Plenipotentiaries accredited to the Court of tho Tuileries. The voting in Savoy took place on the 22nd of April. Some parties did their beat to make the people abstain, but the officials published letters calling upon the people to vote, and demanding an immense majority for annexation to France; the clergy took the same course, and the result is an overwhelming majority. The numbers are said to be for annexation 45,340, against 210. The Savoyard soldiers at Turin also voted for annexation.
The Emperor has decided on two (military expeditions, which are to set out, the one from Algeria, and the other from Senegal, to proceed to Timbuctoo, where they are to unite. A large sum has been placed to the credit of the Minister of War to defray the expenses of these expedi- tions. General do Martimprey, Governor-General of Algeria, and M. Levert, Prefect of Algiers, will accompany the first expedition to the ex- treme French frontier. The first column is to be composed of several Arab Gowns, together with detachments of French infantry and cavalry. General de Martimprey and M. Levert will take this opportunity of visiting the towns of Laghouat and Tuggurt. The second expedition will set out from the French establishment in Senegal.—Times Paris Correspondent.
A sudden outbreak of Arabs has occurred in Algeria. A fanatical chief, calling himself the Lord of Force, appeared as a deliverer, and rapidly gathered a small army in the district of Batna, province of Con- stantine. Troops were instantly sent against him by General Desvaux. The first that arrived attacked his camp, pitched on both banks of a stream. The French did not wait to form, lest their native soldiery should go over to the enemy. The French were victorious, but they lost 28 killed, including three officers, and 56 wounded.
S t 814.—The progress of Victor Emmanuel through his new dominio has been one continuous triumph, On entering the harbour of Leghorns he was saluted by the British war steamer, Racoon ; and met by the in- habitants of that spirited town, on landing. At Florence, all the town kept high festival, and literally filled the streets. The King was every- where—at the opera, the lesser theatres, the races, balls. He received the mayors of all the Tuscan municipalities. A deputation from Rome gave him a sword of honour. Much stress has been laid on a short speech to the Tuscan mayors, "which he ended by an oath, his hand on the hilt of the sword sent him from Rome—Viva Dio ! andremo al fondo !—We'll go it ! thoroughly." The King has visited Pisa, Leg- horn, Lucca, Sienna, and Arezzo. The next to come are the towns of the Emilia, impatient to welcome their lord and deliverer. The daily papers have contained long descriptive reports of the gay doings, the crowds, the illuminations, the enthusiasm. The progress hitherto has been splendid, and most successful. Count Cavour returned to Turin on Tuesday, and Farini took his place beside the King. The Pope has commissioned the Cardinals Villecourt, Wiseman and Reisach to receive voluntary contributions. It will be observed that they represent the French, German, and English Roman Catholic ele- ments. The total yet received is only 60,0001. General Lamoriciere having taken such measures as seemed to him needful for the reorganization of the Papal army, has gone towards the scene of action—Ancona, there to abide for a time. On the other side, Cialdini has inspected the outposts of the national Italian army looking towards the Papal frontier. The intelligence received touching the revolt in Sicily is still perplexed and contradictory. We were told that all was at an end. Yet it is ad- mitted that General Salzano finds work for 30,000 troops, and demands reinforcements. The insurgents are said to be fighting in guerilla bands. The correspondent of the Horning Post at Naples, writing on the 18th of April, gives the substance of information "received from the camp of the insurgents." He says :— " From this source I learn the whole island is in revolt up to Agrigen- tura. It is the policy of the *eople to draw the troops if they can from Palermo, Messma, and Catania into the country. Not less than 200,000 Sicilians are armed, and the movement is directed by a com- mittee, which communicates from a central part with 'every town of the island. A great many of the nobles are mixed up with the movement, and also a large number of monks, who are mostly the younger sons of noble families. Your readers should understand that in Sicily it is a common practice for the younger sons of nobles to embrace the monastic life. These gentlemen have always taken an active part, strange as it may appear, in all the late revolutionary events of Sicily. I come to the conclusion that the Neapolitan troops have work cut out for them enough to last the whole summer. I have read in one letter of sad cruelties committed on the part of the Sicilians as well as the Royal troops. No quarter is given when they meet each other, and often they cut off each other's hands and ears. The Neapolitan soldiers have always been educated to look upon the Sicilians as their most deadly enemies on the face of the earth, and the Sicilians would rather kill a Neapolitan than an Austrian." From Naples comes a report that "a flying column of troops which had left Palermo was obliged to fall back upon the town of Termini, having met with insurgents in strong positions." Some thirteen per- sons have been shot at Palermo. A number of Sicilian nobles have been seized, and it is a question whether they have not been executed. Garibaldi has accepted an offer, from the Brescians of the citizenship of their city. In his reply to their offer, he warmly applauds them for having risen against the Austrians, without counting the number of their foes, at the time "the Italian army fought at Novara." iseries of curious letters which have passed between the King of Sar- dinia and the Pope, and between Count Cavour and Cardinal Antonelli, has been published.
