28 AUGUST 1830, Page 1



'NAT the recognition of the King of the French would be imme- diately made by the British Government, we mentioned last week on the authcrity- of the Times. General BAUDRAND, who arrived on Saturday, has had several conferences with our Ministers ; and on Wednesday he had the honour of being introduced to the King. It has been, we believe, a matter of discussion at our Court, whether the recognition should be made through the resident am- bassador, Lord STUART DE ROTHSAY, or a special envoy. Our opinion is, that the latter method will be adopted ; and we should not be much surprised were Lord STUART DE Rornsav to be re- called. The causes which may be supposed to justify such a step, It is unnecessary to enter on. The recognition of the title of Louis Pwima by the other powers will probably follow, if by our tardi- ness it do not precede his recognition by England. Prussia, it is un- derstood, will not scruple to acknowledge the King of the French as a brother ; and Austria, if we may trust to the rumours circulated by the French journals, will not remain long behind in this act of grace. One of those journals says, that when strong measures were lately advised by Prince METTERNICH, the Emperor gave a decided negative to the proposal: the report concludes with 44 MET':-7RNICH may go to the Devil." Whether there is a vacancy for a fl L.ign secreta s the establishment of that Monarch, we do ior what ehar.,,,tbv appaintmera the wtortny a.rd of Johannisberg may hate in case there be...Ths 414-alifteations, if we believe his enemies,. are ample. While we anticipate the perfect concurrence of the great powers in...the late changes in the French Government, and as oa matter of course the concurrence of the lesser powers, we are bound 6 add, that their cancurrence, though desirable, is by no means absolutely neces- sai-y. France has everything within herself-0t is requiredfor her defence if attacked, and for her enjoyment if letadone. It is their consciousness of this fact to which she will be indebted for recog- nition on the Continent, and perhaps in the Islands also. Success works wonders.

