Mitbates an Vrocediings fit iparlianterit.
SUPPLY: GRIEVANCES AND WANTS-
The motion for going into Committee of Supply, on Monday, gave occa- sion for the usual setting forth of grievances and wants.
Sir VALENTINE BLAKE began with a complaint that, in seine former remarks on the opening of Trinity College Dublin, he had been interrupted by Sir Robert Peel with an irrelevant allusion to a "ship-canal" across Ireland, a project respecting which Sir Valentine had been much misrepre- sented. He went on to comment on the state of Ireland and the bearing of the session upon it; praising the Maynooth Bill, blaming Government for faltering in the Colleges Bill; and closing with a wish that the Speaker might be restored-by the vacation to that strength which must be enervated by his wonderful assiduity and perseverance in the performance of his high functions. Sir .ROHERT FEEL disclaimed having had any intention IQ contradict Sir Valentine.
Mr. Ews.ur moved the following resolutions— "1. That a statement be made on thepart of the Governmentaf the tondition 1md prospecto of each educational establishments as ate-supported wholly or par- tially-bra vete of-this House. " 2. That it is expedient that the formation of public libraries, freely open to the public, be encouraged.
" 3. That it is expedient that schooLslor the training of masters be more ex.. teasively promoted: "4. Thar itisierpedieatthitappointraents tithe subordinate offices of Govern- ment be made solar as possible by examination of the merits of the candidates for such offices."
In a short speech Mr2Esvatt briefly taaolied upon the several resolu- tions. He recommended collateral rather than direct aid from Government in promoting education. He desired a viva race statement by a Minister, such as those made from the Naval, Military, and Ordnance departments, as better than the voluminous reports of Committees or Commissions; which have the effect of oonoealing rather than of developing the subject. The experiment of examining candidates for Government employment had been tried by Lord Melbourne's Administration in respect to three clerkships, with complete success. Sir HORNET FEEL observed that there is a great deal of information in the reports from Education Inspectors appointed by the Pilvy Council; but he admitted that a statement by a Minister of the Crown might allure more attention to the subject, and the proposition should receive serious and careful consideration during the recess. The grant for education has this year been increased from 40,000/. to 75,0001., besides the 75,0001. for Ireland; and if necessary, Ministers will next year propose a further increase. With respect to the training of schoolmasters, in the year ending August 1844, funds were supplied for the building of no fewer than 380 schools; and a vote has also been made for the erection of schoolmasters' houses, for the express purpose of increasing the comforts and elevating the condition of that class of persons. He very much doubted whether the application of an increased sum next year would not be justified by the results attending the increase now made. As to the examination for Government offices, the present plan, of taking .persons for a year on trial, he thought more satisfactory than the proposed examination. Mr. WYSE, Mr. Hume, and Mr. HAWES, all supported the view of the mover, but accepted the explanation of Sir Robert Peel in part satisfaction; and Mr. EWART suffered the motion to be negatived without-a division.
Mr. Wu-Lusts moved for a Select Committee to inquire into the allega- tions of a, petition from the senior students of the Government School of Design at Somerset House, complaining of mismanagement. He stated how Mr. Three had been removed from the direction of the School, and suc- ceeded by Mr. Wilson, neither an artist nor a workman; how Mr. Wilson quarrelled with Mr. Herbert, the teacher of the class drawing from the human figure, and Mr. Herbert was dismissed; how the number of the students attending the School has fallen off; and how, out of the twenty- four members of the Council, but four attend, so that the School has fallen under the management of a clique. At the last competition for prizes, there was a lamentable lack of talent: Mr. Pugin, the celebrated architect, employs only two decorators of English birth, and they belong to the num- ber of thirty-seven students expelled from the School for taking part in Mr. Herbert's quarreL [This case has already been fully explained in'the Spectator.] Sir GEORGE CLERK opposed the motion. He explained, that Mr. Dyce withdrew because the salary was not sufficient; and he defended Mr. Wilson's taste and efficiency as an artist. He represented Mr. Her- bert's class for drawing the human figure as being too exclusively attrac- tive to the students in a school for ornamental design, in which the study of the human figure was not the primary object. The facts of the quarrel were these. According to the rule of the School, notices are posted stating that students have incurred punishment for inattention; such a notice was posted on the door of Mr. Herbert's class-room; he regarded it as a per- sonal insult, and appealed to his students; they took it up; there was att altercation with Mr. Wilson; and in order to preserve discipline it was found necessary to suspend the class. Some of these " senior " students are but fifteen or sixteen years of age; and to Show their animus, the eldest, a Mr. Hearne, accused Mr. Wilson of passing off some drawings as his own which were the work of a foreign artist: they were copies; Mr. Wilson had put the name of the place where they were made at the corner—Orvieto; and that it was that the student took for the name of some great artist! The exhibition at Somerset House would prove the excellence of the School; and its success would be still further tested by the fact that the patterns designed by the pupils find purchasers at high prices among eminent manufacturers. Mr. EWART and 'Mr. Weisccer supported the motion. It was opposed by Mr. Hawes, [one of the Council] 'who said that the Council had done, their best to reconcile Mr. Wilson and Mr. Herbert, without dismissing Mr. Herbert; by Mr. WYSE, [another of the Council,] and by Mr. HUME. The motion was negatived without a divi- sion.
