furrigu nut nInuial.
fraurr.—Bullier's lithographic sheets, demi-official, state that the French occupation in Syria will be prolonged. Many of the Powers have consented to extend the period. It is reported that the Emperor withdrew his fleet from Gaeta only on condition that the Italians should not attack Austria in the spring, and has distinctly declared that if Piedmont becomes the aggressor, he will not move a man or spend a franc to give her aid. Father Lacordaire, the Dominican Monk, was admitted on the 25th of January a Member of the Academy. His speech, made in the pre- sence of the Empress and the Princess Clotilde, was an eloquent denun- ciation of modern democracy, which " prefers Tiberius ruling over a multitude without rights and without a name to the grandeur of the Roman people, when that people was governed by a succession of patricians, and owed to it the impulse which made it free with the dis- cipline which made it strong." The " freedom" of a Roman plebeian is an unknown quantity, but the hit told. The orator, who was all the while praising his predecessor, M. de Tocqueville, proceeded to denounce the recent aggressions on Rome as proceeding from a spirit of conquest
and usurpation. •
The official report of the Senate on the decree of the 24th of November, affirms that the law of the press remains just as it was. Debates must be published entire, or from the short-hand summary in the Moniteur. This decision is equivalent to annulling the right of report, as the jour- nals in either case must delay publication, under one alternative from the mass of matter, and under the other from the necessity of waiting for the Ifoniteur.
A discussion has commenced in France on the necessity of carrying free trade still further. It is said that the relaxation of the prohibition against foreign sugar will ruin the colonies, unless they are in return freed from all commercial fetters. At present, the colonies can export only to the mother country ; and the blue cloth of Pondicherry, wanted in Senegal, must be forwarded past Senegal to France, to be reexported.
M. de Persigny, Minister of the Interior, has warned the Courrier du Dimanche, for an article attacking " the principle of the Government." The writer, M. G. Ganesco, said to be a Wallachian, is ordered to quit France. The article spoke of the existing regime as tending to a state of Roman servitude.
From the 1st of February, a new tariff of telegraphic messages will be adopted by the French Government. Twenty words, between London and Paris, will thenceforward cost six francs.
Marc Caussidiere, Prefect of Police in 1848, and once a trusted leader of the Reds, died in Paris on the 28th of January.
Pt gillitt.—The Government has proposed to the Chamber a grant of 15,000,000 francs for the purchase of improved artillery for the Belgium Army. Of the whole sum, 14,500,000 francs will be expended upon rifle cannon, and the remainder on the demolition of old works no longer required. The expenditure will be spread over several years, and de- frayed without a loan.
ta lg.—The resolution to defend Gaeta after the withdrawal of the French fleet was, it appears, formed at a council of diplomatists. Francis II. expressed his views in favour of further defence, and was supported by the foreign Ministers, who immediately. took their departure for Terracina. While embarking, however, a circular, from the King re- quested them to remain, to aid him with their "moral support." The terrified diplomatists invented all manner of excuses, and, with one ex- ception, departed. The exception was the Pope's Nuncio, who had already incurred censure for deserting his post, and whom the circular compelled to remain. He was handed into a casemate more dead than alive.
The people of Rome have organized a regular system of expressing their sentiments, by applause of particular sentences in the operas. It has been found necessary to suppress II Trovatore; but every opera con- tains some allusion which the Liberals can use as an expression of popular feeling.
The attack on Gaeta of the 22d is described as terrible, but without result. The fleet could lend little aid, and the bombardment appeared to produce but slight effect. The Neapolitans behaved admirably ; one vessel, commanded and manned by Neapolitans, being foremost in the attack.
The Prince de Carignan is exceedingly popular at Naples, where he has actively commenced his task of reform. Five millions of lire have been granted for roads, to commence immediately ; and a regular police force for the capital is being organized under Spaventa. Severe mea- sures also are taken against the brigands in the Abruzzi, who are invari- ably beaten by the troops. The Prince de Carignan has warned the inhabitants of Naples that Chap. XI. of the Code—identical with our own Riot Act—will hereafter be put in force. The Carnival has commenced ; and the Neapolitans postpone politics to buffoonery. The elections have ended throughout North Italy, and the result is a complete victory for Count Cavour. Only four open Mazzinians have been returned ; and the most notorious, such as Bertani and Guerazzi, have been rejected. Even Genoa has sent up a moderate. Of the Garibaldiana, only the generals, by far the most moderate, have been returned. All the Ministers have been returned ; and some men, such as Farina, deemed excessively unpopular. From Southern 'Italy the re- port is equally favourable. Two-thirds of the members returned from Naples to Sicily will be Moderates ; Crispi, for example, being beaten in Palermo. Throughout the country the excitement has been great, and a great majority of electors have gone to the poll. The funds rose on the announcement of the numbers for North Italy.