There is still in Paris, and less conspicuously in other places, a good deal of that restlessness which necessarily springs out of so mighty a change as has been recently effected, and a good deal of the suffering which arises from the shock that it has communicated to national credit, and from other conse- quences which in the peculiar condition of France a revolution so mighty could not fail to be accompanied by. In the first place, there can be no doubt that a large body of men, chiefly of the lower ranks, who have by unexampled efforts driven a tyrant and his minions from the throne and the country, Must take to themselves some degree of pride for what they have done. A desire to get a little of the advantage of the revolution they have so rapidly and successfully accomplished, is a very natural one in these men. They hear much of a patriotic King, of patriotic Chambers, of a patriotic press : they see the Kink provided for, many members of the Chambers provided for, and many of the press equally fortunafe ; it is quite natural that they should argue, d'Ilaving conquered so much for others, Why. should not we con- quer a little for ourselves ?" The enemies of the workmen, ac- cording to their views, are foreign artisans and machinery; and were they correct in their views, who could fairly, oppose their de- maticl;- that foreign artisans should be expelled-that machinery should be destroyed ? They have expelled a King to serve the Duke d'Oninaris ; they have broken down a government to serve the.Deputies ; they have abrogated the Censure to Serve the press,—why not banish and break down to servelheniaelves, the eonquerOrs of all these achievements ? The feelhigs Which .give birth to,snch arguments are so natural, that noting but extremeobtuseness on the part of the persons who are paid for sending over exaggerated facts and false inferences to the London journals, eanki render possible any mistake as to their source ; In England *Mr._ vre,bnail. of io niuchenhightemnent, and where we realty:pos. teVilmaitikAirvi ninny, not of the vulgar and uninstateted,-bUtqf the wealthy and learned, have declaimed against the encouragement of foreign artisans—for what is all the clamour against free trade but a clamour against such ? Nay, how many grave and sober persons have gone beyond the French, and deprecated the en- couragement in England of British artisans ? How many com- plaints have the irruption of Irish labourers given rise to, and how many sober plans have been propounded to remedy it ? The enemies of machinery are not to be found among the framebreakers of Nor- folk only ; there are many members of Parliament, and many great men not so privileged, who have expressed their serious doubts of the value of Wan's' and ARKWRIGHT'S inventions. That the Pari- sian workmen should think, as many not crackbrained persons among ourselves have both thought and said, is surely no matter of wonder. We have not, indeed, heard that on former occa- sions they sought to propagate their opinions so zealously as they do now. We are told that parties of three or four hundred have repeatedly mustered, sometimes in one place, sometimes in ano- ther ; that they have petititioned the Prefect, the Chambers, the King. But they have committed no violence ; and while they confine themselves to peaceful assemblages, and to petitions, who but the most indiscriminating of creatures, a " gentleman of the press," would shake the head, and augur, not the fulfilment of-- the people's wishes,—which, after all, in Paris, would cause but. small damage, for the Parisians could spare both its English workmen and its machines, and suffer little inconvenience,—but the Overthrow of the Government, which we verily believe to be - at the present moment as secure as any government in the uni- verse, our own not excepted. Bit- there are causes at present in operation, which ac- count for the distress of the Parisian workmen, without either foreigners or steam-engines, and which readily explain their exhibitions.4 discontent: In the first place, let us con- sider for a MOH ad what a source of employment has been cut off by the 4nishment of the Court. CHARLES and his extravagant family had incurred a debt of several millions sterling in the course of a few years, in addition to their enormous regular and authorized expenditure. All this was indeed wrung from France. Lot it was spent in Paris. The watse is stopped; the din- burs.-.tent s1.vonderful1y curtailed, we might almost say annihilated, for taaaisrk!na.-,ar will not spend his own fortune and that assigned him by the state-also=his private household is absorbed in his public establishment. In the second place, it cannot be doubted that the re- moval °fa number Of English has much diminished the demand for werk,-arid.for woilig which their national habits_called into action. They.encouraged liench, they attracted English artists ; they have left both in a great measure unemployed. The same causes that explain the reduced Wages, and its natural conseqiierice,' the dissatisfaction of the workmen, go far to explain the fall lac the public Funds. - The returning English, the self-banished French, have been obliged to sell out coute qui coute ; the Stocks have fallen ; and forthwith all the monied men crowd to the Bourse to sell out also—many from sheer fear, for there is no coward on earth so sensitively timorous as your monied man—many from a spirit of gambling to take advantage of the differences. To those, , who would build an argument on the fall of the French funds, it' is only necessary to address one question. Is there a man irtj Europe possessed of one sense—we say not of seven—who has a doubt of the solvency, of the French nation, even if the present Government were overturned—if a republic, or, a change infinitely more to be deprecated, if the tyranny of the Bourbons were to be again established on its ruins ? The insecurity of the French Government has been also con- cluded from the angry discussions in the journals, and from the exhibition of party feeling in the Chambers and elsewhere. This is CHATEAUBRIAND'S argument—a free government is incompa- tible with a free people. The press is at present free in its exer- cise, and it speaks freely—the Opposition (for there is an opposi- tion)—the Ministerial-the Moderate, which steers between the two parties. The members of both Chambers do the same, for there is none to make them afraid. The people imitate their rulers and their instructors. Yet there is not nearly so many nor so virulent ,- disputes among the French as there are among the English— -17-677 the Scotch—nothing like what prevails among the Irish, and • the Americans leave them out of sight behind. One grand cause of difference in Paris and the provinces are the dismissals. of the timeserving adherents of the late Government. The Council of State has been rethodelled ; the Prefects have been changed in many instances: manf officiaries have been discharged. The friends of the late Government exclaim against the severity and extent of - these changes, ; thefriends'of the Present against their limited charac- ter. 'Precisely the sanie disputes agitated America on the election \Z„,.4:..N—C of General JACKSON;' one iparty calling tbr, another against "thy. alterations which the new Government thought- necessary. The difference is; that Wbere the- Pretieh whisper, the Anitrigantlogn tiered; where the French complain, the Amerieins cursed. Is old ' Hickory insecure, or the kovernmerft of the United States totter- ing ? At the moment when we write, outrages are pensetrating at Kidderminster, greater easd more violent Than any that dis- graced France during the turmoil of the Three Days. Does the lord of Apsley House sleep less sound, or is the throne of Wit- "LIAM the Fourth less stable, because a few workmen reason like• fools and act like madmen ?_ Since our last, some discussion has taken place in the Chamber of Deputies, and also in the Chamber of Peers, on the subject of the impeachment of Ministers. On Saturday last, an application was made to the former by M. SALVERTE'S Committee, for power to call for persons and papers, in order that they might be enabled to frame their charge correctly ; they also asked for power to sit as juges dinstruction, • and to examine the parties whom they meant to accuse. The demand was resisted, on the ground that the facts of which Ministers were accused were so notorious that no preliminary examination was necessary. On the first division, the result appeared doubtful (it was taken by rising up and sitting down), and a ballot was called, when the motion was -declared to be carried by 186 to 93. The subject of the impeachment was brought before the Peers by a letter addressed to Baron PesotrIER, by the late Premier. The letter is a great curiosity in its way. The French say of the Prince, il art si bCte (a phrase which is nearly the same as saying he is "such a GOULBURN of a fellow") —and certainly no such bit of beam has ever passed under our re- view is the following.