Viscount CLEMENTS complained of the dismissal of four Irish Police- men; which Sir THOMAS FREMANTLE scarcely took the trouble to defend; and the House went into Committee.
Several Colonial votes were passed, with some exceptions taken, especi- ally by Mr. Cium.us BuLLau; who objected to various sums granted Ibr civil service or religious establishments in several 'colonies. Mr. Buller also asked whether Government intended to establish a convict colony on the North coast of New Holland? Mr. G. W. HOPE at first evaded to direct answer; but virtually admitted the fact, by saying that it- would not beat Port Essington, and that nothing had been determined upon.
On Wednesday, the motion for going into Committee gave rise to new series of desultory discussions. Mr. CHARLES BULLER asked what steps Government had taken to pro- mote education in Malta? The population of that colony is 118,000 per- sons, its revenue 120,0001.; and yet but 4,0001. is spent in promoting education among the native inhabitants. Mr. G. W. Hos% said, that many things had been done with that object, though such measures are im- peded by local prejudices. An attempt to found a college, indeed, had not succeeded so well as might have been expected, partly because it was planned on too great a scale, partly because the president did not agree with his colleagues; but he was removed, and his place supplied by a Roman Catholic gentleman from Stoneyhurst. The college has been-re- organized, fourteen primary schools have been established, the grant -is nearly 5,0001., and more will be given if required. It is expected that a fresh report will soon be made to Government.. Mr. FIELDER drew attention to the treatment which he had received from the Income-tax Commissioners. [He has previously brought his catte before Parliament, and it will suffice to give a very brief outline of the sequel.] Mr. Fielden and his brothers, as manufacturers at Todmorden, had made returns based on their accounts for the years 1839, '40' and '41, and 1840, '41, and '42, stating.no,profit on either period, but a loss. They
had submitted proofs of that to the Income-tax Commissioners at Roch- -dale, the truth of which was not denied; but the Commissioners confirmed -their own assessments assuming a large profit; the Company's goods were seized and sold by the Sheriff—goods were taken and sold to an amount exceeding the demand, and no account had been rendered to the owners. They have now been proceeded against for arrears of taxes due on the 10th October last. In making their return for the year ending on the 5th April 1845, they filled up a form specially supplied by the Receiving Inspector; who supposed that an account made out in the way prescribed would satisfy the Commissioners. It did not do so; but they lowered their assessment from 24,000/. to 12,0001. The Commissioners had no more ground for fixing on the smaller than the larger sum; and when they received notice of legal proceedings, Messrs. Fielden wrote to the Surveyor of Taxes, and to the Solicitor of the Board of Stamps and Taxes, explaining the case; but the Board declined to interfere. Mr. Fielden had taken oath as to the correctness of his returns, and had offered to show his books; but
the General Commissioners would not look at them, and issued their warrant to distrain upon the goods—a third time sold to pay the tax. He brought forward the case as a public question, believing it to be the case of thousands. He moved for a variety of papers on the subject.
Mr. Wituarts seconded the motion; deprecating the official practice of always assuming that subordinate officers must be right.
Mr. Got:slaloms agreed to produce some of the papers, but not others, as they were extra-official. He doubted whether there were thousands of similar cases; for if so, Government had heard nothing of them. He re- gretted any inconvenience to Mr. Fielden; but a general law must be obeyed; and he believed that if injustice had been done it was Mr. Fielden's own fault. It did not follow that his truth or honour was im- peached because his returns were not regarded as accurate. Mr. Goulburn believed that the dispute arose on the mode of valuing stock: the question was, whether cotton that had been purchased some years before at a higher price than it then bore in the market, and manufactured into articles, was to be taken at the loss caused by the difference between the price of that *cotton when it was purchased and that which it bore in the rnarketat the time the assessment was made. The Commissioners called for further information, which Mr. Fielden refused to give; and Mr. Goulburn did not know that They could do otherwise than decide against the party refusing to give the information. The difficulty would not have arisen if he had shown a little less of that British virtue which led him to resist with more than ordinary firmness what he considered an improper intrusion on his private affairs.
Mr. FIELDER said that the Chancellor of the Exchequer must speak from accounts which were incorrect. He had given all the information
he could; he had answered any question put to him; he had offered his books for examination; but the first intimation he had of the decision was the levy made on his goods.
Several Members supported the motion. Mr. HAWES hoped that others would not be discouraged from showing "British virtue" in resistance to arbitrary power conferred by a measure which needs many amendments.
Mr. BERNAL insinuated that Mr. Fielden was not discreet in appealing to the Local Commission, composed of persons who had taken a very de- cided part in politics. Mr. HUME objected to the irresponsible nature of the authority intrusted to the persons empowered to raise four or five Millions sterling. Mr. BROTH.ERTON objected to the manner in which the Land-tax Commissioners are appointed; and stated, that the reason why Messrs. Fielden returned "no profits" was, that their humanity would not (snow them to stop their works, and the consequence was that there was a vast accumulation of stock. They had had no less than 600,000 pieces of cloth on hand, which were unsaleable. Captain Pecuistr. hoped the Government would take into consideration the cases of those persons having incomes under 150/. a year who had been surcharged but who had never had the excess returned to them.
