Debates anti iprotetbings iri iparliament.
THE MEASURES FOB IRELAND.
In the House of Commons, on Monday, Lord Jome RUSSELL made his promised statement respecting the actual condition of Ireland, and the re- medial measures proposed by Government; announcing that he should at once ask for leave to bring in two bills,—one to render valid certain acts which had been done under the authority of the Lord-Lieutenant, as com- municated in the letter of Mr. Labouchere, and the other a bill for the im- provement of private estates, in accordance with the Treasury minute of the 1st of December last, which was already known to the House. [We give a full report of the Premier's speech in our Supplement: here we sub- join a very brief outline, merely sufficient to make the rest of the debate intelligible.] Lord John referred to the report of the Commissioners of Inquiry on Poor-laws in Ireland—to passages describing the extreme indigence of the people, many living with insufficient food, ill-lodged, and without a blanket to cover them, and sub- sisting by means of mendicancy; and he pointed out how the present famine, act- ing upon a numerous population habitually living on the border of starvation, would naturally produce the calamities witnessed in Ireland. He described the measures taken to meet the disasters,—the passing of the Labour-rate and other acts last session, and the consequent proceedings of the Executive. An immense staff of servants is employed by the Board of Public Works—upwards of eleven thousand persons; giving employment at present to half a million of labourers, representing two millions of souls: the expense. for the present month is estimated at 700,0001. or 800,0001. Abuses in so extensive a system were inevitable: trust- worthy persons could not always be found for servants; farmers, their sons and workpeople, by no means destitute, improperly obtained employment on the works. It therefore appeared desirable to the Government to adopt new measures, by which this vast expenditure might render more effectual relief. It was proposed. to form in certain districts Relief Committees, which should be empower.d to receive subscriptions, levy rates, and receive donations from the Government; that out of the sums thus raised they should purchase food, establish soup-kitchens, and de- liver rations from this purchased food to the famishing inhabitants; and should set the labouring men who applied to them to work, either on their own grounds or on those of the neighbouring farmers, so as to earn for themselves some small wages by their own industry. Sir John Burgoyne, Inspector-General of Fortifi- cations, has assented to the request that he should superintend the works. With a calamity so extensive, it would only be right that the whole burden should not fall on Ireland. He should therefore propose, on a future day that in each sue, ceeding year as each instalment of monies advanced from the Imperial Treasury was paid, one half should be remitted, keeping up the whole debt until one half of it was paid, and then throwing the other half of it on the public. This will, of course, entail great burdens on the Imperial finances, and will prevent reductions of taxation. With respect to the advances made to-proprietors under the author- ity of the Lord-Lieutenant's order, Government thought that the terms contained in the Treasury minute of.the 14 of last December should be extended to them, and that the time for the repayment of the advances which they had received should be extended from ten to twenty-two years, as in the Drainage Act of last session. There was another proposal, of which, though of doubtful tendency, he wasinclined to try the experiment: he proposed to advance 50,0001., to be repaid on or before the 31st of December 1847, to the propiietors of Ireland to furnish seed for sowing their lands. He did not intend to advance any part of it to the small cottier-tenants, as it might not be used for the purposes for which it was intended; but he thought that if the advance were made to the proprietors of the soil, the measure might be safe and useful. After touching upon some evidences of the supineness in Ireland, Lord John described measures of a more permanent character contemplated by Government. Where an improvement of an estate was to be made either by drainage or the re- clamation of waste lands, certain advances should be made from the public funds. The usual rate of interest on advances made by the Treasury was 5 per cent; by the Drainage Act of last session it was fixed at 8l per cent; and he now proposed to extend the terms of the Drainage Act to the improvements which he had just mentioned. He also proposed with regard to more general works to consolidate and amend the Drainage Acts now on the statute-book. By the present Drainage Acts, the proprietors of a district might meet; they might propose to obtain a loan for the improvement of a district by drainage; and, if the plan proposed was ap- proved by the majority, the loan could be made and the drainage effected: In that case, the drainage was undertaken by the Board of Works. Now, this act was only applicable to drainage: he proposed to apply it to other objects, and therefore a consolidation and amendment of the acts was necessary. He also ta-opos, on the same principle on which other great works were pro- posed by the State, to undertake by the State the reclamation of waste lands in Ireland. Government proposed to devote a million to the purpose of reclaiming them. It further proposed that the waste land, if the proprietor were inclined to dispose of it, should be purchased by the public; but if the proprietor refused to improve it, as well as to sell it, then a compulsory power was to be lodged in the Commissioners of Woods and Forests to take and cultivate it. Such land, how- ever, must be below the annual value of 2s. 6d. an acre. When reclaimed, it was to be divided into small lots, say of twenty-five acres each, and might either be sold outright at once, or let to a tenant for a certain number of years, to be sold at the end of that time.
Government have come to the conclusion formed on a general view of Ireland, that the Poor-law should be more extensive than it is. He therefore proposed to bring in a bill for the more effectual relief of the destitute poor of Ireland; which would enact that the Guardians of the Poor be required to give relief; either in or out of the workhouse, to the aged and infirm, and to all who were permanently disabled. The workhouses ought to be kept as a test of destitution; but there were cases where they could not afford accommodation to all who crowded to their doors; and in such cases aid must be given even to the able-bodied out of doors, not in money, but in food. Relieving-officers also would be appointed: and in cases of urgent necessity, where there was danger of starvation, must be empow- ered to take the parties into the workhouses, or to relieve them out of the work- houses until the next meeting of the Board of Guardians, when relief could be afforded according to the general rules.
Besides these measures, which he proposed to introduce immediately, there were others still in contemplation of the Government: one was a measure for facilitating the sale of encumbered estates. He also proposed to introduce a bill by which long leasehold tenures renewable for ever should be converted into free- holds. Lord John also touched upon steps which had been taken, and were to be carried out further, for improving the fisheries of Ireland. As to emigration, re- s ting which large expectations had been formed in Ireland, be pointed out the nines of encouraging it to any great extent. Ireland is not overpeopled. Sir Robert liape thinks that its resources would suffice to support a population of 17,000,000; for Government to interfere, would supersede the individual exertions which already produce a large annual amount of emigration,-50,000 or 60,000 yearly; and there would be great difficulties in finding employment for persons taken out in much larger numbers by a plan of forced emigration. Government proposed, therefore, to limit its assistance to making further provisions in the British American Colonies for emigrants on landing, and facilitating their access to employment. Lord John concluded by comparing the actual state of Ireland with a wretched description of England given by Sr Thomas More, and an equally miserable de- scription of Scotland by a writer of the seventeenth century: he held up England and Scotland as examples of what may be done by industry, perseverance, and
self-reliance; and exhorted the Irish to adopt the maxim, Help yourselves, and Heaven will help you." In reply to questions from Sir linalux BARRON, Mr. SMITH O'Bnpaw, Lord CLEMENTS, Lord Lnicolar, and Mr. HArauzozr,Ministers made some further statements on particular points. Lord Jome RUSSELL stated, that the local relief rate would be levied by the Guardians; but the Local Committee would administer relief; and would have the distribution of such subscriptions as might be received from this country, from Ireland, and from the Government.