"Saint Lo, Aug. 17.

" Monsieur le Baron—Having been arrested at Granville, at the mo- ment when I was flying from the sad and deplorable events which have just taken place, and seeking an opportunity to retire to the island of Jersey. I have surrendered myself a prisoner into the hands of the pro- visional Commission of the Prefecture of the department of La Manche, neither the Procureur du Roi for the arrondissement of Saint Lo, nor the jui.re d'instruction, having any power, according to the terms of the charter, to commit me, in case (of which, however, I am ignorant) the Government had given orders for my arrest. 'It is only by the authority of the Chamber of Peers, says article 29 of the charter, and which, in this respect, is conformable to the old charter, that a member of the Chamber of Peers can be arrested.' I know not what steps the Chamber of Peers may take on this subject, or whether it will charge me with the lamentable events of the two days, which I deplore more than any man, which came on with the rapidity of the thunderbolt in the midst of the tempest, and which no human strength nor prudence could arrest, since in those terrible moments it was impossible to know to whom to listen, or to whom to apply, and every man's efforts were required to defend his own life. My only desire, M. le Baron is, that I may he permitled to re- tire to my own home, and there resume those peaceful habits of private life, which alone are suited to my taste, and from which I was torn in

spite of myself, as is well known to all who are acquainted with me.

Enough of vicissitudes have filled my days, enough of reverses have whitened my head, in the course of the storinylife I have led. I cannot in any degree be reproached with having in the time of my prosperity preserved any vengeful recollections against those who used their power with undue severity against me in adversity. Indeed, 14.1e-oBaron, in what position should we all be placed, surrounded as we ara by those con- tinual changes presented by the age in which we live, if the political opi- nions of those who are smitten by the tempest are to become misde- meanours or crimes in the eyes of those who have embraced a more for- tunate side of the question? If I cannot obtain permission to retire quietly to my home, I entreat to be allowed to withdraw into a foreign country with my wife and my children. Lastly, if the Chamber of Peers determine to decree my arrest, solicit that they will affix as the place of my detention the fortress of Ham, in Picardy, -where I was for a long tune in captivity in my youth, or in some other fortress at once commodious and spacious. That of- Ham would agree better than any other with the state of my health, which has been for some time enfeebled, and which the late events have greatly injured. The misfor- tunes of an upright man ought in France to meet with some sympathy ; but at all events, M. le Baron, I may almost venture to say that it would be barbarous to bring me into the capital at a time when so many preju- dices have beers raised against me—prejudices which my unsupported voice cannot appease, and which time alone can calm. I have been long and too much accustomed to see all my intentions misrepresented and praced in the most odious light. To you, M. le Baron, I have submitted all my wishes, not knowing to whom I ought to address myself, and at the same time I request you to lay them before those to whom it of right belongs, begging you to accept the assurance of my high consideration. (Signed) "The Prince de POLIG1qAC.

" P.S. I beg you to do me the favour to acknowledge the receipt of this letter."

a.-This document was submitted to a Committee, which, by the mouth of Count SIMEON their Chairman, reported to the Peers that the Committee did not consider that a Peer was deprived of his privileges by becoming a Minister, since those privileges- ainong which is that of exemption from arrest unless under peculiar circumstances—were given not so much to the individual as to the public, to insure freedom of debate, and to save the business of the nation from being interrupted. They considered, however, that Piince Po LIGNAC having been arrested by public clamour (hue and cry), on charges of great weight,—and a resolution of impeachment hiving passed against him in the other Chamber,— for these rea- sons, but more especially for the latter, it was advisable that the Peers should refrain from making any demand in his favour of the constitutional guarantee. "The Prince," said the reporter, "has the right, as it will be his duty, to defend his innocence. He will be allowed every means, and will be tried by upright and impartial judges; but to set him at liberty would be the greatest and at the same time the most incredible denial of justice that can be conceived. Since he is under arrest, it is impossible not to suffer the law to take its course, and pronounce upon his guilt or innocence."