The first is from the King to the Pope. It is dated February 10, and is in answer to a communication from the Pope in December, engaging Victor Emmanuel to defend the rights of the Holy See in Congress. The King describes himself as " a devoted son of the Church, the de- scendant of a most pious race," and therefore a good Catholic. But he has duties to his people and to Italy, and he invites the Pope to examine " facts" ! Then he describes, in moderate terms, the history of the struggle of Italy to free herself from foreign dominion, and reminds the Pope that Julius II. undertook a similar enterprise ; that Charles Albert, " obeying the impulse given from the Vatican," followed in that path, and, when dying, bequeathed the " sacred enterprise" to his son. He shows how the people of the Legations rose when the soldiery of Austria retreated and offered him a dictatorship, which, " having done nothing to provoke the insurrection," he refused. When the war was over, he removed " an audacious general" [Garibaldi], who might have endan- gered the fate of Umbria and the 'Marches. Telling the Pope that the Legations could not be recovered without the use of arms, he proceeds to
set forth the " idea," that the Pope should not only give up the Lega- tions but Umbria and the Marches, and thus secure the " glorious post of head of the Italian nation."
The Pope's reply to this letter is brief, and so characteristic that we quote it entire :- The Pope to Victor Emmanuel. "Sire—The idea which your Majesty has thought of expounding to me is an imprudent idea, and assuredly unworthy of a Catholic King and of a King of the House of Savoy. My reply is already on the point of appear- ing printed in the encyclical letter to the Catholic bishops, where you may read it.
" However, I am much afflicted, not for myself, but for the unhappy state of the soul of your Majesty, for you are already under the lash of the censures and of those that have still to follow, when the sacrilegeous act which you and yours have in contemplation shall be consummated. " I pray to the Lord from my innermost heart that He may enlighten you, and give you the grace of seeing and bewailing the scandals that have taken place, and the fearful evils that have befallen Italy with your co- operation. " The Vatican, February 14. • Pius IX." Victor Emmanuel rejoins with admirable arguments, strong in them- selves and modestly put, professing submission to the Pope in things spiritual, but not in things temporal, but repeating the real history of the transaction, so familiar to our readers, and urging his proposal again upon the Pope. The answer was longer, but it contemptuously de- clined to discuss the King's explanation of his conduct. The Pope might contest this and that, but what especially imposed on him the duty of not adhering to the King's idea, was the increasing immorality of the Legations. if he were not bound by solemn oaths to maintain in tact the territory of the church, he would not sully his conscience by ad- hering to the King's idea, he would not cooperate in a robbery ! On the contrary, he protests against the usurpation accomplished, and calls on the King to repent.
Count Cavour then tried what he could do with Cardinal Antonelli, and made a formal diplomatic proposal for opening negotiations ; but he fared no better than the King. He could not open negotiations on the basis of the spoliation of the States of the Holy See.
Stuitierlaub.—The French having sent troops and materiel to the fort of Rousse overlooking the Pays de Gex ; the Swiss Government has called out the fifth division, and its staff. There is less agitation in Switzerland, but a strong feeling still prevails on the subject of the French annexation.
