Protection has found a sturdy advocate in Mr. Packe M.P. ; who, as President of the Loughborough Agricultural Association, was the chairman at the annual dinner given on Friday week. The local notables in attendance were in greater force than at the Waltham gather- ing ; there being among them the Marquis of Granby, Mr. Farnham M.P., the Rector of Loughborough, and Mr. Warner, a local manufacturer of hosiery.
The great toast, " Prosperity to the Loughborough Agricultural Asso- ciation,' called up Mr. Puke.
This association, he reminded the company, was founded ten or twelve years ago, to protect the agricultural interest ; and the word " Protection " still stood on the front page of its book. Although a majority in the new Parliament would repudiate that word, yet as long as his tongue should be able to address them, he for one should adhere to the same principles as those in which he began his career. Existing competition was a clog to British agriculture. There might be " gleams of prosperity," but it was not " one or two years of gleam" that would afford an adequate return for capital in- vested in land. He imagined that everything that could be done would be done for the land by her Majesty's present advisers. Agriculturists knew that if Lord Derby could do nothing for them, neither could other parties. He was, therefore, anxious to keep in the present Ministers, " as long as he be- lieved them to be friendly to the agricultural interest" He had stuck to Pro- tection through good report and evil report, ever since 1841, when, in common with the Marquis of Granby and Mr. Farnham, he was elected on the cry of Protection—then first used as a party cry. Some protection was necessary, and it was the bounden duty of the Legislature not to encourage foreign pro- ducers and foreign labourers. "Those were his principles 'in 1841. upon those principles he, in common with many others, was returned to Parlia- ment; and he confessed he could not see why, because there had been a failure in the potato crop in Ireland—and that was the only reason he had ever heard assigned for it—everybody should at once change their opinions on the subject, and that the principle of Protection should be held as dead and gone. The Protectionists had been cried and hallooed down by the newspapers of the country, for no other reason that he could make out than because the fivepences of the consumers were more numerous than the five.. penes of the producers." He counselled unity against the common foe, and lamented that efforts had been made to sow discord between the owners and the oocupiers of land. [lie stated and restated that the burdens on land pressed as heavily on the former as on the latter class : but this assertion was received with vigorous expressions of dissent.] If Protection could not be regained, he recommended a readjustment of the poor-rate ; "for it was only fair that the burdens which oppressed the land should be thrown over the pockets of every person in the kingdom." (Applause.) But this would not be of an advantage at all proportionate to the preventing of " foreign pro- duce coming into and inundating this country." Imports are increasing, and British-made machinery is going out of the country ; and that " put an end to the idea that they would be able exclusively to improve their land." The next toast, " The Bishop and Clergy of the diocese," was acknow- ledged by the Reverend Mr. Bunch. The health of the Lord-Lieutenant, the Marquis of Granby, was proposed by Mr. Packe; who described the heir of Belvoir by saying that "a more straightforward or more con- sistent politician did not exist in her Majesty's dominions." The Mar- quis of Granby "humbly seconded" the sentiments of Mr. Packe on Pro- tection.
But this was a time when it was difficult to speak on that or any political topic ; " for they were without the raw material. He was perfectly and com- pletely in the dark as to the intentions of Ministers. He enumerated a variety of Protectionist measures about which he knew nothing ; " but of this he was perfectly confident, that they would do all that within them lay to advance the interests of agriculture, and not only their interests, but the intereats of every class in the country." Ministers are in a " difficult position " ; " forced pre- maturely into power," subject to the " apathy of their friends," and, he was almost afraid, from the expressions of feeling Mr. Packs had called forth, " that they who were not apathetic were not altogether so united or so de- termined as they ought to be to resist the common foe." His opinions on the subject of protection had undergone no change. It was said the country was prosperous ; and he was happy to think that this to a certain extent is the case; but it was not so prosperous as it might be, and would be, but for the mischievous legislation of the last few years. " Providence is baffling the folly of man" ; gold-discoveries are repealing the Bank Charter Act of Sir Robert Peel. Gold and emigration are the two causes which have soft- ened the " harshness and asperity " of the Free-trade measures. It is not in consequence bat in spite of free trade that the country is prosperous—and so on. Having repeated that he had confidence in the Government, he said that there was one subject which would be forced on their notice, and which they would be compelled to decide—the Income-tax. He " entertained great hopes" that the country would decide upon getting rid of it altogether, and returning to a sounder system of legislation—namely, that adopted by Ame- rica, of making the foreigner pay a great portion of our taxation." He beg- ged to add, that no foolish desire to retain his opinions would prevent him from considering any measure which would make free trade " just, fair, equal, and bearable.'
Among the other speakers were two worth notice. Mr. Bennet, one of the judges, dilated on the " difficulties " of the tenant-farmer ; and pro- posed as a remedy, in general terms, that Government should repeal the Malt-tax and readjust the poor-rate, in order to lessen the cost of produc- tion; that was the least they conid do. Mr. Warner, a Loughborough manufacturer, testified that since the price of corn had fallen wages bad risen, in consequence of the increased demand for labour, which regu- lated the price : an unwelcome admission at a Protectionist meeting.
At the annual meeting of the Leominster Agricultural Society, Lord Bateman was present, and, in spite of usage, gave some-utterance to po- litical opinions.
There was, he said, a brighter prospect for the agricultural interest ; which was, however, not to be attributed to Free-trade, bat to confidence an Lord Derby. He denied that Lord Derby had abandoned Protection. He had seen Lord Derby before the last election ; and had retailed to him the current re- port that he had abandoned Protection, and wished to know whether that report was true. Lord Derby replied, that he could not state what his mea- sures would be until after the elections ; but he added—" Suffice it to say, I _pledge my word, if I have returned to Parliament a sufficient number to car- ry out a scheme for the benefit of the agricultural class, those classes shall have my very best and most earnest attention." Lord Bateman had thought that upon taking office the Premier would have gone to the country on the Protectionist policy ; but, no doubt, Lord Derby was the wiser man. He had confidence in Lord Derby, because there was no other possible Govern- ment than the present which could give the same help to the agricultural class.
Major Beresford was speechmaking again last week. The theatre of his performance was the annual dinner of the Saffron Walden Agricultu- ral Society, given on Friday. " The County Members " were proposed, and he was there to respond.
Eschewing politics, Mr. Beresford delivered his opinions upon emigration ; which he said " might be conducive to great advantage, if they could re- strain it so as to send those persons out of the country they exactly wished.'.' Whereupon somebody suggested " Cobden." