THE NEW COLONY.
SomE weeks ago, we laid before our readers the heads of a pro- posal which had been submitted to the Government for founding a Colony on the southern Coast of Australia. As we foretold would be the case, the proposal has been adopted ; only two modifica- tions of it being required by the Government,—first, that the male adult population shall be 10,000 instead of 5,000 as was proposed, before a Legislative Assembly for governing the Colony be called ; and, secondly, that the Governor shall be appointed by the Crown instead of by the Chartered Company which is to lay the founda- tion of the Celony,—though, as in the case of the Governor-Gene- ral of India, he will he paid by, and will be the servant of, the Company. With these not very important alterations, the plan put before the Government has been approved ; and is to have effect by means of a royal charter, which is to incorporate the Company, to bestow on it temporary powers of government, and to fix cer- tain principles of government and colonization, which, if the pro- ject should succeed, will form the constitution or great charter of a future empire. The project now assumes a tangible shape ; it has the sanction of the Government, and depends, for its present success at least, only on the support which it may obtain from individuals. Such support may be rendered in two ways,—either by advancing shares of the capital to be raised by the Company, or by emigrating to the Colony with capital. We shall now endeavour to state, as -fully as our space will admit, whet are the prospects which the Company holds out to shareholders and emigrants. The Company possesses two character.;,—first, that of a political body incorporated by charter for the purposes of founding a colony, of governing it fir some years, and of promoting its ut- most prosperity ; secondly, t hat of a commercial body, having for its objc ct the largest return that can be obtained, by the outlay of its capital in the purchase of land, and in confming upon the land purchased a high artificial vi:lue. In one point of view, the Com- pany will be a government : in another, a mere land-company. Yet, whilst the functions of the Company may be thus distin- guished, a close relation subsists between them. The end of the Company, viz. the greatest return for its outlay, will be obtainable only by means of the prosperity of the Colony. Thus the govern- ing power will have the deepest interest in governing well ; indeed it can succeed as a commercial firm only by succeeding as a colo- nizint; government. If through miemanagernent of the govern- ment individual settlers fail, the Company must fail ; and the prosperity of the Company must be in exact proportion to that of individual settlers. One statement, therefore, may explain the grounds on which it is presumed, that both shareholders in the Company and emigrant capitalists will derive large profits from taking a part in this undertaking.
The first point to be considered is the Situation of the intended colony.
The fundamental laws of the charter are to extend over that part of the South-Australian coast which lies between the 13end and 141st degrees of east longitude,—a distance of above six hun- dred miles,—and the adjacent islands,-without any limit to the pro- gress of colonization northwards. The spot selected for the first establishment, and which will probably become the seat of govern- ment, is Port Lincoln, a noble harbour at the entrance of Spen- cer's Gulph. In the neighbourhood of Port Lincoln, Kangaroo Island, so named by FLINDERS, presents an eligible field for agri- cultural settlers. Of this line of coast, and of Spencer's Gulph, Gulph St. Vincent, and Port Lincoln, very minute surveys were made by Captain FLINDERS ; and afterwards, though less care- fully, by the French navigator BAUDIN, whose proceedings are reported by M. PERON, the naturalist of the expedition ; and a map of Kangaroo Island has since been prepared by Captain SUTHERLAND, who passed several months on that spot, and has lately drawn up an account of his observations. The following extracts from the work of FLINDERS, and from M. PERON'S Voyage aux Tares Australis, together with Captain SUTHER- LAND'S Report, will, by aid of the C harts accompanying this Num- ber of the Spectator, give a pretty correct view of what is known of that portion of Australia.
From Captain FLINDERS'S Voyage.
L page 109. " Fowler's Bay is open' only to three points of the compass, south, east by south, and east south east ; and it was evident, from plants growing close to the water side, that a swell capable of injur- ing a vessel at anchor, was seldom if ever thrown into it.
" Petrel Bay, in the Isle of St. Francis, affords excellent shelter for two or three ships ; there was no rise of the tide sufficient to be worthy of notice here nor in Fowler's Bay.
"At the entrance of Denial Bay, besides quantities of grass, and branches of trees, or bushes floating in the water, there was a number of long- gauze-winged insects topping about the surface, such as frequent iresh-water lakes and swamps; good anchorage was found in six fathoms
lithe beach on the north side of the western or smallest island.
" On the north side of Point Brown the shore formed a large open oay, into which we hauled up as much as the wind would permit ; but the water having shoaled to five fathoms, and not perceiving any inlet, we bore away westward along the land. The number of smokes rising from he shores of this wide, open place, induced me to give it the name of Smoky Bay.
" There being much refuse from the shore, as well as sea-weed floating bout, hopes of finding a river were entertained ; the depth had dimi- nished from nineteen to seven fathoms, and the water was much dis- coloured in streaks at less than a mile from the ship. Smokes were rising in three different places ; but the wind being unfavourable, and seeing no opening sufficiently large to admit the Investis.ator, I gave up the further examination of this place, and called it Streaky Bay.
" y examination was tolerably minute to be done wholly in a ship, but much still remained, which boats would best accomplish, to make the survey complete, especially in the bays of the main land. No more than a general examination was prescribed by my instructions at this time; I therefore left the minute parts for a second visit, when the ship would be accompanied by the Lady Nelson tender." Vol. I. page 148. " Of the climate we had no reason to speak but in praise, nor were we incommoded by noxious insects. The range of the thermometer on board the ship was, from 60' to 78', and that of the barometer from 29.94 to 30.20 inches. The weather was generally cloudy, the winds light, coming from the eastward in the mornings, and south- ward after noon. On shore the average height of the thermometer at noon was 760."
From PERON'S Voyage aux Terres Australes.
Vol. 11.page 202. " On the western shore, and near the entrance of Spencer's Gulf, is Port Lincoln, one of the most beautiful and most secure harbours in Australia. The bottom is everywhere excellent, and the .soundings are regular from ten to twelve fathoms (French) very close to the shore,. The extent of this most magnificent harbour affords sufficient anchorage for any number of ships. At the mouth of the harbour Boston Island is situated, on each side of which is a passage free from danger, of between two and three miles in width.