istAtria.—The dismissal and death of Baron von Bruck, Finance Minister of Austria, has made a great sensation. The telegrams from Vienna at first gave a false account of the facts. We heard that Baron von Bruck was "out of office." The date of this despatch was Monday morning. Next came the intelligence that Baron von Bruck had been suddenly taken ill, and " compelled to undergo the operation of bleed- ing." This was the report at noon on Monday. His health, we were told, had " improved; " his malady was congestion of the brain." " Monday afternoon" brought the startling news that the Minister of Finance had expired at ten minutes past five that day. Nearly the whole of this story, told with such circumstantial detail, was pure romance. Von Bruck, indeed, was "out of office." His malady was not conges- tion of the brain, but utter failure in an adventurous and enterprising career. He had been bled, indeed, but the surgeon who used that sharp remedy for mortal ills was the Baron von Bruck himself. He had tried to cut his throat, and to make sure had opened the veins of his wrists ! The Wiener Zeitung of yesterday. published the following statement :—
" In the evening of the 20th instant, Baron Von Bruck was heard as a witness in the process relative to the frauds of the late General Eynatten- His examination gave rise to further inquiries, which would probably have led to his confrontation with other witnesses and accused parties. Under those circumstances the Emperor issued an autograph letter on the 22d in- stant, in which his Majesty said I temporarily remove you from office, according to your request, and provisionally transfer the charge of the Min- istry of Finance to the Councillor of State, von Plener.' This autograph letter was remitted to Baron Von Bruck on the evening of the 22d instant, and on the morning of the 23d the Baron was found in bed, bleeding." Then followed the reports we have mentioned, and the disclosure of the facts after an official examination.
The office of Finance Minister has been definitively conferred upon von Plener.
The Wiener Zeitung of the 20th contained the following documents, the substance of which has already been reported by telegraph :- The Emperor to the Archduke Albert. " Dear Cousin Archduke Albrecht,—In accordance with your request, my well-beloved, I think fit provisionally to remove you from the posts, which you have filled with extreme devotion and approved circumspection, of Governor-General and Commanding-General in mv kingdom of Hun- gary, and also from the command of the third army. -I express to you my grateful acknowledgment of your services, and for the present and pro- visionally I entrust to the Fefdzeugmeister Louis Chevalier von Benedek, my Quartermaster-General and the Chief of the General Staff, the direction of the political administration of Hungary and of the troops stationed in that kingdom. " Vienna, April 19. FRANCIS JOSEPH." The Emperor to General Benedek.
"Dear Feldzeugmeister Chevalier von Benedek,—Having, at his re- quest, provisionally removed his Imperial Highness the Archduke Albrecht, General of Cavalry, from his posts of Governor-General and Commanding- General in my kingdom of Hungary, and also from the command of the third army, I entrust to you for the present the direction of the political administration of Hungary and of the troops stationed in that kingdom, and I find it good to ordain that the now existing Stadtholderate divisions shall form but one Stadtholderate, which shall have its sea in Buda, and be immediately subject to you. "For the time being, superior political employes, with the necessary as- sistants, are to be left in Caschau, Presburg, Oedenburg and Grosswardein, in order that they, without forming an intermediate Instant (court), may assist in directing and watching over the working of the new organization, and more particularly of that part of it which relates to the administration of the counties and of the communes.
"As soon as the new organization of the Stadtholderate has been com- pleted, 'County Administrations,' for the management of political matters, will be established on the principle of the former County Assemblies and Committees, but with combinations and spheres of action which are in ac- cordance with the present state of things.
"In accordance with these dispositions, I ordain that when the municipal laws and county administrations are in activity, propositions respecting a Diet shall be pre red, in order that the principle of self-government, by means of town, district, or county communes, and of diets and committees of the same—which principle is to be introduced into all the provinces of the empire—may also be in Amain my kingdom of Hungary.
"The more precise instructions in respect to the carrying out of, the above-mentioned measures will be given you by the Ministers to whose de- partment such matters belong. FRANCIS JOSEPH." " Vienna, April 19, 1860."
t1155i1.—The Chamber of Deputies at Berlin has been called upon by M. de Vincke to approve the conduct of the Government in the Fede- ral Diet at Frankfort in respect to the affairs of Hesse. Austria and the petty German States which follow her maintain that the Hessian consti- tution of 1831 was abolished by the act of the Diet in 1852, although the Diet has no legal right to abolish constitutions. Prussia has denied at Frankfort the competency of the Diet, and reserved liberty to take her own course in the natter. lit. Schleinitz, the Prussian Minister of Foreign Affairs, has declared in the Chamber that the Hessian question concerns every German State, and goes to the very root of the funda- mental law of the Confederationthat the Prussian Government, in de- nying the competency of the Diet,. knew the consequences of its act ; that it renounces the policy of the Carlsbad Congress, and will pursue a course'of policy such as the honour and power of the country demand. This was the conduct which M. Vincke asked the Chamber to approve.