He could not enter into any details with respect to advances to railways: there were objections to tasking advances generally to those undertakings, but the sub- ject was still under consideration. As to tenant-compensation, no bill would be brought in at present. Lord Grey had forwarded a despatch to Canada, stating the willingness of the Government to advance money fcr the construction of huts and dwellings for labourers while employed on railways there, if the proprietors or companies wished to do so. But he did not know how the proposition would be received in Canada. The discussion on the two bills, about to be introduced, would be taken on Monday next.
Mr. LABOUCHERE explained, that it would not be necessary to renew the Fever Board. The ordinary operation of the law under the Poor-law Commission would suffice for the purpose.
Sir CHARLES WOOD said, it was not proposed that proprietors should be en- abled to borrow money from the State to carry on the ordinary cultivation of their land.
Many further questionings, and very desultory remarks, followed; a great number of Irish Members speaking. We pick out a few of the more definite observations.
Mr. FRENCH was not prepared to object to any part of the Government plan. Mr. BELLEW heard the intentions of Government with great satis- faction. Mr. GRATTAN complained of the large exports of food from Ire- land to England, and of absenteeism; and called for a revival of a clause inserted in all title-deeds in the time of the Stuarts, that if the owner did not reside in Ireland for six months in the year, he should forfeit all his property. Sir Wu.r.i.uu VERNER complained of the encouragement given to the purchase of arms. Mr. TRITE believed that the employment of farmers and other improper persons on public works could only have taken place in districts cursed by absenteeism. Mr. Hume specially approved of measures to facilitate the transfer of land. Mr. STAFFORD O'BIuEN, still adhering to his Protective sentiments, deprecated all interference with the produce trade between Ireland and England, as its hinderance would be most destructive to Ireland. Mr. Romuctr, with unbounded admiration for the tone of Lord John's speech, could not let it go forth that there was an en- tire concurrence in the measures; and he especially condemned any scheme by which money should be taken from the people of England to foster the Irish landowners. Lord GEORGE BEETINCH feared that 50,0001. would be little better than doing nothing in the way of providing for seed: he ad- vocated the investment of public money to raise the income of Irish land- lords; urged railways as the means of causing the most immediate and profitable employment of labour; and deprecated emigration, because it removes the bone and sinew of the country, and leaves it not richer but poorer. Some passages in Mr. BELLEW'S short speech are sufficiently remarkable for extract—
Under the present system, when the maintenance of the poor was not derived from the land, society had been in an unnatural and in a diseased state; and he hoped that the policy now announced by Lord John Russell would prove to be at least the foundation of a better state of things. The Government would now wisely make the Irish landlords feel that the existence of a wretched and pauper- ized population must not be a matter of indifference to them, and that the owner of land in that country must be compelled to discharge the duties annexed to such a position elsewhere. When they found that in Ireland the land paid only 6d, and that in England, proportionately, it paid 2s. for the support of the poor, they might without difficulty account for the difference to be discovered in their relative conditions, and draw the conclusion, that if the welfare of the sister kingdom was to be the object of their legislation, they must very speedily effect an alteration. He was far from thinking, as had elsewhere been asserted, that the landlords of Ireland, in this time of distress, had done their duty; he totally denied the fact: they had, as a class, neglected their duty; and their excuse in- variably had been, that they were too embarrassed in their circumstances to afford that relief to the people which the people had a right to expect from them. Why then, he said, if a landlord were so situated as to be incapable of executing his trust and stewardship, he should cease to be the responsible owner of the land; he should be relieved from the duties he neglected. • • • • Mr. Bellew would suggest, that when a public work had been demonstrated to be desirable and necessary, the Board of Works should be empowered to proceed with that work; and that the proprietors should be entitled to appeal, if they, under such circumstances, thought fit. Experience had proved, that in dealing with Ireland, and especially with that class who were the owners of land, the beet, if not the only system, was one of compulsion—one which, not contented with pointing out, should enforce the duty. Leave was given to bring in the bills; and soon afterwards the House adjourned, at a quarter past ten o'clock.
In the House of Lords, the Marquis of LANSDOWNE made a statement, in many respects a duplicate with that of Lord John Russell; but on some points it differed slightly in the manner of statement; and the Marquis also included some particulars, especially in the retrospective part, which bad been disposed of by Lord John Russell, Sir George Grey, and Sir Charles Wood, on previous evenings. The passage in which he described the plan of advances to landowners is more emphatic, and in some respects more clear than Lord John Russell's account of the project- " Her Majesty's Government now propose that every landed proprietor in Ire- land who thinks proper to carry on any system of improvement, be that improve- ment what it may, so that it is a substantial improvement, shall receive a loan, for which he shall pay no other interest than 31 per cent for the next twenty-two years. Upon entailed estates the life proprietor will be enabled to obtain that loan upon the same terms as the proprietor in fee simple. They will not only have the opportunity of obtaining the loan for 31 per cent for twenty-two years, but they may return the principal by instalments, and during any period of that time, choosing their own times; or they mayy 61 per cent, and so return no principal Further, if they prefer relieving themselves of a charge so incurred for enabling them to improve parte of an estate, the life proprietor may, in the case of entailed estates, be permit- ted to sell portions of them in order to relieve the remainder. • • * Many who have undertaken works, under Mr. Labonchere's letter, from a desire for the public welfare, shall have the facility afforded them of accepting the more advantageous terms which this act will give them; and they will thus place them- selves in the same position as those who apply and receive loans under this mea- sure. There is another description of works which will remain very much upon their present footing, except that greater facilities will be afforded for their execu- tion than under the acts of the late session of Parliament. I mean drainage works, to be undertaken for the benefit of the proprietors, but by the Board of Works. All individual works—I mean all works of a minor character—for the improvement of estates, had better be left in the hands of individuals. But on private estates, or on combinations of private estates or of proprietors, there are many instances in which the operations for the benefit of those estates, particu- larly when connected with such works as drainages, embankments, and water- courses, might be much more effectually carried on under the superintendence of the Board of Works than of the individual proprietors. It is proposed for all these things, independently of the loan to individuals at 31 per cent, to carry on such works as they shall specify; that, by giving 4 per cent,:any proprietor, or knot of proprietors combining, may obtain assistance, and thus be enabled to co- operate in the carrying forward of reproductive works. Then, my Lords, the gene- ral result of these two measures, taken together, will be that there will not be one proprietor from one end of the country to the other, be his circumstances what they may, be he in a situation of what is called rich, or in that comparative situa- tion which is called poor, who will not be enabled, if he thinks proper, at once to set in action a large amount of labour, in a way profitable to himself and advan- tageous to the country." To the reclamation of waste lands Lord Lansdowne alluded in these terms-
" It has been again and again stated, that there exists in Ireland, to a far greater degree than in any other country, an amount of waste lands uncultivated, which might be brought into profitable occupation. I confess myself to be one of those who believe that the amount of these waste lands has been exaggerated. I confess, for one, we do not hold out any hopes, founded upon that statement, of any large or decisive effect: but at the same time, considering how many persons there are convinced, as they state, from personal observation, that there are lands capable of being so reclaimed and cultivated, it is thought right to introduce a measure, the effect of which will be to enable Government to purchase at its value a certain amount of the reclaimed wastes, and to pay the value to the proprietors who may be willing and desirous of selling. This, I am ready to admit, is a mea- sure which ought to be received with infinite caution: and among other reasons for the greatest caution, is the necessity of preventing laud so reclaimed and settled from becoming a repetition of the cotter system. It will be for your Lordships hereafter to judge whether this particular evil can be duly guarded against. By reclaiming these lands, and dividing them into small farms, (by small,' however, I mean farms comparatively large,) and afterwards letting them upon such terms as to guard against any possible subdivision, this evil will be guarded against, and employment will be afforded to a great mass of persons."