Sir ROBERT PEEL said, that as there was great jealousy of the Execu- tive Government's inquiring into the affairs of individuals, Parliament chose to give that power to private individuals. To provide for the case Of local jealousies, the Special Commissioners were appointed, and to them 1tr. Fielden should have appealed. Considering the large amount that had been collected under the tax, the proportion of complaints had been much less than could have been expected.
The returns to which Ministers assented were ordered.
Mr. BERNAL called attention to the recent accidents on the South- eastern and Birmingham Railways [recounted among our general news,] as showing the necessity of interference. Sir GEORGE CLERK admitted, theta-might hereafter be necessary to impose some more efficient check on railway companies than the mere suggestions which the Board of Trade
has no power to enforce. Sir Rosner PEEL said, more emphatically, that if the moral responsibility which now rests on those who have the manage- ment of railways is not sufficient, it will be necessary for Parliament to in- sist on -some different system—
It is constantly urged that the accidents by railways bear no proportion what- ever to those which used to occur by stage-coach. That is no answer; it is a mere sophistication. We have a right to be insured that those who derive the profits from these railways shall take every possible precaution on behalf of the public. Every precaution that money can provide ought to be taken; and there can be nothing worse than that the public mind should be disturbed by the con- stant fear of these accidents. It is unfortunate for the railways themselves that the growing public confidence in them should be destroyed. It does seem that in these recent cases the accidents which have occurred might have been prevented by due precaution. If by the employment of ill-qualified subordinate officers these accidents are rendered more likely to happen or more frequent, then it will -be the duty of Parliament to step in and demand a reduction of the profits of those who are concerned in the railway, in order that due precautions may be taken to insure the public safety. Mr. HUME observed, that there was not at present sufficient responsi- bility on the directors. VISCOMH PALMERSTON mentioned his own expe- riences in travelling from Dover to London, with two engines to push the trains through the tunnels. On inquiry, he was informed, that from a de- sire of economy, a set of engines were employed by the Company which were not strong enough singly to do the work, and that two engines there- fore were used where one would otherwise have been sufficient.
Viscount PALMERSTON complained of the defective state of the national defences. France has a standing army of 340,000 men, including a large force of Cavalry and Artillery, besides 1,000,000 of the National Guard, equipped and ready for duty; a fleet equal to ours, and a steam-marine capable of transporting 30,000 men. The Channel is no longer a barrier, but steam-navigation has rendered it a river passable by a steam-bridge. Our relationsovith -France, are of the most amicable nature; but questions dabs greatest importance may rise up in any part of the globe, and this country ought not to be accessible to a sudden attack. The defence of our arsenals is defective, and harbours of refuge are wanted. He slilW a beginning made under that head by a small slim in the votes: the amount proposed is 150,0001., the estimate of the Commissioners on Harbours of Refuge being 3,500,0001. But supposing our dockyards perfectly inaccessible and our steam-vessels sufficient, Calais, St. Maio, Cherbourg, and Dunkirk are within a few hours' passage of our coasts, and there would be great diffi-
culty in sending steamers in such numbers as to prevent a landing. What then is the state of the internal garrison? Probably there are 30,000 men scattered over Great Britain and the Channel Islands, and 20,000 in Ireland. It would be necessary to recruit the army, and ballot for the militia. The established and constitutional remedy for that state of things is at once to summon the regular militia. He understood that Govern- ment did not mean to do so. He saw by former years, that the expense of a ballot for the militia, which gave about 50,000 men, was 40,000/., and the cost of training was 90,000/. Those are considerable sums, no doubt; but we have a war-tax in time of peace; and for Heaven's sake let us have those precautions which would save us from the expenses of actual war. Governments are apt to consider it their first duty to secure a Parliamentary majority, and indeed without it they could not exist: but it is not enough to scramble through the debates, or even to bring in good measures—if your shores are not protected, all your legislation will be vain.
Sir ROBERT PEEL believed Lord Palmerston's impression as to the de- fenceless state of the country to be quite erroneous; but it would be in- discreet to state the grounds of that belief. Nothing could be so unwise as to encourage parties in othercountries,—(a small minority, he trusted,) who may be bout on hostilities with this-
" So far from concurring in the opinion of the noble Lord, I believe that in case there should be a necessity imposed on this country of resorting to hostilities, there never was a period when such a demonstration as would then be called forth has been made; the Sovereign, supported and encouraged by almost the una- nimous voice of the people, being determined hi a just cause to make efforts worthy of the ancient character of this country. (Cheers.) I have a strong opi- nion that upon that head we have nothing to fear. I think it is hardly. possible to estimate what will be seen to be the dormant energy of this country If a jest cause should call it forth."
Nevertheless, it would be unwise to rely altogether on appearances, which might leave us to sudden and precipitate efforts on emergency. He trusted that France would preserve friendly relations with us, and would see how her own prosperity depends on peace—
"But, Sir, I must own that I am rather surprised at the noble Lord's excessive apprehensions on this subject; because the noble Lord was in office for a period of ten years, and I venture to say that this country is in a better state with respect to the means of repelling aggression than she WAS at that time. Did the noble Lord see France expend the sum of fifteen millions sterling upon the fortifications of Paris, and issue an order increasing the army suddenly to the extent of 100,000 men? and does the noble Lord think that this country now stands in the same position with respect to France as it did in 1811? There was no militia-ballot at that period; there was not nearly the same amount of military force that there is at present; and Ivory much doubt whether them were as many sail of the line.' As to the dockyards and harbours, while further improvements are daily going on, it would be unwise hastily to lay out money, lost it should be thrown away. For the Navy and Ordnance however, he had proposed an addition of 1,100,000/. He hoped that this country never would depart from its policy of being strong as a naval power, and that it never would enter into competition with foreign countries as a military power. He ad- mitted that the military force is not mow sufficient to meet, with duo eco- nomy, all demands that might arise; but the people of this country would not be satisfied with a standing army of 100,000 or 200,000 men within our own land. And there is the force of 50,000 veteran pensioners of the Army and Marines, liable to be called out, and inured to service. With re- spect to the ballot for the Militia, the law is only suspended, and Ministers could enforce it if necessary. It is to be doubted whether the existing militia-laws are quite suited to the present state of society, and whether they might not undergo some useful alterations. He would not enter into further explanations; contenting himself with saying that Lord Pabourston's impression as to the defenceless state of the country was totally at variance with his own. Government would without scruple ask for whatever the public service might require. With respect to the harbours of refuge, this is the first year that any proposal has been made: the vote is purposely small, and he hoped they would not be driven forward too fast; nothing could be more important than that they should take the best opinions as to the proper mode of securing the object.
Viscount PALMERSTON having said a few more words about the "steam- bridge," Sir ROBERT PEEL said, he thought that the demonstration which we could make of our steam-navy was one which would surprise the world; and as the noble Lord had spoken of steam-bridges, he would remind him that there were two parties who could play at making them. Sir CHARLES NAPIER uttered one snore of his speeches about the ineffi- oieut state of the Navy and steam-marine; and the subject dropped.
The House went into Committee of Supply; and several miscelhineons sums iwere voted, with the usual contingency of remarks.
In reply to Mr. HUME, Sir ROBERT PEEL said, that a Commission had reported on the state of the smaller harbours, and he had authorized further investigations during the recess.
The vote of 35,6301. for Nonconforming and other ministers in Scotland, was resisted by Mr. SHARMAN CRAWFOR.D, Mr. linsmato, and others, on Voluntary prineples; but affirmed, by 71 to 13.
On the vote of 22,565/. for New Zealand, Mr. J. A. SMITH stated, that negotiations had been resumed between the Colonial Office and the New Zealand Company; and that the result only wanted the final approval of Lord Stanley, who was unavoidably absent from town: but he asked, if the hope of a favourable issue were not realized, whether Sir Robert Peel would afford another opportunity before the close of the session for 601110 remarks on the present state of New Zealand? Sir ROBERT PEEL pro- mised to do so; but expressed "a strong desire—a very strong desire," to cooperate in the colonization of New Zealand, and to bring the differeame with the Company to a conclusion. Mr. llors stated, that a gentlemen quite unconnected with the subject had been called in to give his advice, and he was now engaged in arranging the matter for his full consideration.
Mr. ROEBUCK took occasion to urge a departure from the old system Of managing colonies, so expensive to the mother-country; and to recommend a plan of governing New Zealand, under one general government, and 4A organization of counties, with a county administration for strictly local pur-
Idr. 5toumi reverted to the•subjeets of the last debate; insistiss
that Lord Stanley should share the responsibility of the Governor whom he had appointed. Sir ROBERT PEEL remarked that this speech belonged to the second night of the last debate: he sympathized with Mr. Shell's disappointment in not having been allowed to deliver it then, but declined to answer it now. At the same time, he denied that Lord Stanley's general Parliamentary responsibility could be construed into an individual respon- sibility for all the details of Captain Fitzroy's conduct. As to the county representation recommended by Mr. Roebuck, he saw little difference be- tween it and the municipalities contemplated; each chief town to have its surrounding district, powers of local legislation, and a liberal franchise; Which might include the Natives under certain restrictions. Mr. HAWES Mr. BULLER, MT. AGLIONBY, and Lord EBRINGTON ex- pressed satisfaction at the prospect of harmony between the Government and the Company; Mr. Buller remarking, that the present vote ought to be made sufficient to pay all the debts of the colony. Mr. HOPE replied, that one of the inconveniences resulting from the imperfect state of the in- formation supplied by Captain Fitzroy was, that the knowledge of the colony's financial condition was very vague, and the estimates were there- fore imperfect. Mr. WILLIAMS asked whether that meant that there would be a supplemental vote? Mr. HOPE intimated that perhaps there might. On this Mr. Wimaams and Mr. OSBORNE twitted some Members with giving up the general colonial question, now that the Company seemed likely to get their million of acres.
Ultimately, the vote was agreed to; with several others, including 150,0001. for harbours of refuge and enlargement of tidal-harbours.