" Nature seems to have done every thing in favour of this port ; for that sterility and monotonous appearance which marks the land in the neighbourhood here vanish, and give place to a fertility to which we had long been strangers ; the land is more elevated, rises quickly from the shore, and is thickly clothed with timber.
" It is true that we found no stream of fresh water, but the vigour and the freshness of the vegetation, and the elevation of the land, seem to in- dicate the existence of rivulets, or at least of some considerable springs. On this favoured spot the inhabitants must be numerous, for the whole coast appeared to us to be covered with the fires of the natives."
I-o/. III. page 102. " The most interesting part of Spencer's Gulph is the magnificent harbour of Port Lincoln, of which we have already given a description in the fifteenth chapter of this work, but which is well worthy of further notice.
" The port is composed of three bays, each of which, from its extent, is capable of containing tire combined navies of Europe ; the soundings are regular from ten to twelve fathoms, with a soft muddy bottom. Boston Island is situated at the entrance of this excellent harbour, on either side of which there is a passage, through which the largest man-of-war may work with perfect ease. The north passage is the narrowest, and leads into Boston Bay ; that on the south is wider, and opens on one side into Western Bay, and on the other into Spalding Cove. Two small islands are placed at the opening of the Southern Bay, which likewise afford good anchorage. The same may be said of Grantham Island, as well as of every part of the port.
" Shall I now revert to what I have before stated as to the fertility of the soil ? Shall 1 speak of the beautiful vallies, which appeared to indi- cate the existence of springs or streams of fresh water ? Ought I to dwell on the numerous fires we perceived all along the shores, which led us to conclude that this spot was far more thickly peopled than any other .part of the southern coast ?
"Equal if not superior to Port Jackson, Port Lincoln is in every respect one of the best and most beautiful harbours in the known world ; and of all those we discovered or visited on the coasts of Australia, it appears to be, and I here repeat it, the most inviting, the most advantageous for .the establishment of an European colony."
" Report of a Voyage from Sydney to Kangaroo Island, and of Observations made during a stay of seven months on, and near the Island, by Captain Sutherland, who, in the year 1819, was employed by some merchants of Sydney to command a vessel of - 440 tons, expressly fitted out for the purpose of obtaining a cargo of salt and seal skins from Kangaroo Island." Captain Sutherland has been engaged for many years in the trade between England and New Holland, and lately commanded the ship Lang. He is now in London.
" On the 8th of January 1819, we arrived at Kangaroo Island from Sydney, after a pleasant passage of fourteen days, during which nothing particular occurred to attract our attention. We anchored in Lagoon Bay, in about four fathoms water (sand and mud) close in shore : our first object being to procure salt to ballast the ship and to cure skins. To facilitate this object two boats were dispatched, with five men in each to discover the salt lagoon, and ascertain where the seals resorted to round the island. While these two boats were thus engaged, our other boat and three men were employed in searching for water, and examining the various bays and anchorage. During our ramble on this occasion we discovered a well with a small supply of water, near which we observed a flat stone with some writing on the surface. This appears to be the place where the French navigator watered : the ship and captain's names, with the particular dates, were cut on this stone; but being in French we paid little or no attention to it, not at the time imagining it would be of consequence at any future period. Close to Point Marsden in Nepean Bay, about twenty yards from the sea at high water, behind the bank washed up by the sea, we dug a hole about four feet deep : it immediately filled with fresh water. We put a cask into it, which was always filled as fast as two hands could bale it out. The water was excellent, as clear as crystal, and I never tasted better. This hole supplied us whilst we were in Nepean Bay, and so plentifully that we had no occasion to look further for fresh water thereabouts. When on the south and west coasts of the island, we had no occasion to dig for water, having always found plenty in lagoons close to the beach. The water of the lagoons, though not bad, is not so good as that of the springs: the people settled on the island (mentioned hereafter) had not dug for water till I arrived. there, but depended entirely on the lagoons : they however followed my example, and I was told had no difficulty in obtaining excel- lent water by digging in various parts of the island. On the return of the boats, in three or four days, we weighed and stood further into the bay, in a much more safe anchorage, being sheltered from all winds. We moored ship, and each individual took part in pursuing the objects of the voyage: my own lot with another person was to stay by the ship, during which time I had many opportunities of examining the bays, harbours, sands, and different anchorages, with many other occurrences and inci- dents which I could not now relate from lapse of time.
" From a point five miles south of Point Marsden a sand-spit runs out at least six miles in a south-easterly direction, which is not mentioned in any of the English charts: I have corrected this in my own, and called it Sutherland Shoal. I made a regular sketch of the island as near as I could, having due regard to all the bays with the best anchorages, and all the probable dangers I could discover. Having sailed twice round. the island, I have placed several small reefs and rocks on the chart as I disco- vered them, and drawn the south side of the island, and shown the direc- tion of the land. In the Bay of Shoals I planted cabbages, having brought the seed from Sydney ; they proved very good and useful. While here we had abundance of fish of several kinds : the best we found was the snapper, some weighing above seven pounds; they arc excellent eating, and preferable to some of our English fish : oysters, and every other spe- cies of shell fish, were abundant. These, with our daily supply of kanga- roos, enabled us to live in great plenty. Indeed I never was on a voyage which pleased me better, or in which we were better supplied.
" HARBOURS AND ROADSTEADS.
"Twenty ships could moor within a hundred yards of the shore, and the same number anchor in safety farther off, the water being always smooth, sheltered by the land from the north-west, and from the south- ward by Kangaroo Head, and from the north-east by Sutherland's Shoal, extending from the point below Point Marsden about six miles, always dry at half ebb for nearly the whole distance. The shore is thickly lined with wood and shrubs, interspersed with several high hills protecting the anchorage: the opposite coast on the main is Cape Jervis, which I should judge to be about fourteen or fifteen miles from the first anchorage, but nearer to Kangaroo Head by three or four miles. The main land here is very high, and at the head of the bay wears every appearance of an inlet or river.