He described the encouragement to be afforded to fisheries—
"Her Majesty's Government have given particular consideration to the subject of fisheries; and in the course of the last few weeks, availing themselves of the means at their disposal, have established upon the coast of Mayo and the adjoin- ing counties three curing-stations, with the view of affording the poor fishermen there the means of caring their fish upon the most advantageous terms. We have reason to believe these stations have been attended with very beneficial effects; and it is now proposed to extend them round the whole of the West and Southern coasts, so that upon no coast will the fishermen be obliged, as at pre- sent, to carry his fish to a great distance before he can find the means of curing it. Nor will our assistance be confined to the establishment of these curing- places. It is proposed, for the specific object of promoting fisheries and encou- raging fishermen, to give them the means of procuring boats, by lending to the landlords small sums for the specific purpose; these sums to be repaid."
Lord STANLEY complimented Lord Lansdowne on the dearness of his statement; and declared it quite impossible to discuss the merits of the plan as a whole. He also complimented Lord Lansdowne for having candidly and most fully, and most unsparingly, exposed the abuses that have at- tended the interference of Parliament last session; upon which Lord Stan- ley dwelt. He presumed that many of the functionaries employed under the Board of Works had made away with the money intrusted to them.
The Marquis of LANSDOWNE said that no such circumstance had reached the knowledge of Government.
Lord STANLEY was rejoiced to hear it; but he had, the other day, re- ceived a letter from a gentleman in Ireland which stated, that, under the act of last year, the people were very actively employed in doing mischief on useless roads; and that there not unfrequently occurred the disappear- ance of pay-clerks, treasurers, and other public officers. Lord Stanley re- ferred to the subject of tillage; saying that he did not share in the gloomy apprehensions with respect to the backwardness- " A noble Lord the other day talked of the latest period for sowing oats being the commencement of February. (Loud laughter.) That is certainly new in- formation to me, because I conceived that, in Ireland especially, the latter end of March, and from that down to the end of April, and even to a later period, was the period for sowing that crop. It must appear to one not acquainted with Ire- land, that the agricultural labour was very backward and remiss at this period of the year, to find that none of the crop has been sown as yet: but noble Lords should not compare Ireland with England in this particular, because in Ireland the greater portion of the corn is spring corn, and not autumn corn as in this country; and in Ireland the greater part of the cultivation of the land is not ex- pected to take place now, but rather in March and April and down to the end of May, these latter being the months when employment in agriculturalworks should principally take place." He made several other objections. He objected to the too strict adhe- rence to political economy; wishing Government to establish depots of pro- visions, in order to keep down prices; and remarking the inconsistency between the Government profession not to interfere with private enterprise, and the proposal now made that Ministers should become purchasers and sellers of land. As to emigration, he entirely concurred with Ministers. Too much stress was laid on the ofer of money to landlords for improve- ment at 31 per cent. In England, no doubt, it would be a boon; but he feared that Irish landlords are not in a condition to profit by it. The most efficient and working measure would be that which facilitates the sale of a portion of land to relieve the rest from encumbrances. One circumstance ought to be borne in mind—that numerous class of cases in which lands are held by old leases under a middleman: the landlords derive little profit, and the benefit of the improvement goes to the middleman; while the re- sponsibility of maintaining the paupers crowded on the estate by the mid- dleman, with the view of getting exorbitant rents, will rest on the heed landlord-
" Your Lordships may say that this is a state of things resulting from im- providence. It is so; but it is of very old date. I am myself labouring under such a state of things, having property under leases granted as long ago as the year 1780; and daring the whole of the time that has since elapsed the person having the original lease has been stocking the estate with a race of paupers. Nothing is so difficult as to carry into operation effectually a measure on this subject; uncles an instance that such is the case, I mention a case that has occurred to myself. A tenant of mine was desirous of handing over a farm to another person: I de- murred; and on reference to his lease, it was found that there was a positive pro- hibition against assigning the farm: I took the opinion of counsel on the matter; and on the examination of the lease these were the words contained in it—' The tenant is debarred from selling, alienating, assigning, or otherwise than by will disposing of his farm.' Now it was clearly the intention to prevent the tenant from parting with his farm; but it was the opinion of the counsel that there was nothing in the lease to hinder the tenant from subletting the whole. Under these circumstances, I need hardly say that I made no further objection to the highly respectable man to whom the tenant wished to dispose of his farm." Lord Stanley recommended advances to railways, as a legitimate mode of removing the people from the public works to other employment in large masses.
Lord BROUGHAM wished to hear the results of the calculation, which no doubt had been made, as to the expense of the measures about to be pro- posed. A new staff would be required to carry out the plan of granting loans; for, besides being a money-jobber, it appears Government is to be- borne a land-jobber; and it would soon be obliged, besides the staff of overseers, to have a staff of bailiffs. He had felt great repugnance to in- troduce the Poor-law of England into Ireland; but that some change is ne- cessary in Ireland is rendered evident by the flood of Irish destitution poured upon some English communities—
Within five days there were 2,056 women and 897 children landed from Ireland, and the total number of paupers from Ireland landed in Liverpool during five days was 5,200 odd; not, he should beg to observe, brought over, as a noble friend of his had stated the other night, as a speculation to obtain freights for the vessel; but as seekers for relief from the operation of the English Poor-law; for one of the vessels that brought some of those poor persons had 1781. of freight on board. By a return which he had received from an official person, it appeared that, on the previous Monday, 18,095 Irish paupers were relieved by the Poor- law officers of Liverpool, in addition to the permanent poor of the town; and by
the Thursday the number of such paupers had increased to 22,095. Glasgow was represented as being in a still worse condition. When their Lordships looked
at these facts, and weighed their consequences, they would agree that some regu- lation was required, and should be made, for the purpose of throwing the Irish poor upon the resources of Ireland for support, so as to prevent the abuses of the English Poor-law. He began to bring his mind most reluctantly to the belief that the mischief should be met. But it must not be "Ireland for the Irish" whilst there was anything to be fed upon, and "England.tour the Irish " when England for the Irish was burning the candle at both ends. (Laughter.) No, no; gentlemen should make their election: they could not have it both ways. They were about to apply millions to the relief of the sister kingdom. If the In- terest of the money to be raised was to be paid by additional taxation, lie hoped that the sister kingdom would have some regard to her sister England, and that the Property-tax, Assessed Taxes, and the Income-tax, would be no longer for the English only.