The chief of the Moderate Opposition, Itsttazzi, has been elected at Alesaandria, a place which he has represented for years. The elections at Bologna resulted in favour of the Home Minister, Minghetti, the Marquis Pepoli, and Berti Pichat, all former members. At Florence, the Deputies are Baron Ricasoli, Cay. Peruzzi, and Marquis Genori, also Deputies of the late Parliament, and the best men the Tuscan capital could muster. Leghorn will send again Fabrizii and Malenchini, the former a man of great literary and scientific accomplishments, the latter one of Garibaldi's bravest officers and worthiest friends. General La Marmora will sit, as usual, for Elena, and General Cadorna fur Pallanza. Admiral Persano is elected at Spezia; Vegezzi, the Minister of the Finance, is returned at Borgomanero ; Corsi, the Minister of Agricul- ture, at San Pimiento' the Minister of Public Instruction, Mamiani, has secured his election at Pesaro. Contrary to the advice of his colleague, the President of the Council of Ministers, and firm against all his re- veals and remonstrances, this Minister has been the only one who Otowed great eagerness to appear in Parliament with the honours of a double election. He stuck fast to the College of Cuorgne, where, how- ever, his election broke down, and where he is in balttaggio with the adyocate Zerbeglio, no very illustrious opponent.
General Della Marmora has been despatched on a special mission to Berlin. His duty, according to the Inele'pendance Beige, is to convince the Prussian Cabinet that Italy has no designs on Germany, and that the surrender of Venetia by Austria is a necessity.
It is reported that the Emperor of Austria has resolved to restore to Venetia 48 autonomy, and to place the Government in the hands of Italians resident at Venice. As the Emperor would lose the province in the following week, the report must be unfounded.
Emperor, it is reported, has finally made up his mind not to abolish the Concordat. A "restless atom " in the Times affirms, that the surrender of Venetia would weaken Austria as regards Hun- gary. That kingdom now comprises two-fifths of the Empire, but with- out Venetia it would include three-fourths, and its influence would be irresistible. Venetia does not quite pay her expenses, but among her expenses is a proportion of the army large enough to keep Hungary in cheek. Austria, he contends, has received assurances from Germany which guarantee Italy to her, and which account for her recent relapse in the reactionary direction. On the other hand, the hathieendance Beige *nnounces that, " We have received confirmation of our statement of a day or two ago, that a verbal communication had been made by Prince Metternich to M. Thouvenel, in which Austria declared that she should consider as a casus belli with Piedmont an attack by Garibaldi upon any point whatsoever of the Austrian territory. It is added that Austria in this onmmunication expressed the wish to respect Lombardy, and that
M. Thouveuel, in taking note of this declaration, observed that if in an eventuality such as that which Prince Metternich had referred to, the Austrian Government employed German Federal contingents, France would consider that fact a violation of the principle of non-interven- tion."
n garg.—The standing committee of the general assembly of the county of Gran have forwarded their answer to the Viennese rescript of the 10th of January. It is as bold as the Grand "all Remonstrance •' the committee, after asserting that all Hungarian authorities are moved by love for their country, which for the last twelve years has merely vege- tated," and eomplaining of the " high price " of justice, of official op- session, and the sufferings inflicted on the patriots, continue in words as noble as ever menaced a Kaiser.
" The wrongs done to the Hungarian nation cry aloud to Heaven ' (Bind hirumelechreiend).
" The Hungarian Constitution is a thousand years old, and a thou- sand years have the Hungarians had to do battle in its defence. Such a prolonged struggle and the continual violation of our laws have made 1113 distrustful.
" Your Majesty will not take offence that we speak openly. Illus- trious Sir, we are as children who address a father. In the diploma of the 20th of October, reference is made to the Pragmatic Sanction, which was a bilateral contract. By the Pragmatic Sanction, your Majesty is as much bound to uphold the constitutional rights, privileges, and inde- pendence of the Hungarian nation as the nation is bound to be faithful to the King, and to recognize his hereditary rights. The diploma, how- ever, violates several of the rights guaranteed to the nation, rights which King Charles III. (the Emperor Charles, VI.), your Majesty's ancestor, wore for himself and his successors to uphold. Your Majesty insists on the payment of the taxes, but they, in virtue of the Pragmatic Sanction, must be granted by the Diet. Illustrious King, there is a story relative to the levy of taxes by force of arms and without a grant from the Diet, and the point of it is, that King Francis I., your Majestry's illustrious grandfather, said to the nation, Doluit paterno cordi nostra pained our paternal heart.' " They conclude by demanding that the Emperor shall reside in Hun- gary. All the countries have now reported, in answer to the Imperial rescript, and all insist on the Constitution of 1848.