" THE SOIL.
" I had an opportunity of seeing much of the interior of the island, having crossed the country in company with two sealers, who had been residents on time island for several years. The land wears every appear- ance of being fertile ; a deep loam with coarse grass, abounding with kangaroos and emus; where these animals feed, the grass is much better for pasture : occasional ponds of rain water are seen, and a plentiful sup-- ply of pure spring water is always attainable by digging for it. The land here is as good as any I have seen in Van Diemen's Land. In the neigh- bourhood of Sydney I have not observed any equal to it. Trees are scat- tered everywhere over the plains—time swamp oak or beef wood, and the wattle (both of which indicate good land), are growing in abundance here. Close on the shore, within from a quarter to half a mile of the sea, the wood is very thick; but when this belt of wood is passed, you come on to an open country, covered with grass, where there are often hun- dreds of acres without a tree ; I calculated, by comparison with New South Wales and Van Diemen's Land, there might be on this plain, on the average, three or four trees to the acre. I once crossed the island, a distance of about sixty miles, in two days. Once past the belt of wood which surrounds the island, we walked straight on end over the plains, found plenty of water in ponds, saw abundance of kangaroos and emus, and met with no difficulty or trouble. As we crossed the island I looked to the right and left, and saw everywhere the same open plains, now and then changed in appearance by close timber of great height, on high points and ridges of land. In some places we found the grass very high and coarse in patches ; but where the greatest number of kangaroos and emus were found, the grass was short and close. In the other places, short close grass was found between the coarse high patches.
" Whilst crossing the island we saw plenty of parrots and wild pigeons, and black swans on the lagoons.
"With the exception of salt, the timber appears the principal produc- tion we have observed of this place. The trees are the same as at New South Wales and Van Diemen's Land ; some run exceedingly high and large in circumference, and may be converted. into every domestic pur- pose as well as maritime, as many may be found and selected for ship's spars and other purposes of ship-building. Twenty years ago an Ameri- can ship was cast away on the coast, and the crew built a schooner in Lagoon Bay, which enabled them to get away after a residence of several months on the island. Salt is produced here in abundance; I should say . between two and three hundred tons could be collected from the lagoon
" GEORGE SUTHERLAND,
" Commander of the Brig Governor Macquarrie, of Sydney, 1819. ei London, October 4th 1831."
These favourable accounts are corroborated by Captain STURT, who traced the largest river yet discovered in Australia for a thou- sand miles, from Bathurst Plains in New South Wales into an ex- tensive lake close to Encounter Bay; and by Mr. AKEN, a gentle- man of superior attainments, who accompanied Captain FLINDERS as master of the Investigator, who resides in London, and who re- presents this portion of Australia as eminently fit for colonization.
Of its Climate, all that needs he said further is, that the latitude of Port Lincoln nearly corresponds with that of Port Jackson and the Swan River; that the climate of every known part of Aus- tralia south of the Tropic is found to resemble that of New South Wales,—which, it is notorious, resembles the climate of Italy, ex- cept inasmuch as it wants the sirocco winds and malaria that afflict even the most delightful parts of the Mediterranean shores, and as it appears to forbid the existence of many of the worst dis- eases of Europe, such as measles and pulmonary consumption, as well as nearly the whole class of fevers, which prove a curse to most new settlements in America.
Concerning the soil, it may be remarked, that in every known part of Extra-Tropical Australia, a stripe of thickly-wooded land, -varying from half a mile to fifteen miles in breadth, intervenes be- tween .the sea and those grassy plains, thinly studded with trees, and interspersed with lakes and streams, of which the appearance lausuatilikened to that of an English,park. That suck plains'
with a little-attention ; the distance to the beach is about three quarters of a mile, and from the beach to where ships anchor about four miles. This lagoon is a perfect circle of about three miles in circumference. The prospect about this lagoon is very pleasant. Close to the salt-water lake is another of fresh, but considerably smaller. It was at this spot our people erected their tents while collecting the salt. Pigeons and kanga- roos make their appearance here regularly morning and evening for water, so that we were well supplied with fresh provisions for very little trouble.
" My attention was next directed to the limestone of the island,—in several places I found it plentiful, but not general over the country. Free- stone and granite are also in large quantities, so that people emigrating to this country would find every necessary as in Europe and both the other colonies. I make no doubt but some more valuable productions might be found on examination and inquiry—my time and attention were of course more particularly devoted to the object of my voyage.
" THE CLIMATE
appeared to me very temperate, and not subject to oppressive heat, nor do the rains fall in torrents as at Sydney ; the dews are heavy, but not in- jurious to health, which we had ample opportunity of proving, owing to the frequent exposure of our men, many of whom have slept under trees and bushes for several nights together, and though almost wet through, never experienced any ill effects. I had fifteen men under my command, and though they were a class of people who take no care of themselves, not one of them was ill during our stay, nor did my own health suffer at all, though I was exposed to all weathers both night and day.