He deprecated haste in the passing of the permanent measures. They need not be pressed forward this year. And care should be taken that temporary measures did not become permanent mischiefs. The immediate want is food—
There was one measure which he recollected had been adopted in the year 1800, when there was severe distress and famine. It was a solemn league and covenant entered into amongst all consumers of bread, fish, flesh, and vegetables, to consume as little bread as possible. He perfectly recollected when the loaf used to be brought to the table, but no one was allowed to cut it but the master of the house, who cut a very small portion for each individual. The Marquis of Lasienowaie observed, in a low voice across the table, that the people had then potatoes in abundance.
Lord BROUGHAM admitted it; but still he thought it possible for such another league to be formed, and a bond entered into that consumers of fish and flesh
should use as little bread and potatoes as possible, and no ornamental dishes of pastry whatsoever during the continuance of the distress; for ornamental pastry wasted a large quantity of flour that was needed for bread for the poor. There was another part of the agreement entered into in the year 1800, which was, that no stale bread should be used.
Several Peers, including Lord MONTEAGLE, the Marquis of LANSDOWNE, and the Marquis of CLANRICARDE, here interposed, and begged to set Lord Brougham right: the agreement was, that no bread should be used under any circumstances until twenty-four hours after it had been baked. Lord BROUGHAM renewed his exhortation to some such plan.
The Earl of DESART had great doubts as to the efficacy of some mea- sures proposed; but was prepared to give them a fair trial. He distinctly
recognized the moral liability of Irish landlords: if England were generous, Ireland must be just. But he hoped that in any future enactments, bribes would not be given for the employment of unproductive labour.
The Earl of DEVON made a few observations calculated to smooth the way for remedial measures, and to modify undue views entertained in Eng- land respecting Ireland. He alluded to the system of paying wages in conacre; and observed that Englishmen could hardly believe how far the Irish farmer is from having arrived at the knowledge that paid labour on the land would be remunerative to himself. Lord Devon thought that jus- tice had not been done to the Labour-rate Act: whatever its defects, it was passed under peculiar circumstances, and had done great good by suddenly providing employment: to that fact he traced the tranquillity which is so remarkable in the present state of Ireland. He strongly recommended that . landlords who should lay out on the employment of labour a due proper- . tion of money, according to the assessment made in any barony, should not be made to pay any further. Lord Devon did not expect much good from the plan of reclaiming waste lands. On the subject of emigration he con- curred with Government. The Poor-law might be better discussed at a time of less immediate pressure—
But they must be prepared to have such a poor-law as would provide the means of rescuing from want those persons who could not, under any other circumstances, provide for themselves. The law mast be plain, and the landlords of Ireland must be prepared to submit to the law; and he for one should certainly give his beat attention to the details of any measure of the description.
He could give his testimony to the propriety of the measures propounded, so far as he could understand them. And he contributed some reassurance on the subject of the delay in cultivating the land—
His own experience of the country warranted him in raying that in the months of December and January the Insh peasants are almost always totally idle. Daring those months but very little agricultural labour is attempted. The opera- tions of agriculture are actively carried on during the three months immediately succeeding—February, March, and April: if during those months the peasantry are to continue this year in a state of inaction as far as the soil was concerned, the consequences will no doubt be most disastrous; but as yet there is no cause for alarm. On the whole, he would say that he was far from taking as gloomy a view of the state of Ireland as some were inclined to adopt. He knew the perils and difficulties by which that country was unhappily surrounded; but he was sanguine in the expectation that the Legislature would be able to weather the storm, and that it would hereafter be seen that they had given to the Irish culti- vator of land an improved system, the fruit of which would be of great and per- , manent advantage.
The Earl of RODEN looked upon the Labour-rate Act as a most unfor- tunate error; but regarded the proposed measures as boons to Ireland, for which he was sure Ireland would be grateful.
Earl Firzwn.u.sm, expressing his concurrence in many things that had fallen from Lord Brougham, lamented that it had become a habit with his noble friend, after making a long speech de omnibus rebus et quibusdam suddenly to vanish no one knew where: he went off something like gun- cotton, and disappeared as rapidly. Lord Fitzwilliam declared that it would be grossly unjust to impose the charge of the regeneration of Ireland upon one class—the landowners. He cautioned Government against be- coming a body farming Ireland, but was anxious to see the entire system of railways in the hands of Government.
The Earl of MOIINTCASHEL imputed the evils of Ireland to English misrule since the time of Henry the Second. The rental of Ireland is valued at 13,000,0001. yearly, out of that, the landowners, after making deductions, do not receive 3,000,0001.; and it is impossible that with such means they can support 3,000,000 paupers. The Marquis of WESTMINSTER approved of the course adopted by Go- vernment. He would consent to any amount of taxation to relieve the unfortunate people of Ireland, but said a word for the difficulties of land- owners. His own conacre tenants did not pay him a farthing; and yet the Legislature would visit the misfortune which had befallen these poor crea- tures upon him. Earl GREY spoke briefly, as if under restraint from the lateness of the hour at which he rose. He backed up the Government position on several points of administration, and threw the weight of his authority into the arguments for caution in resorting to emigration. He declared that to the cautious system of emigration now in existence, to which his predecessor in office had adhered, and which the present Government had hitherto main- tained, he and his colleagues would continue to adhere. Lord MONTEAGLE made a fierce attack upon the Labour-rate Act, and reviewed a local dispute of his own about public works. Although emi- gration is not applicable to the millions of Ireland, it would be very bene- ficial applied as a topical remedy to districts which are in a state of con- gestion. The Marquis of CLANRICARDE anticipated that the measures proposed would speedily work great good, more especially that respecting emi- gration. The Marquis of LANSDOWNE laid on the table a number of returns re- lating to Poor-law Unions; and the House adjourned at a quarter past one o'clock on Tuesday morning. In the House of Commons, on Thursday, Mr. ROEBUCK questioned Lord John Russell respecting the calculations which must have been made as to the probable cost of the Government scheme, and the plan contemplated for raising the requisite sum.