r tt 55 LL—On the 30th of January, the Chamber replied to the King's speech. The members approve the preparations made for a com- mercial treaty between France and the Zollverein, hope that constitu- tional Government will be restored to Hesse, and acknowledge the settlement of the Schleswig-Holstein question to be a Prussian ditty. The King, on the 31st, sent his reply to the First Chamber, repeating his anticipation of coming danger. " I have openly and distinctly explained the principles of my Govern- ment on assuming the Regency, and have stated what I wish to accom- plieh. I will not break with the past, but I intend, when may convictions urge it upon me, to make improvements in the institutions of the country, as my ?ether of glorious memory did in 1808, and as my late brother was also induced to do by the events in his epoch. " I have marked out before me the limit to which I can go. and I will atrictly follow the course upon which I have decided. We must not conceal from one another that we are perhaps approaching trouldous
In view of this probability, everything depends upon the country being, through its representatives, united to me. I hope, I desire, and I
expect this. It is thus only that we shall be strong both at home and abroad, and be able to await the future with confidence;"
.16 erman q.—The Berlin Branch of the German National Association, on the 25th instant, passed the following resolutions :-
" 1. Prussia and Germany not united, as long as German territory and German interests are not infringed upon, have no calling to take part in a war of Austria for Venetian, and thereby lead to an aggression on the German frontier, fur the defence of which the efficacious support of Austria cannot be counted upon.
" 2. Prussia, by accepting military action against Denmark, must provide that not only are the rights of Holstein protected, but that the union of Holstein and Schleswig, founded on the rights of centuries, shall be reestablished, And that a legal state of things shall be assured to Holstein.
" 3. In presence of the actual state of affairs in Europe, and especially of the concentrated military power of France, it is Prussia's first duty to herself and to Germany to obtain immediately the unitary organiza- tion of the German Federal army under the command of Prussia, as also the Convocation of a German Parliament within as short a delay as possible."
This Association is forming affiliated societies throughout Germany. The Commission appointed by the Prussian. Chamber to consider the reply to the Royal speech were advised by M. de Vincke to insert * paragraph affirming that the unity of Italy was the interest of Europe. The motion was lost by a majority. of only one. SThe Preuseisehe Zeitung (Ministerial) argues that the condition of 5ohleswig-Solstein is a disgrace to Germany, and that Prussia is strong enough to bring the Court of Denmark to reason. Holstein, Schleswig, and Jutland will, says the writer' be 'occupied by German troops, and Denmark reduced for defence to her marine. It is considered in Ger- many that the object of Swedish policy is the union of the Scandinavian crowns ; and, with this object, the Swedes may assist their Danish al- lies. It must not be forgotten that the existing dynasty of Copen- n ends with the present King, and the " legitimate " claim to Sc wig-Heletein rests with the family of its ancient Dukes.
.13 r Mita rk.—The Government has claimed the services of the whole mercantile marine, and of all medical men, and is building gunboats for the German rivers.
Both Houses of the Danish Parliament have adopted an address to the throne, which ends with the following resolutions :- " 1. That as little as the Danish people lay any claim to rule in Holstein or Lauenburg, as little will they tolerate that the relation of Holstein and Lauenburg to the other parts of the monarchy shall be regulated in such a manner as to bring them into a state of dependency on the German Confederation ; and, "2. That they are ready and willing to make any sacrifice to main- tain the constitutional and now existing union between the kingdom and Schleswig, and the fair, just, and lawful right of the Danish nationality in that duchy." The address is being signed by the population.
la AM ii.—Three corps d'armee have been put in motion ; one being to the frontier of Gallicia, and another to the Pruth. The reserves, amounting to 280,000 men, have been ordered to join, and great efforts are making to improve the Artillery and Cavalry.
psi IL—An official announcement has been made of the pregnancy of the queen.
Another instalment of the Moorish indemnity, 40,000,000 reels, has been received. Cortes is occupied with a bill fur the sale of all eclesias- tical property.
%urk t4.—The Sultan has definitively refused to extend the French occupation of Syria.
it ittk hi tel.—The convention of Louisiana has voted against secession, after seizing the Federal forts. It seems probable that the convention was exempt, in an unusual degree, from the mob authority now rampant in the South. It is asserted that the Mean Whites are completely masters in the Southern States, that the slaveholders have been taxed sixteen dollars a year for each slave, that the minute men live on the plantations at free quarters, that loans are forced from the rich, that a reign of terror has been established, that food is high and scarce, and that the Democracy looks to a division of land and slaves. Just as the five States seceded, the decennial census was completed. It shows a population of 27,112,000 of freemen, and 3,878,000 slaves ; or 30,990,000 in all, against 23 millions in 1851. The total White increase is at the rate of 35 per cent, and Black increase only 20. The gross in- crease of the slaves has been 669,487. In two States, South Carolina and Mississippi, the slaves are in the majority. Mr. Seward, Secretary of State elect, in a great speech in the Senate, has proposed that the Fugitive Slave Laws should be modified, that Congress should be de- prived of power to abolish slavery, that all the territories should be or- ganized into two States, slave and free ; that invasions of Slave States should be punishable by Federal laws, that the Pacific Railway should be constructed. These proposals will, it is said, be rejected at once by the Planting States ; but they render the Border States, Kentucky, Ten- nessee, Virginia, Delaware, and Maryland, doubtful.