`January, when I reached the island, is the middle of the summer ; and the autumn and winter elapsed during our stay. In the winter it appeared to me much less cold than in Van 1)iemen's Land ; and I ob- served, generally, that the changes of temperature are less sudden and frequent than in New South Wales. " The winds there are regular land and sea breezes, with occasional calms; during the winter months strong south-westerly winds prevail, but are not of any duration, and cannot throw any sea into the anchor- ages to injure the shipping, they being completely landlocked. A vessel, on making for the island, must he careful in not standing too close to the shore, until they ascertain their true position, as several dangers are still unexplored on the southern part of the island ; this I would leave en- tirely to the judgment of the navigator, who always ought to be guided by circumstances. " There are no harbours on the south side of the island, but in fine weather a ship may anchor for a few hours in any place along the coast, but must be always ready to slip in case of the appearance of bad weather. It was the case with me at the south-west side of the island. There are no natives on the island ; several Europeans assemble there, some who have run from ships that traded for salt : others from Sydney and Van Die- men's Land, who were prisoners of the Crown. These gangs joined after a lapse of time, and became the terror of ships going to the island for salt, &c. being little better than pirates. They are complete savages, liv- ing in bark huts like the natives, not cultivating any thing, but living entirely on kangaroos, emus, and small porcupines, and getting spirits and tobacco in barter for the skins which they lay up during the sealing season. They dress in kangaroo skins without linen, and wear sandals made of seal skins. They smell like foxes. They have carried their daring acts to an extreme, venturing on the main land in their boats, and seiz- ing on the natives, particularly the women, and keeping them in a state of slavery, cruelly treating them on every trifling occasion ; and when at last some of these marauders were taken off the island by an expedition from New South Wales, these women were landed on the main with their children and dogs, to procure a subsistence, not knowing how their own people might treat them after a long absence. There are a few even still on the island, whom it would be desirable to have removed, if a perma- nent settlement were established in the neighbourhood.
" The period during which I stayed on and near the island, was from the 8th of January to the 12th of August. I myself landed only once on the main, in the bight between Point Riley and Corny Point. The soil was thickly covered with timber and brushwood. Some of my men landed at several different places on the main, being sometimes absent three weeks at a time in search of seals. On these occasions they carried with them bread and some salt meat; but having a musket and a dog with them, they always obtained fresh meat (kangaroo), when on the main as well as on some of the islands. On these expeditions they never took fresh water with them. They often spoke of the places they had seen as being very pleasant. " I never saw or heard of any native dogs on the Island of Kangaroo; and from the very great number of kangaroos, do not believe that there are any. Some of the kangaroos which I killed on the island weighed 120 lbs. Our men used to go to hunt them at sunrise, when they leave the woods to feed on the grassy plains. I have known as many as fifteen taken by my men in one morning. We never touched any part but the hind quarters.
exist in Kangaroo Island, is put beyond a question by Captain SUTHERLAND ; and that they will be found without limit as to ex- tent on the main land, seems hardly doubtful, when one reflects that they have been found on Yorke's Peninsula, between Spencer's Gulph and Gulph St. Vincent ; that on the borders of Spencer's Gulph, as well as on the whole line of coast from Port Lincoln to Fowler's Bay, various navigators have remarked " the great number of native fires ;" that the natives of Australia live solely by hunting kangaroos, and by fishing principally in fresh water ; that kangaroos can abound only where there is abundance of natural herbage ; and that when Captain SUTHERLAND'S crew. were absent on the main land for weeks together, they obtained art ample supply both of kangaroos and of fresh water.
Now, second only to a very agreeable and healthy climate, is the existence of these open plains, covered with natural herbage, in favour of Australia as a field for colonization. In Canada— throughout North America, indeed—the average cost of clearing land, so as to render it fit for cultivation, is 41, per acre ; and in every case of settlement in America, long time must elapse before any food for cattle is prepared : whereas, in Australia, a great por- tion of the land is already clear -of timber, and Nature has pro- vided an ample supply of food for cattle. Let a calculation be made of the difference between what it would cost an English farmer to establish himself comfortably in Canada and in New South Wales ; and the difference of the cost of passage becomes a matter of no moment. Indeed, it is demonstrable, considering the mild climate of New South Wales, which enables the labourer to work all the year round, and the severe climate of Canada, which condemns him to idleness forfive months out of twelve,—consider- ing that in New South Wales no shelter is required for cattle during winter, and that in Canada, cattle, and especially sheep, would he frozen or starved if not covered, and fed by artificial means,—considering also the difference between having to clear land of timber and finding it already cleared and covered with grass,—taking all these points of difference into account, it is de- monstrable, that he who emigrates to settle in the more distant colony will obtain either a larger return from his capital in the same time, or the same return in less time ; not to mention the advantage of beginning with his plough and his flock, to which he is accustomed, instead of with a hatchet, of which he scarcely knows the use.
The means of inland navigation are extremely desirable in colo- nies where roads are not yet formed. These will be furnished to the New Colony to a much greater extent than in any other set- tlement of Australia, by the deep Gulphs of Spencer and St. Vin- cent, and especially by the River Morrumbidgee,---which, though its connexion with the sea is not yet ascertained, is described by Captain STURT as emptying itself into a lake close to the sea, and as being perfectly navigable for 1000 miles. The direction of Spencer's Gulph is from north to south ; so that here alone are 185 miles of inland water carriage, for produce of which the cul- tivation requires various degrees of heat.
With a view to the means of external commerce, the following table has been prepared, to show the distances between Kangaroo Island and various parts of the world, and the times in which it is estimated that voyages would be made to and from that spot re- spectively.
Time, Winds. Days. Proper Seasons. Distance Place. in Miles.
From Kangaroo Island to
Madras 4700 Ceylon 4500 Isle of France. 4400 Cape of Good Hope 6000 England .. 11500 Van Diemen's Land 800 Sydney . . 1200 Favourable at all seasons Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto . . Ditto Variable Favourable Favourable in general
20 All times of the year. 18 Ditto. 33 Ditto. 32 Ditto. 29 Ditto. 40 Ditto. 105 Ditto. 6 Ditto. 12 Ditto.
At all times. Ditto. Ditto. Ditto. Ditto. Ditto. Ditto. Ditto. Ditto.
To Kangaroo Island from
Timor 1700 Java 2650 Madras 4700 Ceylon 4100 Isle of France 4400 Cape of Good Hope 6000 E ugland ..... 11500 Launceston 7c0
Favourable at all times 23 Favourable 18
Ditto, by proper route 36
Ditto ... 34 Variable.generally favble. 29 Strong and favourable... 34 Ditto 100 Always easy 6 . . ..... 12 But the finest conceivable position for commerce with the whole world would be of no avail, unless the colony should produce ex- changeable commodities. What may be expected on this score, is stated in the following extract from the " Plan of the Company," just published by RIDGWAY.