Lord JOHN Russett, said he could answer as to what had hitherto been the cost of the plans pursued— The amount issued up to the 1st of January, from the Exchequer, was 1,000,0001. sterling, or close upon it, namely, 09,0001. There had been since further issues; and at the present moment those additional issues from the Ex- chequer amounted to another million. That was to say, 2,000,0001. had been issued from the Exchequer on account of the Poor-Employment Act of last ses- sion. With respect to the Commissariat, that was a current account: certain provisions had been bought and sold, and it was impossible to make an accurate ac- count under this head at the present moment; but he anticipated that there would be no great loss with respect to that account. If the present plan were to be continued under the existing act of Parliament, the Government could not expect that less than 500,0001. or 600,0001. a month would be spent from the present time until August; the larger sum would probably be the amount, and the whole expen- diture would probably not be less than 7,000,0001. But by the plan proposed by the Government, he believed that there would be a reduction of the expense which would otherwise accrue ander the existing act. How much that reduction might amount to, he was not at present able to say, because it was impossible to state how soon the presentment works might be discontinued, or what would be the cost of the new plan to be in operation; yet he conceived that there would be found a reduction of the expense at present incurred under the present act of Parliament The honourable gentleman would see that the moment was hardly come when the Government could make a sufficient estimate of the expense of the plans at present in operation, and of those proposed to be substituted for them. With respect to the honourable gentleman's other question—as to what financial measure would be proposed in order to provide for the expenditure, he thought it would be far better, in the present state of information SS to the whole amount of the expense, not at present, by replying to the question, to commit the Govern- ment to any arrangement on that point, but to reserve that matter until the financial statement to be made at a subsequent period of the session. Whether that statement would be deferred beyond the ordinary period, he could not now say. However, either himself or the Chancellor of the Exchequer would make a full statement on the subject, and due notice would be given of it. Mr. ROEBUCK pressed for an answer respecting the cost of Lord John's pro- posals for buying land and lending money. Lord Joinr RUSSELL replied, that Mr. Roebuck would be better able to form a judgment of the various plans when the bills should come before the House. With respect to the million appropriated by the Drainage Act, Government would merely alter the conditions on which the money was to be lent, not those of its future repayment, nor the interest to be paid, but only the purposes for which it was to be lent. With respect to the wastelands, the Government proposed, by the bill to be introduced, that oae million should be advanced for their improvement. But with respect to most of these items he might mention, that it was considered that considerable outlay would be incurred at first, which would be eventually repaid. On the same evening, Lord GEORGE BENTINCK gave notice, that on Wednesday next he would ask leave to bring in a bill to stimulate the prompt and profitable employment of the people by encouraging railroads in Ireland.
THE OPENING OF THE PORTS.
The progress of the Corn Bill and Navigation Bill in the House of Lords has been unmarked by any incident except its rapidity. The House of Lords held a special meeting on Saturday, to receive the bills; and they were read a first time without comment; some very desultory remarks by Lord STANLEY and Lord BROUGHAM turning not upon these bills, but upon cautions respecting the measure for altering the Sugar and Rum du- ties, and upon the proposed change of the Poor-law. On Monday, the standing orders were suspended, and the two bills passed through all their stages. On Tuesday, they received the Royal assent.
In the House of Commons, on Tuesday, Mr. WILLIAM MILES urged Government to allow the Brewing from Sugar Bill and the Rum-duties Bill to be referred to a Select Committee. Sir CHARLES WOOD answered, that it would be impossible to bring an investigation of that sort to an early close. In 1831, a Committee sat upon the subject of brewing from sugar, inquired at great length, and reported its opinion; and there has been no new experience since that time. Experiments, however, have been conducted by the Excise: on Thursday he would lay a report of all the experiments on the table; and he would undertake that a reasonable time should be allowed between the second reading and the committal of the bill.
In the House of Commons, on Tuesday, Mr. FIELDER moved for leave to bring in a bill to amend the laws relating to labour in factories. In ex- plaining the grounds for the measure, and its nature, he said-
" I propose to limit the labour of young persons between the ages of thirteen and eighteen to twelve hours a day, allowing two hours out of the twelve for meals,—that is, to ten hours of actual work per day for five days in the week, and eight hours on Saturdays; and I propose to carry out this alteration by re- stricting the hours of actual labour to sixty-three hours in the week until the 1st of May 1848, and after that period to fifty-eight hours in the week: and I pro- pose, farther, that the same restrictions shall apply to females above eighteen years of age.
" My reason for. proposing this measure is, that the time of working young per- sons and females factories is far too long, has been very mischievous, and, if persevered in, will become the cause of great national evils. I ask for it, also, because the people employed in factories have wished for it, and have long peti- tioned the Legislature to concede it to them; and because the ministers of reli- gion, medical practitioners, and, indeed, all classes who have opportunities of ob- serving the consequences of the present system, deprecate it as destructive of the moral and physical condition of a vast and meet important class of the com- munity. It is a question which involves the very existence of thousauds, who are I am afraid, sacrificed annually for the want of those due and sufficient regu- lations without which the late Sir Robert Peel asserted that our improved ma- chinery would become our bitterest curse."
Mr. Fielden quoted the quarterly return of the Registrar-General for September
1846. "In page 3 of this document, which is published by authority of the Registrar-General of Births, Deaths, and Marriages, it is said—' The population of the extra-metropolitan districts Of Surrey was, in 1841,187,868, and the popu- lation of the town sub-districts of Manchester was 163,856; and that in Man- chester, with this less population, the deaths registered in seven years (1838-44) were 39,922, and those in Surrey only 23,777, making a difference of 16,145.' He then says—' The population of Surrey exceeded that of Manchester; yet, in seven years, 16,000 persons died in Manchester over and above the deaths in Surrey, the mortality in which, from the poverty of the labourer and slighter de- grees of the influences so fatal in Manchester, is higher than it should be. There were 23,623 children under five years of age i .ge n Surrey, and the deaths of children
of that age were 7,864; the children in Manchester were 21,152, the deaths
20,726. In the seven years, 13,362 children in Manchester alone fell a sacrifice to known causes, which it is believed may be removed to a great extent; and the victims in Liverpool were not less numerous. Other parts, and particularly the towns of England, are similarly afflicted.' In the same page follow these re- marks--1 The returns of the past quarter prove that nothing effectual has been done to put a stop to the disease, suffering, and death, in which so many thou- sands perish. The improvements, chiefly of a showy, superficial, outside charac- ter, have not reached the homes and habits of the people. The house and chil- dren of a labouring man can only be kept clean and healthy by the assiduous labour of a well-trained, industrious wife; as any one who has paid the least at- tention to the subject is aware. This is overlooked in Lancashire, where the woman is often engaged in labour from home. The consequence is, that thou- sands, not only of the children, but of the men and women themselves, perish of the diseases formerly so fatal for the same reasons in barracks, camps, gaols, and ships.'" Mr. Fielden cited further passages from the same report, showing how children suffer from every kind of neglect while the mother is employed in factory labour; how their life is undermined by the use of opiates, and by the ill-kept state of their homes. Such results exceed "the horrors of war," and are not jus- tified by the assumed "plea of necessity." He contended that his measure is not opposed to the doctrines of sound political economy; "political economy " mean- ing the right government of a state, and admitting any needful regulation for the welfare of the state.
In May last, Mr. Cobden said, that if the measure were put off for a year the feelings of the working classes upon the subject would change: Mr. Fielden has employed the subsequent eight months in efforts to ascertain the sentiments of the working classes, and he has found not a weakening but a strengthening con- viction in favour of the measure. The factories are now actually working short time; but such short time as now prevails disturbs everything, reduces wages, deranges the market, and injures even those manufacturers whose narrow means oblige them to sell their stocks, which the wealthier class buy up in times of depression.