The vote of 1,200/. for repairing St. Margaret's Church gave rise to an animated conversation; Mr. BORTHWICK proposing that the church should be pulled down as an eyesore. Mr. GOULBURN resisted that proposition, as it would take 40,000/. to rebuild the church elsewhere, and it would be difficult to find a site. The vote was affirmed, by 44 to 19.
Another discussion arose on the vote of 75,000/. for public education in Ireland; Mr. HAMILTON attacking the National system. In reply to Mr. WYSE, Sir Jassms Gaarust stated that Government intended to found model-schools in Ireland; to grant a charter of incorporation to the Na- tional Board, so that they might purchase land as sites for school-houses; and to improve the character of existing school-houses.
On the vote of 7,528/. for half-a-year's allowance to 300 retired Captains in the Navy, Mr. CORRY explained the plan of retirement. [The report cited by Mr. Cony was abridged under the head of Miscellaneous intelli- gence in the last Spectator.] Mr. WILLIAMS opposed the vote, as the pro- posed annuities would be equivalent to the sum of half-a-million. Captain PECUELL thought that the plan would not succeed, on account of the small allowance offered; and Admiral DUNDAS also thought that it would prove abortive. It was applauded by Sir CHARLES NAPIER and Sir GEORGE COCKBURN; and the vote was agreed to.
The House then resumed; and soon after adjourned, at half-past two o'clock in the morning; having sat since noon.
DISPOSAL OF LAND IN Al7STRALIA AND NEW 7.FALAWD.
In the House of Commons, on Wednesday, Mr. G. W. HOPE moved the second reading of the Waste Lands (Australia) Bill. Mr. CHARLPS BULLER declared, that if the bill were pressed it would be vigorously op- posed in every stage; and Sir JAMES GRAHAM pressing it, Mr. Wennunrost moved that it be read a second time that day six months. This was negatived by 34 to 11; on which Mr. WARBURTON moved the adjournment of the debate for a week. Sir hams GRAHAM said that there were urgent reasons for passing that part of the bill which related to Van Diemen's Land; and it was read a second time, with a view to its being cut down to that part.
On Thursday, a motion was made for going into Committee on the bill. Mr. HAWES opposed the measure. [The report of this discussion, short as it was, is so imperfect in all the papers before us as to be unintelligible: we can therefore only make out the general drift, if so much.] The policy of Government towards the Australian Colonies was condemned by Mr. HAWES, Mr. HumE and Mr. VILLIERS, as tending to discourage emigra- tion, and as providing no remedy for the distress under which Van Die- men's Land labours; the best remedy for which would be to admit the agri- cultural produce of the colony to the British market. Mr. G. W. HOPE and Sir Jastss GRAHAM defended the bill, on the score of its defraying the cost of convict establishments, thus indirectly supplying labour to the co- lonists. Mr. Scorr made a digression to attack the New Zealand Com- pany, to whose monopolizing spirit he imputed the opposition to the bill; and Mr. PAKINGTON pleaded for measures to relieve the spiritual destitu- tion of the Australian Colonies. The motion for going into Committee was affirmed by 35 to 7. The bill was considered in Committee, the clauses not relating to Van Diemen's land were disposed of; the bill was reported with amendments, and ordered to be printed.
COERCION OF BRAZIL.
In the House of Commons, on Thursday, the order of the day for bringing up the report on the Brazil Slave-trade Bill having been read, Mr. MILNER GIBSON renewed his opposition to the measure; on the ground that the mere treaty stipulation could not make it the law in Brazil to treat slave-trade as piracy, and that this country could not thus acquire by mere treaty the right to punish Brazilian subjects by what is only English law. He asked whether any remonstrance against the bill had been addressed to Government by the Brazilian Minister?
Sir ROBERT PEEL replied with a defence of the bill—
He had postponed the bill that he might maturely consider the suggestions made on a former evening by Sir Thomas Wilds; and he could now assure Mr. Gibson, that he had the highest authorities for saying, that under the first article of the conven- tion with Brazil of 1826, this country had a right to consider the carrying on of the slave-trade by Brazilian subjects as an act of piracy. Piracy is not merely a municipal crime, it is punishable by the law of nations; and although Brazil has not passed any law making slave-trade piracy, she voluntarily consented that it should be considered piracy in her subjects. In Octo- ber 1830, the Chevalier De Mattes addressed a note to the British Minis- ter for Foreign Affairs, in which he stated on the part of his Government, that as Brazil had forbidden the slave-trade to its subjects after the 13th of the previous March, and as they were liable to punishment, in virtue of the treaty, by the or- dinary tribunals of the two countries, he had been directed to concert the dissolu- tion of the Mixed Commissions at Sierra Leone and Rio de Janeiro, as superfluous. The Brazilian Government also asked that slave-ships of theirs which might have eft the coast of Africa, and were not aware that the convention had been exe- cuted, should be exempted from its operation. The English Government, al- terse to allow the slave-trade to continue one hour longer than was ne- ensented that vessels which had quitted the coast of Africa before the
1830; should be allowed to proceed to anrport in Brazil without be- ing subject to be treated as pirates on their way. On the 4th November 1829 the Brazilian Government published a proclamation incorporating the declaration in M. De Mattes's note; and that was sufficient proof that the Brazilian Govern- ment knew that their vessels were liable to be treated as pirates if found at sea after the 13th March 1830. The treaty went much further than it was proposed to enforce it: the treaty authorized proceeding against the person, but it would only be enforced against the property. He could not allow the protest of the Brazilian Minister against the present bill to be a reason for delaying it; nor could he pro- duce the protest without the answer to it. He hoped, however, that Brazil,by adhering to the mutual right of search as Portugal had done, would very soon enable the British Parliament to repeal this bill.