"wnicn THE SOIL AND CLIMATE OF TOE NEW COLONY ARE CAPABLE OF PRODUCING.
" The productions from which the Colonists of the new settlement may expect to derive the means of repaying the importer for the manufactures of the mother country may be divided into three classes. " First. The spontaneous productions of its land and waters ;
" Second. Those productions which now form the exports of the Australian Colonies ; and,
" Third. Many of the articles which those Colonies now import, but which they might grow and export, were the colonial capitalist able to avail himself of a constant and ample supply of labour. " Under the first head of 'spontaneous productions' are the following: " Slate, which is imported into the Isle of France from England, no other roofing being found to answer in consequence of the violent hurri- canes which visit that island. On Kangaroo Island. are slate quarries,. which may thus be at once turned to profitable account.
" Coal has been found in every part of Australia where the attempt has been made, but the colonists have benefited little by the discovery, in.
consequence of the want of labour to work it. Markets for this commo- dity may be found in Calcutta, Madras, Bombay, Java, Canton, Singapore, and the Isle of France, to most of which places coal has been sent from England. " 'Woods of various kinds, some admirably adapted for cabinet use, and others for ship building, are found all over Australia, of which that of the gum-tree is already known in the London market. The former, in plank and veneer, would find a ready market in India and China, and perhaps even in the mother country.
" The barks of several of the indigenous trees, especially that of the mimosa, contain the tanning principle in a highly concentrated degree ; for extracting which a process has been adopted which causes a great saving of freight. " Gums of various species and qualities, particularly gum arabic and manna, are obtainable in great abundance ; many of the indigenous trees yielding them in large quantities. " Salt of an excellent quality is found on Kangaroo Island, to which place ships are in the habit of going from the neighbouring colonies for this article. The salt of New South Wales contains a portion of mag- nesia, which is very prejudicial to its quality as an antiputrescent, and even the salt imported into the Colonies from this country is inferior in this respect to that obtained froM Kangaroo Island.* New South Wales and Van Diemen's Land therefore are markets for this commodity, while its possession will enable the Colonists to carry on a trade in " Salt Fish and other salted provisions with China and India, besides supplying vessels which may touch at that port.
" Seals of the kind from which the fur is obtained, are veryplentiful on all the adjacent islands and on the coast. The seal fishery will open two sources of wealth to the Colonists ; the first being a trade in skins, and the second in seal oil.
" The Sperm and Black Whale Fishery will afford articles of profitable export, and will also tend to make the settlement important for the refit- ting and victualling of vessels engaged in the trade.
"The use made of these natural productions of the sea and land by the Australian Colonists has hitherto been very limited, from the impossibility they have experienced of obtaining a sufficient supply of labour to work much in combination. One of the essentials of the plan upon which the New Colony is to he founded, being such a concentration of people as will insure a combination of labour, every profitable employment will be fol- lowed for which the amount of capital at the command of the Colonists will suffice.
"Under the second head, 'those productions which now form the articles of export from Australia,' are the followine :— " Wheat and Flour, which will at all times find e. ready market in the Isle of France ; and as Van Diemen's Land now supplies Sydney with large quantities of this commodity, it is reasonable to hope that this trade may also be followed by the New Colony, as from the facility of produc- tion it will derive from an ample supply of labour, the cost of producing wheat may be expected to be lower there than at Van Diemen's Land.
" Fine Wool will also he an article of export to the mother country, as from New South Wales and Van Diemen's Land the present moment. And here it should be remembered, that although land is uniformly to be
sold instead of being given away, such arrangement is not meant to pre- -vent the occupation of land for breeding purposes without purchase, only
on the distinct understanding that it shall not he cultivated or used in any other way. As to this article, therefore, the inducements offered to the Sydney capitalists apply also to capitalists settling in the proposed Colony, with the advantage on the part of the latter, of a greater facility of ob- taining shepherds, wool dressers, Stc. than is at present possessed either in New Auth Wales or Van Diemen's Land. This consideration is of great importance, since a want of shepherds, bypreventing a proper division of flocks, is in those countries a cause of great mortality among the sheep.
" Hides, Tallow, and Horns, after a few years, may be expected to add to the list of colonial exports.
" Tobacco, although not an article of export, still, as its cultivation is encouraged in New South Wales and Van Diemen's Land, may be men- tioned here. That it cannot for a considerable time be an article of extensive export from the colonies already established in Australia, is evident from the fact, that 200,000 lbs. of tobacco were imported into New South Waleski 1829, at a duty of 2s. per lb. The cultivation of this plant re- quires a constant and plentiful supply of labour, which, it is clear, can- not be enjoyed in a colony where the dispersion of the inhabitants is very great. It may, however, be regarded as one of the first articles to which the attention of capitalists in the new Colony will be directed.
"Under the third head, ' articles at present imported into the Austra- lian colonies, but which may be cultivated there advantageously with a combination of labour, are comprised all, or nearly all commodities, the produce of similar latitudes in the northern hemisphere. The most im- portant of these is "Wine. It has been ascertained that the soil and climate of New South Wales are very favourable to the cultivation of the grape ; but in this, as in many other instances, the want of combination of labour has prevented the production of this article for exportation. A vineyard must have existed some years before a generous grape can be produced ; and if the supilly of labour should not equal the demand for the purposes of the vinegrower in any one year of the series, the vineyard is destroyed, and the capital invested is lost. " Flax and hemp, if not indigenous as in New Zealand and in Van Die- men's Land, can be introduced with a certainty of success, and will afford to females an opportunity of working in-doors at any time which can be spared from domestic arrangements. The flax of New Zealand is of ad- mirable quality, and a small trade is already carried on in it by the colo- nists of New South Wales.