M. de SIMEON made no Special report on, the ease of M. de rEirRONNET, as he is included in the list of Peers who are de- pitied of their honours by the 76th article of the new Charter, - 41iit conseqUently is no longer a. member of the Upper 1145tiW. He observed, however, that be and all the Ministers would receive The benefit of a trial by the Peers, inasmuch as they aloneewere the judges in cases of impeachment. In terms of this report, the .Chamber passed a resolution approving of the arrest of the Premier at St. to, and declaring that on the =est of PEYRONNEP at Tours, there was no case for their consideration ; and these reso- lutions were transmitted to the Minister of Justice.

While the Chambers are thus discussing the means of punishing the enemies of their country, who, along with those self-exiled persons who have escaped, were anxious to destroy its liberties, they have not been neglectful of the involuntary exiles whom the fears and prejudices or injustice of the Government that has been overthrown had driven from France. No sooner was the downfal of CHARLES made known at Rome, than the Members of the BONA-. PARTE family resident there informed the French Ambassador, that as the flight of their oppressor necessarily annulled the de- crees by which they were banished, they intended to adopt imme- diate measures for returning to the country of their birth, as France • is considered by all of them. A -spirited letter from one of the younger branches, who bears the name of his wonderful uncle, has :appeared in the Constitutionnel. The subject of the exiles was introduced in the Chamber of Deputies by M. L'Ae- BEY DE POMPIERES ; and the law by which, on the second Resto- ration, they were so unjustly sent out of France, will be imme- diately repealed.

In the Chamber of Peers, on Monday, some discussion took place previous to the report on Pole ertec's letter being presented, on a letter of the Marquis de ROUGE in the Quotidienne, in which the Marquis entered on some explanation of the sense in which he took the oath of allegiance. The debate called up the Duke de


"Since the sitting at which I took the oath," said the Duke, "I have not seen, or communicated with, the Marquis de Rouge, the peer said to have signed a letter published in the Quotidienne, which gave rise to a discussion at the last sitting. I think it my duty to make this declaration before I enter upon the matter in question, because I feel that I have had to deal with a Ministry that is somewhat captious." (A laugh.) He re- peated, that when be took the oath he thought he was following the wishes of him whose misfortunes he respected, and for whom he would have sacrificed his life over and over again. Contribute to the main- tenance of peace and order in France, and this will be serving me.' Such were his last words. But at the .saLne time, he had no reservation, and pronounced the oath as a man of honour. The Duke then took leave to tell Ministers that it was but a pitiful opening of their career to cri- ticise letters and give a forced construction to words which may have slipped from tha.pen. He thought it would be better for them to occupy themselves with more important cares, and think of the public good, and prepare against the storms' that were gathering over their heads. They should above all things endeavour to satisfy the country that the revo- lution accomplished by the public would promote the public interests and the laws, and not merely serve the interests of a party who abused the victory, by using it for the indulgence of their private resentment: He concluded by expressing a hope that Ministers would not belieliythat any Peers retained opinions or sentiments different from those t had

avowed:" .

Such a plain unvarnished speech speaks ,convincingly in proof of the real liberty of the Chambers. The Duke de BROGLIE, the only Minister present, replied:— "The Ministry, however captious it might be, would have said no- thing, and asked nothing-, respecting an oath taken by men of honour : the explanation had been provoked by the insertion of a letter in the journals ; and the noble peer, in addressing it to the public, gave the Chamber the right of inquiring the meaning of it. He knew but one re- striction in respect to the oath, which was the reciprocity of engagement between the person that took and the person who received it. I have taken,' he said, an oath of fidelity to Louis Philippe : so long as Louis Philippe fulfils the oath he has himself taken to France, I will maintain mine. I took an oath to the late Government ; I, in My private station, observed it faithfully, till the last moment. The instant that the oaths which had been taken to France were violated, I thought myself disen- gaged from mine.'" With the most perfect freedom, the Government is by no means deficient in energy. At Nismes, the old and long-suppressed disputes between the Catholics and Protestants, which were fos- tered by the open countenance and indulgence of the exiled family, have displayed themselves. On the 15th, when LOUIS PHILIP was proclaimed, a riot took place, and two persons were killed and several wounded. Two battalions of the Line imme- diately marched from Montpelier to protect the public peace ; and a spirited address was published to the inhabitants, and a decree- was issued by the Mayor, strictly enforcing a respect for the laws, and ordering all strangers found in the streets after seven o'clock at night without passport, to be immediately arre'Sted. Nismes is now perfectly quiet, and will remain so. M. CAsissot PERRIER, the a_ged and venerable President of the Deputies, has resigned, and M. J. LAFITTE has been unanimously chosen to succeed him. L'ARBEY DE POMPIERES is Vice-President.