Mr. FERRAND seconded the motion.
Sir GEORGE GREY did not oppose the introduction of the bill; reserving the discussion on its principle and details till the second reading. He only guarded against the construction put upon the report of the Registrar- General; which does not refer to any distinction between factory-labour and other kinds of labour, but to that between the condition of people in densely-crowded towns and in rural districts. The mortality is greater in Liverpool, for instance, where there is no factory-labour, than in large towns where the factory system is in operation.
Mr. TRELAWNEY announced that he should resist the attempt to in- terfere with the labour-market. But Sir ROBERT PEEL observed, that such resistance would be inconsistent with the understanding that leave would be given to bring in the bill without discussion; upon the strength of which Sir George Grey had abstained from entering into the subject. Mr. HUME and Mr. BICRHAM Escort, confirmed that representation; and Mr. TRELAWNEY withdrew his opposition. Mr. FERRAND having alluded to Mr. Ward's late speech at Sheffield, which hinted that the bill would receive some official support, Mr. Blot- HAM Escorr asked whether it was the intention of Government to support the bill; or whether the Government intended at some future stage to exert themselves in opposition to it; or whether, as was perhaps the more probable case, it was not to be made a Government question at all? No immediate answer being given, the following colloquy ensued.
Mr. Escerrr begged to repeat his question. (Cries of " Order, order!") "I am not aware that I am out of order in putting a question to the noble Lord at the head of the Government. (Renewed cries of " Order!") I appeal to you, Sir, if I am out of order?"
The SPEAKER—" You are out of order in speaking twice." (Laughter.) Mr. EscoTr—" I hope, Sir, without meaning discourtesy to you, 1 may be al- lowed to repeat the question which I put a little while ago, as to the future in- tentions of Government with respect to their support or opposition to this bill?" (A long pause.) Lord Josh RUSSELL--" I may just say, that it seems agreed on all hands that the bill should be read a first time without opposition: when we come to a future I shall be prepared to state what course the Government will take." s(Vear, hear!" and laughter.)
Leave was given to bring in the bill.
CONVICT DISCIPLINE IN THE HULKS.
On Thursday, Mr. Taostes DUNCOMBE moved for a Select Committee to inquire into the treatment of convicts on board the hulks at Woolwich; and he made a long statement alleging gross mismanagement and cruelty, especially against Mr. Bossey, the Surgeon. The principal points asserted by Mr. Buncombe are these. The returns of mortality are falsified, so as to show a number of deaths much below the fact. , There is no inspection by Visiting Magistrates or other Inspectors. The reformation of the prisoners is totally neglected: there is no education; no spiritual instruc- tion, except divine service on Sundays. The duties of Mr. Capper, who recently resigned, were left to be discharged by his nephew, a grocer in the Strand. The officers were guilty of many distinct acts of cruelty to pa- tients. The Overseer caused a lunatic to be flogged for an act of mad violence. Another Overseer caused a man to be flogged three months after he was threatened with the punishment, for being five minutes too late at muster. Some of the insane prisoners suffered from disease and filth, in consequence of gross neglect as they lay in bed. Mr. Bossey laughed at a dying prisoner, and told him he would never go home. He threatened another man with flogging for epileptic fits, and roughly drenched him with water; he kept another man from the hospital for six months after he was treated for consumption; dissected a body before the Coroner's Jury sat upon it; with other acts of a similar kind. The medical treatment is of the rudest sort. The convict nurses, who watch the dying, impatiently dispose of the bodies, in order that they may search the bed for concealed money; and the bodies are carried, while yet warm, to the dissecting-room.
Sir GEORGE GREY said, that such statements, assuming the facts to be true, would call for grave investigation; but these were made without any authority, and he utterly disbelieved them. A letter received by the Secretary to the Admiralty from Sir Gordon Bremer, Superintendent at Woolwich, stated that there had only been one ease of corporal punishment in the last four years. Last year Mr. Duncombe presented a petition from Baker, a prisoner at Millbank Penitentiary; a Commission was appointed, and the allegations were proved to have been grossly exaggerated. Sir George, however, admitted, that the hulks had not been under an efficient system—
In 1843 the number of prisoners was greatly diminished; and from that time to the present that diminution had increased. The consequence had been, that, as it was only intended to keep up the hulk system till the prisoners could be gradually removed, no fresh appointment had been made amongst the officers, and the staff had much diminished. In the course of November last, however, Major Jebb had commenced an investigation of the system, under Sir George's direction; and the report which that officer had presented contained a recommendation that Government, in connexion with the necessity which existed for more accommoda- tion, owing to the proposed discontinuance of the transportation system, should appoint an efficient staff of officers for the hulks. That recommendation of Major Jebb had been sanctioned by the Government, and it was at present in the course of being carried into effect. A new Chaplain is to be appointed, with a better salary, and time to devote to the moral and religious instruction of the convicts. If Mr. Buncombe would supply him with a statement of the facts he bad given to the House, and of any others that had come within his knowledge, with the dates of their occurrence, Sir George assured him he should order a most searching investigation into all the cases. But it is not desirable to excite public feeling on the subject of convict discipline.
Sir George Grey was supported by Lord MAHON. Mr. Duncombe was supported in his motion, but not altogether in his statements, by Mr. AGLIONBY, Mr. WARLEY, Mr. BICKHAM ESCOTT, Mr. FERRAND, Mr. HUME, Mr. MONTE, Sir WALTER JAMES, and Mr. EWART.
In reply, Mr. DUNCOMBE objected to Sir George Grey's use of the report on Baker's petition, because it emanated from but two Commissioners; and a separate report by the third, Mr. Bickham Escott, is forthcoming.
On a division, the motion was negatived, by 121 to 44.
FERRAND versus LEWIS AND GRAHAM.
On Thursday, Mr. FERRAND moved for a Select Committee to inquire into the conduct of the Poor-law Commissioners in certain matters interest- ing to himself, and the control exercised over them by Sir James Graham; and he made a very long speech against the Commissioners and Sir James. It was almost entirely a repetition of former charges advanced by Mr. Ferrand, respecting the Keighley Union, Sir John Waltham, and Mr. Mott; eked out with copious extracts from the Report and Evidence of the Andover Committee on these affairs, and the cases of Mr. Day, Mr. Jenkin Jones, Colonel Wade, Mr. Parker, &c. &c. Mr. Ferrand renewed his accusations against Sir James, of corrupt interference in the appoint- ment of Assistant-Commissioners, and of causing Mr. Mott to go down to Bolton, and afterwards to Keighley, in order to vamp up reports for the purpose of rebutting charges against the administration of the Poor-law in those places. We recognize nothing new in the whole of this rambling and inflamed statement; except, we believe, the assertion that Sir James Graham sent for Mr. Ferrand to the Home Office, and tried, unsuccess- fully, to dissuade him from opposing Government on the subject of the Poor-law.