" Cotton would form another article of export. Specimens sent home are of the best quality, but a sufficiently extensive trial has not been made to ascertain what would be the cost of production if followed with spirit and perseverance. " Almonds, aniseed, bees'-wax and honey, barilla, cheese for India and China, carraway, cochineal, coriander, dried fruit, such as figs, currants, raisins, and prunes; hops, vegetable oils, olives, citrons, oranges, lemons, &c. &c. may all be produced, to which may be added the very important article Silk.
" Cashmere goats might also form every profitable investment for a small portion of capital. " Of the price at which most of these articles could be afforded by the New Colony., it is evident that no calculations can be made on which any reliance could with safety be placed. The prices which are obtained for
,e • In 1819, the salt obtained by Captain Sutherland from Kangaroo Island sold for 101. per ton, while that imported from England was selling for only 71. 108. the Utter not answering.equally well for curing skins.
agricultural produce and a few other articles in New South Wales and Van Diemen's Land, are given in the following statements.
1929. I 1830.
Jan. Mar. July. Sept. Jan. Apr. July.
s. d. S. (1. s. d. s. d. .s, d. s. d. s. d.
Wheat, per bushel 9 3 9 0 10 0 14 0 5 9 7 9 7 0 Maize do. 9 If 8 0 — 5 6 4 6 5 0 2 9
Fine Fine Fine Fine Flour ..... .. cwt. 24 0 — — 39 0 21 0 17 6 20 0 Potatoes .... cwt. 19 0 29 0 11 0 19 0 4 6 -- 7 0- Clover Hay (artiti-
F La reinndD
dal) ton — 205 0 225 0 190 0 120 0 60 0 110 fl fea(klyson) —lb. — — ---- 3 0 2 3 2 0 — fobacco(Bengal) lb — — — — 2 6 2 0
.. Negrollead, lb. — — — — 4 0 4 0
--- Oats ......bushel
3 6 Barley .. do.
4 0 3 G Sugar .... ...lb. stone ilutton do.
0 51 1 3 1 5 Pork do.
2 3 2 6 "The climate of Sydney is somewhat too hotfor the production of wheat, and its market is consequently supplied with considerable quantities of that article, as well as of potatoes, clover hay, and other agricultural pro- ductions, from Van Diemen's Land. The following is a list of prices at Hobart's Town :—
July. I Sept.
Jan. s. d.
Mar. July Sept. ,Dec.
. d... 1.
s. d. 5.
d s. d.
Wheat bushel LO 0 10 8 0 9 3
6 0 17 0
Potatoes .... cwt. 6
6 24. lb.
4 3 Pork lb. 0 6
0 21 0 31
— 0 41
Fine Beef lb. 0 4i -- 0 4 0 41
22 0 19 0 24 0
Clover Hay ton
Sheep, tolerably 1, fat each 1 Oats
12 (1 7 0
"The high prices borne by the product ons of arable land in these colo- nies, is partly accounted for by the unfitness of Sydney for the growth of some of them, which keeps up their price at Van Diemen's Land, and partly by the attention of the colonists being turned to the production of wool, but still more by the scarcity of labour, which is so great that at Launceston, when mutton sells for 3d. per pound by the carcass, the sheep alive on the farm are generally to be purchased at 5s. each—the difference being attributable to the expense and difficulty of obtaining la- bour to catch, drive to market, and kill the animals."
We imagine some very cautious person to say, that the above statement contains a reckoning of chickens before they are hatched. If he were asked—do you believe that what is called an old society, if established in Australia, would produce all the com- modities named, and many besides ? he would answer—" yes; but any society to be established in Australia must needs be a new society." What does the objector mean ? The terms "old and new society," " old and new country," are used by writers on the colonies, and by writers on political economy also, without any de- finite meaning. What they would express, however, by "an old country," is one in which capital and labour are employed in the most productive manner ; and, by " a new country," one in which capital and labour, taken from an old country, are divided into parts almost as numerous as the settlers, and are, therefore, so employed that each part produces little, frequently nothing, be- yond a plentiful supply of food to the person who owns the frac- tion of productive power. In some cases the capital and labour exported to new colonies are so employed that great part of the capital perishes. This happened in Virginia, where the first set- tlers were frequently reduced to want after having enjoyedplenty; and it has just happened at the Swan River, to which new colony an ample capital was exported, but from which a considerable . second emigration to Van Diemen's Land has taken place, because the capitals imported have perished for want of labour wherewith to use and preserve them. Thus it appears, that what is com-' monly called a new society, is one which, so far as the productive powers of capital and labour are concerned, has degenerated from its parent stock ; and assuredly, if the South Australian Colony were to be conducted after the manner of nearly all modern colo- nies, the supposed objector would be sight in saying that it must be a new society, and that it Will not produce many exportable commodities. But the fact is just the reverse of this as- sumption. The New Colony is to be managed so as to be but the extension of an old society, without its evils. The grand ad- vantage of an old society—that is, the combination of capital and labour—is to be secured from the beginning. The Government, in disposing of waste land, instead of, as was done at the Swan River, encouraging every labourer, and forcing every capitalist, to work for and by himself alone, will prevent so wasteful a mode of using capital and labour, by means of a certain restriction on the appro- priation of waste land by individuals. No one will be allowed to appropriate more land than he shall be able to cultivate in the most productive manner; but, subject to this condition, every one will be at liberty to appropriate any quantity of land, and in whatever situation he may prefer. The condition of properly cultivating land obtained from the Government has been attached to most grants of land in our colonies ; but it would be difficult to cite a single instance in which that condition was fulfilled. in the pre- sent case it islo be secured by a- law of the Charter, which ent
acts, that not one acre of land shall be given away, but that grants shall be obtainable only by purchase at a axed minimum
price. No one would purchase land to let it remain in a state of
waste. Further, in order that he who purchases land, intending to cultivate it, may be supplied with the means of executing his