The Committee of the New York Senate appointed to consider the con- dition of Federal Relations, have reported against the right of secession, but recommended compromise on the basis of the division of the entire territory of the Union, not already organized, into two states, one free, and the other slave. A similar Committee in Virginia has also reported in favour of this compromise. Mr. Crittenden, author of this " basis," has severely censured the South, and declared that the State he repre- sents (Kentucky) must adhere to the Union.
.—The mail of the 25th of December brings unpleasant intelli- gence. The long drought of 1860 seriously injured the wheat crop, and the population of Agra, Meerut, and Robin Khund are suffering from famine. So extensive and terrible is the distress, that upwards of a million ster- ling (one-fourth of the land revenue) will be remitted, increasing the deficit by just that amount. Government is pushing forward supplies; but the people, it is stated, can no longer pay for them, and hundreds of thousands must be taken on to the public works, already half stopped : 600,0001. are to be spent in Meerut alone. This quantity of labour will be partially thrown away, from the absence of skilled overseers to direct the labourers. Trade in the North-west is almost at a stand, and fears are entertained for 1861. The peasantry have eaten their seed corn, and are throwing up their lands.
A large public meeting has been held in Calcutta, to denounce the Mysore grant. The meeting was addressed, for the first time since the mutiny, by Natives as well as Europeans, who unanimously agreed to petition Parliament. The petition has been published in Parliament, and denounces the increase of the home expenditure, and the grant to the family of Tippoo. The remedies suggested are, to compel the Secre- tary to consult the Government of India before allowing new expendi- ture, to permit members of the Indian Council to sit in Parliament, and to open the Legislative Council to independent citizens. The first de- mand is opposed to the first principles of our constitution. The Secre- tary's power, like his responsibility, cannot be fettered. The second will be rejected, and the third will be of no use as regards home expenditure. What is wanted is that Parliament should enforce the responsibility of the Indian, as it does that of the Foreign'Secretary. Despatches have been published, conceding to all Hindoo princes above the rank of Jaghirdar—i. e., all whose tenure is independent of service—the right of adoption. In a despatch, dated Simla, in April, Lord Canning reviews the whole question. The principles and policy of the Government, he contends, are alike contradictory. Different principles are laid down on each new occasion, till all the Princes feel that the continued existence of their houses is threatened by the absence of public law. He would lay down a distinct principle, and that principle, he contends, should be the universal right of adoption. The native Principalities acted during the mutinies as breakwaters, and the British Government has already more territory than it can manage or garrison. The feeling of the Princes was shown by the excessive delight of the sovereigns who, in 1859, received the right of adoption as an individual concession. Mussulman Princes, who have no law of adoption, should be allowed to settle the succession by selection from among collaterals. Sir Charles Wood, in July, sanctioned all the proposals of the Governor- General, reserving always the "rights of primogeniture."
The new Indian loan of 3,000,000/. has been advertised. Tenders will be received on Friday next, the 8th February. The terms involve a deposit of 2 per cent at once, 18 per cent on Friday, the 16th of Febru- ary, 20 per cent on the 12th of March, 30 per cent on the 9th of April, and 30 per cent on the 10th of May, 1861. Those who choose may sub- scribe in full. Forms of application may be obtained of Mr. H. Scott, 16, Throgmorton Street, E.C.
eh A.—Lord Elgin has opened the Yang-tse-Kiang up to Chin- keang ; but it is supposed the navigation of the river beyond that point will be under some restrictions, such as compulsory payment of duties on passing Chinkeang. The 31st, 67th, and 60th Regiment of Indian cavalry, two batteries of artillery, some sappers, and Land Transport Corps, are encamped at Tien- tsin. The troops are distributed through the town in houses hired for them. The remainder of the army marched for Shanghai between the 1st and 7th of November. The command of the garrison is intrusted to Brigadier Stavely, C.B. The Taku forts are occupied by a detachment of the 31st. There are complaints of want of warm clothing, which irritates the men into taking their discharge under the Limited Service Act.
SU Mid ri.—The New Ministry appears determined to put the West Indies Encumbered Estates Act, passed six years ago, into operation. Half the property in the island is cumbered with rights, which render it worthless and prohibit enterprise. It is calculated that a Parliamentary title will induce capitalists to speculate in these estates, and, perhaps, to grow cotton, for which plant the soil is peculiarly adapted.