Sir JAMES GRAHAM rebutted a few of Mr. Ferrand's assertions; totally denied the corrupt conduct imputed to him; and promised to give full ex- planations of his conduct in the proper place—in the Court of Queen's Bench; where he undertook to appear as a witness in the prosecution of Mr. Ferrand by Mr. Commissioner Lewis for defamation.
The debate was protracted to great length, several speakers taking part in it,—Mr. DISRAELI, Sir ROBERT PEEL, Mr. ROEBUCK, Mr. BICKHJiX ESCOTT, Mr. VILLIERS, and many more; but throughout it never rose above the character of a squabble. Sir James Graham's very temperate and frank announcement completely won the feeling of the House to his, side: even Mr. Dusnama advised Mr. Ferrand to withdraw the motion; and Lo-d JOHN RUSSELL rebuked him for wasting the public time, by ad- vancing a motion so totally irrelevant to the duties of the House, as it re- lated to matters of which the House had already disposed, and which had been transferred to the courts of law. Professing to be satisfied with Sir James's promise to appear in the witness-box, Mr. FERRAND withdrew his motion.
On Tuesday, Mr. HUME moved an address " for a copy of the minutes of the Trustees of the National Gallery during the years 1845 and 1846, with the names of all the Trustees present at each meeting; also for copies of the orders and instructions to the Keeper of the Gallery respecting the cleaning of the pictures, and any directions in respect to their arrangement."
Sir ROBERT PEEL seconded the motion—
The Trustees had no other object than to give the fullest information to the House of Commons, which had always behaved so liberally and generously to them. There had been a meeting of the Trustees the other day ; and in conse- quence of the observations which had been made elsewhere, they had called upon the gentleman under whose immediate charge the institution was placed to make the fullest report to them on the subject: and Sir Robert hoped, in consideration of that gentleman's high character, his great eminence as an artist, and his con- summate knowledge of that art of which he was so distinguished an ornament, that Members would suspend their judgment for a short time, until that report and the other documents were laid before them; which he hoped would be in a few days.
Sir CHARLES WOOD entirely concurred in what had fallen from Sir Robert; and assured the House that the fullest information should be given. The motion was affirmed.
LAW OF SETTLEMENT COMMITTEE. OR Tuesday, Sir GEORGE GREY moved that the following gentlemen be appointed as the Select Committee—Mr. C. Bul- ler, Sir J. Graham Mr. Bankes, Mr. J. E. Denison, Sir G. Grey, Mr. Hindley, Mr. T. Buncombe, Lord H. Vane, Mr. P. Scrope, Mr. W. Miles, Mr. C. Villiers, Mr. Borthwick, Mr. C. Round, Mr. Aldan; and Mr. Bodkin. Mr. FERRAND ob- jected to this list. The fifteen names comprised nine Liberals and only six Con- servatives or Tories, (be did not know any distinctive appellation for the fol- lowers of the late Premier,) and the name of Mr. Hindley had been substituted for Mr. Henley. Eventually, all the names were agreed to except that of Mr. Hiudley; Sir GEORGE GREY stating that he intended to restore the name of Mr. Henley.
CHELSEA PENSIONS. In the House of Commons, on Tuesday, Mr. Fox MAULS moved for leave to introduce a bill to abolish the poundage on the pensions of Chelsea pensioners. Before 1754, if a pension was allotted to any soldier on the 1st January in any year, no part of that pension was paid to him until the 31st December; it was paid annually, and in arrear. The consequence was, that when the soldier lost his full pay, this period having to elapse before he could draw any reward for his past services, lie found at his elbow numerous money- lenders ready to take every advantage of him; and this system had proceeded so far, that in 1754 the Government thought it absolutely necessary, as a matter of justice to the pensioner, to interfere by a law, enacting that the payments to Chelsea pensioners should be made six months in advance, and that no one should aid in forestalling any pension; and at the same time, to make up to the public for paying this large sum in advanoe, the pensioners were to be charged—and they most gladly submitted to it—five per cent upon their pensions. This state of things continued until the present moment, .except in the case of pensions given to men enlisted after 1833. On the pensions granted in the Navy there was however, no charge of poundage. The pensions to the Artillery were for- merly paid through the Ordnance, and it was not the practice to charge poundage upon these; and hence, when the two classes came to be amalgamated, there was a striking anomaly, and the charge came to be considered in the light of a tax. It became also extremely inconvenient with reference to the public service. The bill was brought in. CRUELTIES TO BRITISH SUBJEers IN THE Rio DE LA PLATA. On Thum- day, Mr. Ross asked for some explanation respecting Mr. Wardlaw, acting mate of the Queen's ship Racer, who was treacherously murdered by the soldiers of Roses while carrying a Bag of trace; and also respecting a decree by Roses, de- claring that he would treat as pirates any French or British officers who might fall into his hands. Lord PALmERsTON replied, that instructions bad been sent out to the British Admiral to make inquiries into Mr. Wardlaw's case, but the re- port had not been received. As to the other point, the House might well imagine that the declaration that British officers in her Majesty's service, acting in obe- dience to their orders, were to be treated as pirates, could only be met in one way by the British Government.
PROGRESS OP RAILWAY BILLS IN THE HOUSE OF COMMONS.
Ems READ A FIRST TIME. Thursday, January 21.—Bristol-and-Exeter (branch from Bleadon to Wells, Glastonbury, and Street). Bristol-and-Exeter (Taunton and Castle Cary branch). Lowestoft Railway and Harbour (alteration near Needham). South-eastern (Mid Kent and Direct Tunbridge).
Friday, January 22.- Ipswich-and-Bury-St.-Edmund's (No. 1) (Extension to Yar- mouth). London-Brighton-and-South-Coast (Kent Railway to Maidstone, Canterbury. and Tunbridge). Lynvl Valley Railway Extension. South-eastern (Maidstone to
Chard). South-eastern (Strood to Maidstone). South-eastern (North Kent Line). South-eastern (North Kent and Bricklayers' Arms Junction). South-eastern (Croydon and Bromley branches). North-Staffordshire (alterations and branches). North- Staffordshire (Churnet Valley Line, and Trent Valley Railway Junction). Birkenhead- Lancashire-and-Cheshire Junction Railway, and Chester-and-Birkenhead Railway (purchase and amalgamation). Birkenhead-Lancashire-and-Cheshire Junction (de- viation of main line and Chester branch, Sm.) Blackburn-Darwen-and-Bolton Rail- way Acts Amendment (diversions of the line in the parishes of Blackburn and Bolton in the Moors). Direct-London-and-Portsmouth. Dundalk-and-Enniskillen. Great- Western (branches to Egham, Staines, Brentford, and Twickenham). Great-Western (branch to join the West London Railway, widening and enlarging the West London Railway and branches to Hammersmith, and to join the London and South-western Railway near Lambeth). Great-Western (extension of the Berks and Hants Railway from Ilungerford to Westbury, with a branch to Devizes). Glasgow-Dumfries-and- Carlisle, and Glasgow-Paisley-Kilmarnock-and-Ayr (No. 4). Manchester-Sheffield- text-Lincolnshire (station at Sheffield and branch to the Sheffield Canal). Glasgow- Paisley-Kilmarnock-and-Ayr (No. 4). Glasgow-Paisley-Kilmarnock-and-Ayr (No. 2). Glasgow-Paisley-Kilmarnock-and-Ayr, and Glasgow-and-Belfast Union (No. 1).