purpose, the whole of what he may pay for-land will be expended by the 'Board of Emigration, now• sitting at the Colonial Office, in conveying labourers to the colony. This mode of disposing of the fun& obtained by the sale of land is to be universal; and is to be secured by the Charter. Thus, the evils which have afflicted all modern colonies, through the dispersion of capital and labour, will not occur in the new settlement ; but, on the contrary, it will enjoy, as respects the combination and consequent productiveness of capital and labour, all the advantages of an old society.• • Thus the. new colony will be able to produce all the articles mentioned in the above statement, and many besides. Those who have hot reflected at all on the subject, may appre- hend that, by restricting the appropriation of land, the great evils of old countries—viz. low profits - and low wages—will be trans- planted in the New Colony. But to do this would be impossible; since nothing but the prospect of high profits and high wages will tempt capitalists and labourers to emigrate. Indeed, as it is manifest that the capital and labour of Canada, New South Wales, or any modern colony, would render a greater surplus produce, if not cut up into fractions almost as numerous as the colonists, so the greater combination of capital and labour in this new colony, rendering a' greater surplus produce, will cause both the profits of capital and the wages of labour to be higher than in any other colony—higher in amount, that is (the political economists will understand us) when compared with other amounts obtained on the scores of profit and' wages. Nor is it to be feared that, by a rapid increase of capital and population, the settlers will be driven to less productive modes of employing capital and labour, such as, for example, the cultivation of inferior soils ; because, as capital and labour shall increase, so will the field in- crease for the most productive employrilent of both. The object of selling land instead of giving it away, is to increase, not to dimi- nish, profits and wages ; and, of course, the price obtained, which is to be governed by the open competition of sales by auc- tion to bidders above a low fixed minimum price, will never ex- ceed what would leave a considerable profit on the speculation. Thus, in truth, there will be no check to the most rapid progress of society through the most rapid increase of capital and labour, spreading over a field which, whilst it will increase as fast as capital and labour, will not increase faster, and Will not, there- fore, untilthe whole of it be occupied and the increase of capital and labour on a circumscribed field pegin to lower profits and Wages, be used otherwise in the most productive manner.
In orchr that he who buyS land may receive the largest return for his money, in the shape of population, the emigrants conveyed to the Colony with the purchase-money of laud, are to be exclu- sively young married or marriageable persons of both sexes in equal proportions. Several very interesting considerations arise out of this selection of emigrant labourers.
1. It is calculated that the labour of a married man, leaving a wife at home to take care of his house, clothes, and domestic ar- rangements, is more productive than that of two single men, who should mutually divide their attention between productive labour and household affairs. If this illustration of the use of division of labour be correct, the quantity of labour comprised in the per- sons sent to the Colony will be greater, in consequence of half those persons being females, than it would be if they were all men.
2. Suppose the cost of one emigrant's passage to be 121., and that the sum of 12,000/. were borrowed, for fifty- six years at com- pound interest of five per cent., in order to send one thousand per- sons to the Colony. At the end of fifty-six years, the debt incurred would be 48,0001. But supposing each married couple in so healthy a country to rear six children, and population to in- crease afterwards at the most rapid 'rate, the number of persons added to the colonial population at the'end of fifty-six years, at a cost of 48,0007., would be at least twenty4methousand ; thus re- ducing the cost, at which one had been added to the colonial popu- lation, to 2/. In a word, population, derived from emigrants so selected, would increase much faster than money at compound in- terest. We have not room to point out the ninny interesting con- clusions which might be drawn from this consideration.
3. A society of which the labouring class—by far the greater number—should consist wholly of married persons, enjoying plenty, must needs be, with common care on the part of the go- vernment, preeminently moral and provident. In such a society, the example of that immorality which exists wherever there are many single persons, would be absolutely wanting; and in such a society all would be anxious for the welfare of their offspring, and would therefore have the strongest motive for industry, sobriety, steadiness, and prudence.
4. In such a society there would be scarcely any old people, and not any of the labouring class: in such a society, con- sequently, there would be but a scanty stock of prejudices, whilst the easy circumstances of all would enable all to acquire useful knowledge. Moreover, within a few years of the establishment of this Colony, there will exist in it a much larger proportion of children than ever existed in any society since Shem, Ham, and Japhet were surrounded by their youthful offspring. The Charter jyhich incprporates the Company, is to provide for a system of UNIVERSAL EDUCATION. A law to the same effect has just been passed by the legislature of France. When will England attempt
as much for herself?—When the father of Lord Howicx, who patronizes this Colony, shall have to deal with a Reformed Par- liament.
A privilege of inestimable value, to be conferred by the Charter, is.perfect Freedom of Trade. The Colonists are to enjoy the power
of buying what they want in the cheapest, and selling their surplus produce in the dearest market, that they can anywhere find. This privilege is of course subject, however, to the expiring monopoly
of the East India Company. Of the advantages that it will pro- hably.confer, some estimate may be forthed by reference to the wonderful progress of that but partially free port, Sincapore. Further privileges to be conferred by the Charter are—first, the right of self-government, by means of a Legislative Assembly,
to be called as soon as the male adult population shall reach 10,000. Secondly, the absence, in the meanwhile, of any Colonial Council to divide and nullify the responsibility of the Governor.
Those who are acquainted with the governments of New South Wales and the Cape of Good Hope, will understand the value of this boon. Thirdly, the absence of all restraint, whether fiscal or censorial, on the political press. Lord CHARLES SOMERSET, if he could speak from his grave, and General DARLING, whose conduct would have been but for the Reform question, and will soon be, brought before Parliament, would start to hear of this wise and generous provision,—the sole, as it will probably turn out to be a perfect, security for the Governor's good conduct.
We have now recited the main inducements to settling in this Colony. Whatever will be beneficial to settlers must also benefit the holders of shares in the Company by which the Colony is to be founded ; since the profits of the Company are to be derived from the prosperity of the Colony. The mode in which those pro- fits are to he sought is as follows.