M. Duncker, member for. Berlin, said that Metternich had made the Diet a mere police institution. Since 1848, he said, when the legal authority of the Diet was buried with the hatred and contempt of the whole German people and with the consent of the Princes, Austria had incessantly attempted to drag Prussia into complicity with her system of politics. It was now to be seen whether this attempt, which had suc- ceeded during the unhappy ten years of the Manteuffel Administration, would equally succeed under that of Prince Hohenzollern. To give way now would be to submit to a• defeat more shameful than that of Olmutz in 1850. This part of the honourable member's speech was much ap- plauded. He continued:—
"I shall perhaps be told that I am exposing the weakness and divisions of Germany at a moment when the common enemy is at the gate. (Great excitement.) Gentlemen, I do not lose sight of these dangers ; I know what those words mean—' L'empire c'est la pair.' Europe has been divided ; thereupon the mask is dropped, and the theory of natural frontiers has been substituted for 'ideas.' It is of no importance that this theory has been taken up in some cases, and repudiated in others. Every document which
comes from France is ;tamped with the same indifference to the rights of others, the same determination to take account of no interests but those of France. Have the European Powers found anywhere the strength necessary to resist this encroaching policy ? Are they taking care to safeguard the common law of Europe in Switzerland, and to defend the rights which were conferred on that State for the good of all ? It cannot be said that they are. Russia has her own internal difficulties, and is thinking how she can make good her designs in the East. Austria is meditating vengeance on the Italian parvenu, and perhaps, also, on the German parvenu. England, formerly so proud,—England, which in the. time of the great Prince of Orange could rally Europe around her—has almost made up her mind to sell her birthright for that mess of pottage, a treaty of commerce and naviga- tion. Is it not, then, time for the monarchy of Frederick the Great to take in hand the task which formerly devolved on England, and to render all other alliances superfluous by a close and intimate union with the German people ? (Loud applause.) This necessary union, so imperiously demanded by the dangers of the future, would be gravely compromised by signs of feebleness in dealing with the Hessian question, and thus the course pur- sued by the Government is one not only of honour but of prudence. To abandon it, and sacrifice the interests of Germany to a fallacious agreement with the Governments of Germany and Austria, would be to augment and not to avert the dangers which hang over us." (Loud cheers.) M. Dunker went on to say that he felt sure that the Government would persevere in the course on which it had entered, and that the Chambers of Germany would imitate the example of the Prussian Parliament. He hoped the motion of M. Vincke would be carried by an imposing majority. M. Reichensperger (Roman Catholic) exhorted the members to preserve unity in Germany. The eyes of the man who watches over the pulsa- tions of Europe were turned upon them, and he would act when he thought Germany was divided, If Prussia sowed disunion, she would reap a mournful harvest.
M. Mathis reviewed the history of the Hessian controversy. He said it was Prussia which Austria really sought to strike in Hesse. The debate was adjourned and again renewed. M. de Berg said that when the King of Prussia, in declining the Crown of Germany, said that his election by the National Assembly gave him a claim, Prussia as- sumed the duty and the obligation of defending the rights not only of the German Princes but also those of the German nation,—the duty of re- placing the National Assembly, of not allowing faith and hope •in Ger- man unity to be despaired of. (Loud applause.) Their only danger lay in want of boldness. M. de Puttkamma would like to see a diasolution of the Diet. M. de Vincke made a remarkable reply :—
"The Diet is dead by a law recognized by, all Governnients. Invited, purposely, by M. de Sehmerling, I was present in 1848 at the solemn sitting in which the Diet decreed its own fate. I moreo'v'er remember a note ad-
dressed on the 25th of August, 1850, by the actual Minister for Foreign Affairs to our Envoy at Vienna, and in which it is said that the Prussian Government has never doubted that the German Diet has legally and for ever ceased to exist. Well, gentlemen, that which is 'dead irretrievably cannot be supported. (Laughter.) Coming to the Hesse question,' M. de Vincke did not think the moment had arrived for Prussia to withdraw altogether from the Diet. She would be forced to do so'if the Diet went further--if it showed an intention to subject Hesse by force of arms. It
would suifice.for the present for Prussia to hold her ground. M. de Vineke then declaimed against any affiance with Austria. If, be said, during the