Monday, January 2S. — Manchester-Shellield-and-Lincolnshire (supply of surplus water to Manchester, Salford, and Stockport). Manchester-Sheffield-and-Lincolnshire (Junction with the Midland, Ili Burusley, and branches therefrom). Manchester- Sheffield-and-Lincolnshire (branch from Ashton-under-Lyne to Oldham). Manchester- Sheffleld-and-Lincolnshire (branch to Brigsworth to join the Peak Forest Canal Tram- way, and Amendment of Acts). Manchester-Sheffield-and-Lincolnshire (station ap- proach to Manchester). Ilanchester-Sheffield-and-Lincolnshire (Ashton Canal pur- chase). Leeds-Central-Railway station. Yeovil-Briciport-and-Exeter, with Branches. London-and-North-western (St. Alban's, Luton, and Dunstable branch). London-and- North-western (Newport-Pagnall, Olney, and Wellingborough branch). Shropshire- Union Railways and Canal (lease to the London and North-western Railway Com- pany)- Norfolk-Railway (branch from Thetford to join the Ipswich and Bury St. Ed- mund's Railway, near Bury St. Edmund's). Norfolk (branch from Wymondham to the Norwich Extension of the Ipswich and Bury St. Edmund's Railway, and the proposed Thetford and Reedhatn, near Digs. I Tuesday, January 26.—Midland-Great-Western-of-Ireland, (Newcastle, Anniskinnan, and Battrasun deviations). Manchester-Sheffield-and-Lincolnshire (Sheffield Canal purchase). Glasgow-Banhead-and-Nellston Direct. Glasgow-Banhead-and-Nellston Direct, and Glasgow-and-Southern Terminal Railways Amalgamation. Scottish-Mid- hue-Junction (amendment branch to Laurencektrk). Wilts-Somerset-and-Weymouth (No • I) (Burton, Pitcombe, and Rodden and Bradford deviations). Windsor Railway • London-Brighton-and-South-Coast (London Bridge Station enlargement and arrange- ment). London-Brighton-and-South-Coast (Extension to London Bridge). London- Bridge Railway Termini general enlargement. London-Oxford-and-Cheltenham and Branches. East-Lincolnshire (deviation to Boston, and branch to Great Grimsby and Sheffield Junction, at Grimsby)• Eaat-Lincolnshire (branch from Louth to Lincoln). Manchester-Sheffield-and-Lincolnahlre Railway, and Manchester-and-Lincoln-Union Railway, and Chesterfleld-and-GaInsborough Canal Amalgamation. Fleetwood-Pres- ton-and-West-Riding-Junction (Burnley and Colliery branches). Thursday, January 23.—Glasgow-Paisley-Kilmarnock-and-Ayr and Ayrshire-and- Bridge-of-lire-Manchester-and-Lincoln-Union (deviation). Lynn-and-Ely (extension to-seaming and Holbeach). Manchester-Sheffield-and-Lincolnshire (Louth and Hom- emade, and East Lincolnshire Junction). Lynn-and-Ely (Ely and Huntingdon, and Lynn and Dereham amalgamation). General-Terminus, and Glasgow-Harbour Branches. Preston-and-Wyre (to alter acts)• Bristol-and-South-Wales Junction and Aust-Ferry. Norfolk (Yarmouth extension). Idskeard-and-Caradon. Birmingham-Wolverhampton- aad-Stour-VaIley (No. I) (Smethwick deviation). Wharfdale (Skipton and Cayley Hall deviations). Glasgow-Dumfries-and-Carlisle and Glasgow-Paisley-Kilmarnock- and-Ayr (No. 2). London-and-North-western (purchase of Lord Ellesmere's interest in Manchester South Junction and Altrinchatn). Liverpool-Mauchester-and-Neweas- tle-upon-Tyne Railway Acts Amendment. Chard Canal and Railway (extension and amalgamation).
Friday.—Glasgow-Airdrie-and-Monklands Junction (Cowlairs, Carmyle, Central Junction, androplawhill branches and Montrose Terminus). Glasgow-Airdrie-and- 31fonklands Junction (Cowlairs branch). Lisketud-and-Launceston Branch. Wear- Valley-Bishop.Auckland-and-Weardale (Weardale Extension, and Wear-and-Derwent Railway, and ShIldon Tunnel amalgamation). North Western (diversion at Skipton, Casterton, and Sedbergh). Aberdeen and-Great-North-of-Seotland (amalgamation or leasing). Aberdeen (Brechin Branch deviation). Arbroath-and-Forfar and Scottish-
Midday:I-Junction- (connecting railway). Direct London and-Portsmouth and Lon don and-Brighton-and-South Coast Amalgamation. Huddersfield and-Manchester (deviations In Oldham branch, &c.) London-and-North-Western (lease and purchase of Huddersfield-and-Manchester Railway and Canal, and Leeds-Dewsbury-and Man- chester). Manchester-and-Leeds (alterations of levels of Brighouse branch of West Riding Union, and new line into Leeds). Reading-Guildford-and-Reigate. Norfolk (from Thetford to Reedham, with branch to Halesworth).
BILLS READ A SECOND TOTE, COMMITTED, AND REFEREED TO COMMITTEE OF SELEC- TION. Friday, January 29. - Glasgow-Dumfries-and-Carlisle and Glasgow-Paisley Kil- marnock-and-Ayr (No. 4). Glasgow-Paisley Kilmarnock-and-Ayr (No. 2). North- Staffordshire (alterations and branches)• North-Staffordahire (Churnet Valley and Trent Valley Junction). Lyvri-Valley Extension. Ipswich-and-Bury-St. Edmund's (No. I) (Yarmouth Extension). Manchester Sheffield and-Lincolnshire (station at Sheffield, Res.) South-Eastern (Mid Kent and Direct Tunbridge). South Eastern (Croydon and Bromley branches). South-Eastern (Maidstone to Chart). South- Eastern (Strood to Maidstone)• South-eastern (North Kent and Bricklayers' Arms Junction). South-eastern (North Kent line). Bristol-and-Exeter (Taunton and Castle Cary branch). Birkenhead-Lancashire-and-Cheshire Junction (deviation of main line). Birkenhead-Lancashire-and-Cheshire Junction and Chester and-Birkenhead amalga- mation. Blackburn-Darwen-and-Bolton Acts amendment (diversions of line). Direct- London-and Portsmouth. Great-Western (branches to West London, Hammersmith,
Great•Western (Berks and Hants amendment and branches). Lowestoft Rail- way-and-Harboar (alteration at Reedham).