Mr. Hurr feared that this measure was not founded on a basis of right and justice. It appeared to him to proceed a little too far and a little too fast. Suppose it should be decided by the Brazilians that the true con- struction of the treaty was, that British subjects should be treated as pirates, and dealt with by the Brazilian law: what would not the conse- quences be of such a mistake?
The report was received. GREECE.
In the House of Lords, on Thursday, Lord BEAUMONT again denounced the system of brigandage perpetrated by Grecian soldiers on the Turkish frontier, which still continues. It was understood that Lord Aberdeen had demanded the recall of the commander, Valentza; yet he was still in command upon the frontier. The German papers assert that Lord Aber- deen approved of the policy of Coletti, and had withdrawn altogether from any interference in that quarter; allowing the Greek Government to pursue its own course, and to ask advice of the French Consul, instead of Sir Edmund Lyons. Lord Beaumont hoped that the Foreign Secretary would be so explicit as to prevent misrepresentation, or the use of his name in supporting the present state of things. He concluded by asking the fol- lowing questions—
Was the Government here at home—the Foreign Office—informed of the state of the frontier between Turkey and Greece? and if they had received information of the state of that frontier, had they given any instructions to Sir Edmund Lyons to call upon the Greek Government to remove Valentza from the command of the Greek frontier? and if so, had they received information that that order had been issued?
The Earl of ABERDEEN admitted that the peculiar relation between this country and Greece a state which this country with France and Russia created, would justify interference; and he did not feel himself precluded from giving such counsel and advice as might tend to remedy those dis- orders; but he did not feel celled upon to give any opinion as to the go- vernment of Coletti- " It is not my province to give an opinion as to the conduct of the minister of
a foreign state. I have given my advice when I thought it would be useful, and I hope such advice as will not be without its weight. With respect to the pro- ceednigs on the frontier, I must repeat that there have been gross exaggerations. Unfortunately, that frontier is inhabited by races of men who are imperfectly civilized; and lain afraid, if it be tree, as it was said of the Cretans, that they were always liars, that part of Greece has always been inhabited by men of whom it may be said that they have been more or less robbers—that it is a robber popu- lation. And, unfortunately too, the act is not regarded in the same light as in more civilized countries; ft is looked upon as a species of war, as a kind of legal warfare. I do not deny that they have been severely dealt with by the Turkish Government; but very properly; they have richly deserved what they met with. But that the Greek Government should encourage and support such proeeedingi4 is perfectly incredible. What does the Greek Government propose to gain by it? They must be desirous of removing an overwhelming Turkish force from their frontier, and it has been said over and over again that there is no real cause for such an assembly: but that, without any military force, they should endeavour to provoke hostilities on the part of the Turkish empire is perfectly preposterous, coupled too with the declaration of the three Protecting Powers, that they would not permit any aggression by Greece against Turkey. If there is such a place as a Bedlam in Greece, that would be the place for Coletti if he really does engage in such proceedings as the noble Lord suggests. But it is impossible."
With respect to Valentza, also, there had been much misrepresentation—.
" That person,—though it might perhaps have been desirable not to employ him at all, at the same time it is very difficult for the Greek Government to satisfy the claims made upon them, and they might have thought it necessary to give this man employmenti—that person, though appointed to command on that frontier, has not a large force. What is the force he commands, which is supposed to inspire terror into the Turkish empire? Why, eighteen men-' and they are not soldiers, but a species of local, or national, or provincial guards. And the frontier happens to be his own home; for he has a small farm there, which he cultivates. It happens that this man does command on this frontier; but that this is calcu- lated to inspire any uneasiness is without foundation." Lord Beaumont had said that English influence has sunk at Athens, and that the French influence predominates there—
"I am quite surprised that the noble Lord, who must know something of the East, should ever have lent countenance to these newspaper reports. Suppose it were admitted that the Greek Minister had connected himself with the French Minister, and acted by his advice, can that affect English interests? Our treaty gives us all we desire or require; and it is not possible that the French Minister can hurt a hair of an English subject's head without his obtaining redress. What is the meaning of influence being lost? Our influence depends upon our acknow- ledged power—upon the interests of the Government—upon the credit, probity, and integrity of our merchants; and, again, do not ten Englishmen go to Greece for one of any other nation? It is our own fault, therefore, if we do not derive from the visits of English travellers greater advantages than other nations from theirs. These are the real sources of influence; and I defy Coletti or the French Minister, if they would, to weaken, much less to destroy, English influence in Greece, in the only way in which we (night to have influence. I do not find any diminution of English influence in the East; quite the contrary: but I regret the course of parties in Greece and I wish that, instead of endeavouring to create what they call an English pIrty, or a French party, or a Russian party, they would think of creating a Greek party—that is the party that ought to be created." Lord BEAUMONT hoped that Lord Aberdeen's present speech would have a happier effect than that of the other; and he thought it would.