last war Prussiahad been allied to Austria, she would have made peace with France by guaranteeing to the Emperor Napoleon the left bank of the Rhine. We must not rely upon Austrui, who has learnt nothing and for- gotten nothing, and who is bankrupt. Should the Government attempt it, I shall oppose it. We are asked,' what do we, then, want ? We want, gentlemen, a very simple thing. We want the unity of Germany and of the German races under the hegemony of Prussia and to the exclusion of Austria ; that is what we want, neither more nor less.' (Loud applause.) The chief opponents of this unity are the smaller States, which are too
great to wish to be extinguished, and too little to be able to live. I should advise no coquetting with those States. The Government must look to the nation for sympathy, and it will obtain it by a frank and manly policy. Should the -Government adopt such a policy with all its consequences, we
would willingly grant the estimates for the increase of the army. But it is not by increasing the army alone, it is by obtaining the sympathies of the whole nation and of the militia, that the Government will be able to resist France. On euchapeth, we may do great things. Let the motto on our flag be 'Prussia's rights,' and victory will be our reward." (Loud cheers.) The House carried M. de Vincke's motion by 207 to 68. A letter from Berlin says that "the interest taken in the debate was very great. Long before the doors were opened, every approach was thronged by persons eager to get in. Prince Frederick William was present both days, and theLallery set apart for the diplomatic corps was quite full ; the English Ambassador was present. The result of the vote was received with loud cheer& As the vote implied a vote of con- fidence in the Government, the Ministers abstained from voting.
flit i IL—The Count of Montemolin and his brother Ferdinand have been really arrested. They were found at Amposta, near Tortosa. During the night of the 20th instant, the Gendarmerie surrounded a house where Count de Montemolin and his brother were supposed to be concealed. After having vainly demanded admittance, one of the gen- darmes entered the house through the window. The I'rinces were dressed, and declared themselves at the disposal of the gendarmes. It is supposed that they will be tried by the Senate, and not by a court-mar- tial. Senor Rafael and Senor Tristany have also been arrested.
geld 125.—Advioes from New York to the 11th have been received.
The Judiciary Committee of the House of Representatives, to whom was referred the recent message of the President, protesting against the action of the House in calling for an investigation into the acts of the administration, had made two reports. The majority report enters at considerable length into the question, and concludes by recommending the adoption of the following resolutions :- "Resolved,—That the House dissents from.the doctrines of the special message of the President of the United States of March 28,.1860. "That the extent of power contemplated in the adoption of the resolu- tions of inquiry of March 5, 1860, is necessary to the proper discharge of the constitutional duties devolved upon Congress. That judicial determi- nations, the opinions of former presidents, and uniform usage, sanction its exercise ; and that to abandon it would leave the executive department of the Government without supervision or responsibility, and would be likely to lead to a concentration of power in the hands of the President dangerous to the rights of a free people." The minority report sustains the position taken by the President This report is only signed by two members. The African slave trade was claiming some attention in Congress. In the Senate notice had been given of a bill for the more effectual suppres- sion of the trade ; and in the House of Representatives a resolution had been adopted calling on the President for information respecting the state of affairs on the African coast.
The Senate had instructed the Committee on Foreign Affairs to in- quire by what authority the United States' naval forces had captured the Mexican war steamer near Vera Cruz.
Two Members of the House, Mr. Pryor of Virginia and Mr. Potter of Wisconsin, had been nearly fighting a duel. The quarrel arose out of a scene of riot in the House when offensive words were spoken. Mr. Pot- ter interpolated a passage in the official report descriptive of the conduct of Mr. Pryor. A challenge from Pryor was the consequence. Potter accepted it, taking a Colonel Lander as his second. He proposed to fight with bowie knives in a room or in the open air. This was rejected by Pryor's second as inhuman and barbarous. Lander then offered to fight for Potter ; a proposal that could not be accepted.
CRP IIHil MIIIIt.—Advices from Cape Town, to the 24th
March, have been received. Parliamentovas to meet on the 27th April, the session having been delayed a fortnight in expectation of the arrival of Sir George Grey. A rumour was current that the government of Canada had been offered to him, and the colonists were afraid that he would abandon the Cape.