The capital of the Company is to be 500,0001. Of this sum, one-fourth is to be paid to the Government for land, and to be immediately expended by the Board of Emigration in supplying the Company with selected labourers. Another fourth is to be ad- vanced in sums of from, probably, 5001. to 5,0007., to settlers pos- sessed of such an amount of capital as will afford security for the loan. Thus, any emigrant capitalist may take shares in the Com- pany to the amount of, say, half his capital,—borrow that amount of the Company, leaving his shares as a security,—and so share in. the profits of the Company, andyet preserve for his own use the en- tire amount of his capital. If this provision should be acted on to the amount of one quarter of the Company's capital, viz. 125,000/., a considerable number of the inure wealthy settlers will have a deep interest in the Company's commercial success. Of the re- maininghalf of the capital subscribed, a portion is to be set apart for defraying the expenses of colonial government until one year after the Legislative Assembly shall be called ; when the Colony will provide the cost of its own governMent, and will refund to the Company what may have been advanced for government expenses. It is calculated that this sum will not exceed 50,0001. If so, 200,000/. will remain, with which the Company is to employ the labourers sent out by means of the first portion of its capital, in con-' ferring upon the land which it shall have purchased the greatest in- crease of market value. The successful operations of the land com- panies of the United States, and of the Canada Land Company, of which last the direction is in London, point out the mode of pro- ceeding by which, in new countries, as indeed everywhere, the highest value is conferred upon land. Everywhere land is most va- luable when the greatest competition for it has arisen. In new coun- tries, competition for land is created by conferring upon the land those circumstances which will induce population to settle and concentrate there. These circumstances are the foundation of a town, roads, bridges, docks, &c. In this manner, the sum of 200,000/. in question is to be employed ; and as the Company, being the first settler, is to have the first choice of land, it will of course select the spot which is likely to become the seat of go- vernment and the centre of commerce.. All experience is worth nothing, or great mismanagement alone can prevent the Company from soon reaping large profits by the resale of its land at a much enhanced price. That capital employed in the manner described, is less likely to be mismanaged from a distance, than in any other. pursuit, is satisfactorily shown by the following extract from the plan of the Company- " It may be premised, that the enterprise is one peculiarly fitted for the employment of the capital of a company. " In the production of almost any commodity whatsoever, a company can scarcely hope to compete successfully with individuals managing their own capital. In the growth of wool, for example, the constant and minute attention requisite to improve the breed of sheep or prevent it from deteriorating; to keep the animals in health and provide them at the least charge with food ; and to cleanse and prepare the wool, must always give to the owner who superintends his own flocks a great advantage over a company whose concerns are managed by agents. AN hile the mag- nitude of the operations of the latter, so t.ar from counterbalancing the disadvantage of hired superintendence, would alone be sufficient to prevent even a proprietor, who should conduct them on his owl account, from obtaining so large a profit as the owner of smaller flocks. "In the formation of roads, bridges, docks, &c. on the contrary, indi- viduals cannot compete with companies. The capital required to conduct such undertakings on the most profitable scale is possessed by few, and perhaps by none who would be willing to superintend its employment amidst the inconveniences of a new colony. " The selection of large tracts of land and the laying out of towns, the planning of roads, bridges, docks, &c.. ere great operations, whith by the aid of plans may be pretty correctly judged of-at a distance; • and the execution of the plans when once formed requires not that constant and minute attention, that zealous watchfulness and contrivance, which is necessary to successful competition in the production of most commo- dities. The agents required are few, and the management therefore not expensive. And though a company established for such a purpose will be liable to commit some errors in their plans, and to suffer to a small extent from careless, wasteful, or dishonest management in their execu- tion, the danger of loss in this way is very small compared with that which attends every attempt to cultivate land or grow produce by a com- pany situated at a distance from its estates. The confidence entertained of the practicability and profitableness of the scheme does not wholly rest on ii priori consideration. The great and rapid increase which the value of land acqui res in flourishing colonies by the formation of roads and the growth of towns, is well known to all persons at all conversant with the history of the United States, Canada, or Austra- lasia; and has frequently formed the basis of successful speculations on the part of both individuals and companies. " Most of the land annually brought into cultivation in the United States is prepared for the reception of settlers by land companies, which purchase blocks of land and make roads over them, laying out a town and sometimes building a church on their purchase, and selling the land, when thus improved, to settlers. Having disposed of one block thus pre- pared, the company purchases another, with which it proceeds in the same manner. Until the land is thus provided with roads, few settlers venture 's to apply for it even at the government price ; but tl-:e moment roads are made on any spot, applicants flock to it in abundance, willing to pay a
liberal profit to the company on its outlay." -
We have devoted to this subject more space than the general reader will think it deserves. But the subject is really of impor- tance, and not the less because all our minds are occupied with Reform. If this trial of a new system of Colonization should suc- ceed, the system may be carried on to an extent without assign- able limit, and may thus provide the Board of Emigration with a fund sufficient for working some real improvement in the condition of the labouring classes. Every sign of the times points to the ne- cessity of rendering those classes contented and wise, instead of, as at present, discontented and reckless. Besides, how many families are there at this moment, who, though their chief possess a moderate capital, are reduced, if not to want, to the dread of want, by reason of the low rate of profits ! So low is the rate of profits, that few are at ease, except the owners of large capitals, land-owners, and tax-eaters. To the class of small capitalists,—including the over- stocked professions, in which knowledge is capital,—this project opens a new field for exertion, in which reward willhe in proportion to desert. The proposed plan of colonization is not, we repeat, to be the creation of a new, half-civilized society, but the extension of an old society, free from the evils attendant on a circumscribed field for the employment of capital and labour. To the wretched labour- ers who may assist in founding the colony, plenty at once, and a happy future prospect, are offered : to the emigrants of moderate capital and large family, a refuge from ill-requited toil and anxious dread of the future.
For the quantity of misery that may be converted into happiness by this measure, it has, and shall not want, our earnest support.