FREEDOM OF BIOGRAPHY.
In the House of Lords, on Monday, Lord CAMPBELL called attention to the Standing Order No. 113, which prohibited all persons from publishing the lives of any deceased Lord of Parliament, or the will of any such Lord, without the consent of the heirs and executors of the deceased.— This standing order dated its origin from the conduct of one Edmund CurB, who appeared to have been a shameless and dauntless person. In the year 1720 died Sheffield Duke of Buckingham; and in 1722, Edmund Curl published an advertisement in the London newspapers, indicating that there was to come out a libellous life of the deceased nobleman. His family interposed, and caused a complaint to be made to that House. The advertisement appeared in the Daily Journal of Monday the 2d January 1722, and set forth that there would be pub- lished the works of the deceased nobleman in prose and verse,- together witg 1214 life, and a true copy of his last will and testament. Edmund Curl was sum- moned to the bar of- the House, and attended; he was called in, the advertisement Was read, and the result was, that the Standing Order making it a breach of privilege to publish the life of any deceased member of that House was moved, and ordered to be taken into consideration on a subsequent day, while Curl! was reprimanded and reproved on his knees at the bar of the House. On the 21st January, the Stanffing Order was duly passed. On the 12th May in 1735, the same Edmund Curl]. caused to be advertised in the Daily Postboy, "Mr. Pore's literary correspondence for thirty years, that is, from the year 1704 to 1734; being a collection of letters, regularly digested, written by him to the late Earl of Halifax, the Earl of Burlington, and a great many other Peers, with their respec- tive answers thereto." By order of the House, Curl and others were examined, the book was seized, and the Gentleman Usher took possession of more than 500 copies. A Committee WaS appointed; it turned out that there were no letters from Peers in the book: the Committee reported that it contained nothing contrary to the Standing Order and that therefore the copies might to be returned to the said Edmund Curl!; a report which the House affirmed. He was not aware that there had been any subsequent attempt to enforce that Standing Order. In fact, it appeared to have fallen into desuetude, for there had been lives of deceased members of that House published again and again without leave of the relatives or of that House. Lord Brougham had published several admirably written lives of deceased Peers. Lord Campbell himself had employed his leisure, he hoped without incurring the censure of that House, in writing the lives of the predecessors of his noble and learned friend at that moment on the woolsack. The Lord CHANCELLOR—" Not down to the present time, I hope?" (Laughter.) Lord CAstrnaLL—No; and he trusted it would be long before that would be attempted. The existence of such an order tended to bring their Lordships' House into disrepute. Ile moved that it be rescinded. ,
The motion was at once affirmed.
THE ROYAL AssEyr was given, by Commission, on Thursday, to sixty bills; whereof twenty-four were public and thirty-six private; twenty-one being railway bills. Several of the public measures were of the nature of continuance bills; but among the number were the Jewish Disabilities Bill, the Bail in Error Bill, and the Colleges (Ireland) Bill. A NEW WRIT was ordered, on Thursday, for Kirkcudbright, in the room of Mr. Alexander Murray, deceased. POOR-LAW IN SCOTLAND. in the House of Lords, on Monday, the Duke of BUCCLEUCH moved the Committee on the Poor-law Amendment (Scotland) Bill, explaining its several provisions. Lord CAMPBELL thought it would be better to let the bill stand over for a year, with a view to its further improvement. He applauded the not yielding to popular clamour by providing compulsory relief for the able-bodied, as that tends to encourage improvident marriages and the birth of large families—the cause of the misery in Ireland. He objected to the provi- sion which makes an English temporary resident in a Scotch parish liable to assessment on his "means and substance," although he may be also assessed in England; while a Scotchrnan would be exempt if assessed in another Scotch parish. Without alteration, the bill would be considered the curse of Scotland. The House went into Committee. No amendments were proposed; and, after a few more words from Lord CAMPBELL, the bill was ordered to be reported without amendments.
The bill was read a third time on Tuesday. On the question that it do pass, Lord CorrEssiass moved to expunge a clause for joining a portion of the parish of South Leith, lying within the royalty of Edinburgh, to that of St. Giles's in Edinburgh. By a special contract, incorporated in an old act, that part of South Leith had made itself lial)le to be rated to the poor-rate both in Edinburgh and in Leith, and that construction of the act had been confirmed by a decision of the House. Lord Cottenham, Lord CAMPBELL and Lord LYNDHURST objected to the clause, that it was in opposition to the judgment of the House, and that it would be unjust to the poorer town of Leith. It was supported by the Earl of DALHOUSIE, the Duke of BUCCLEUCH, and the Earl of Ha DDLNGTON, as relieving the tract in ques- tion from an unjust double obligation. But it being thus disputed, the Duke of WELLINGTON suggested that the clause should be expunged; which was done. The bill passed. THE LUNATICS Bitty with an explanatory statement of its provisions by the LORD CHANCELLOR, passed through Committee in the House of Lords, on Tuesday. MinicaL REFORM On Monday, Sir JAMES GRAHAM stated the main altera- tions made in his Physic and Surgery Bill, and his Colleges of Physicians and Surgeons Bill. General practitioners would be examined' first by a Board of General Practitioners, and then before a Board of Physicians and Surgeons. Navy surgeons would be examined by a Board of Surgeons. The Council would be re- duced to the number of thirteen, to be appointed by the Crown. He should pro- bably advise the Crown to grant a supplemental charter to the College of Sur- geons. The bill was recommitted pro forma, and ordered to be printed, for con- sideration during the recess. LAW OF SETTLEMENT. On Thursday, Mr. BODEDT, with the acquiescence of Sir JAMES Grianasr, obtained leave to bring in a bill to amend some par- ticular points in the law of parochial settlement. It would prevent the removal of persons visited with sickness, accident, or other sudden dispensation of Providence, until they should have received relief continuously for a certain number of days; it would prevent the removal of a widow to her husband's settlement, except with her own consent, or twelve months after his death; and it Would appoint a bar- rister of a certain standing as a referee to decide upon the legality of decisions at Qaarter-sessions on cases of disputed settlement. RAILWAY LEGISLATION. On Tuesday, at the instance of Lord GRANVILLE SOMERSET, the House of Commons added to its Standing Orders three regulations— raising the deposits on railway shares from 5 to 10 per cent; obliging notices in Ireland to be deposited with Clerks of Unions instead of Clerks of the Peace; and converting into a Standing Order the resolution of the House for continuing the railway business from this session to the next- THE IRISH GREAT WESTERN RAILWAY. In the House of Lords, on Tues- day, the Earl of BESBOROUGH resumed the adjourned debate on the Dublin and Galway Railway Bill recapitulating the allegations against the Company. He did not say that the Directors had been a party to the frauds, but he accused them of gross negligence. The Marquis of CLANRICARDE impugned the whole report. He denied that the Directors had participated in the frauds; and con- tended that therefore, as there was now plenty of money to carry out the under- taking, the question was, whether Parliament would allow the bill to proceed or not. And he maintained that, as similar frauds had been committed in respect of other railways, instead of pouncing on this particular bill, the House ought to revise the law or the Standing Orders. Lord BEAUMONT observed, that the ma fion would not reach the real offenders: those who committed the frauds had sold their scrip, and the punishment would fall on the innocent holder. The motion was also opposed by Earl ST. GERMADIS, Lord MONTEAGLE, the Earl of DEVON: it MS supported by Earl BATHURST, the Earl of WICKLOW, the Duke of CLEVE- Lem, Lord REDESDALE, the Doke of WELLINGTON; and eventually affirmed, by 35 to 8. On Thursday, the Earl of Bsssonouon., drawing attention to the report on the bill, moved that John Stinton be prosecuted for perju7; he having personated William Baldron" and "Henry Penton," and obtained therm in all three names. Lord CAMPBELL said, there was no doubt that this fellow had lied most abomi- nably; but when warned that he was upon his oath he confessed his false state- ment, and his true statement was received; so that it was difficult to fix the charge of perjury. As he had grossly equivocated, he might have been committed to Newgate for contempt. Lord Corm-swam and the LORD CHANCELLOR con- curred as to the difficultj, of making out a charge of perjui7; and at length the question of prosecuting Stinton or not was referred to a Select Committee. COLONEL Laroun. On Tuesday, Mr. MILNER Guises moved for a Select Committee to inquire into the petition of Colonel Latour. In consequence of regulations promulgated by the Governor of Swan River, in December 1828, respecting the terms on which land was to be granted in Western Australia, Colonel Latour chartered a vessel and went out to that country, for the purpose of ob- taining 300,000 acres. On the 13th of January 1829, different regulations were promulgated, which prevented Colonel Latour from obtaining the land on the terms which he was led to expect when lie left this country. He now claimed to be put in possession. Mr. G. W. HOPE opposed the motion. The so-called "regulations" of 1828 were not officially promulgated, and Colonel Latour had no title under them. An official opinion to that effect had been given to Lord John Russell by Sir Thomas Wilde. Nevertheless, Colonel Latour had, as a matter of favour, been put in possession of 100,000 acres. The motion was withdrawn. 111 CEYLON. In reply to Mr. Ti-Fxsr.r.„ on Thursday, Mr. G. W. HOPE saidi that the time allowed to the civil servants of Ceylon to make their choice o giving up their situations or selling their land had been extended to six months from the date of publishing the instructions; for the sale of the property the time had been extended to two years; and if it were found that they could retain the ownership of land without actively engaging in its managenient or its interfering with their public duties, there was no wish to deprive them of it. But the last point would be reserved for further consideration. QUEBEC. In a Committee of the whole House, on Thursday, Mr. Got-uirmst moved the following resolution; which was seconded by Mr. flaws% generally supported, and carried unanimously—" That an humble address be presented to her Majesty, praying that her Majesty will be graciously pleased to direct that a sum, not exceeding 20,0004 be applied to the relief of the sufferers by the Into calamitous fires at Quebec; and assuring her Majesty that this House will make good the same."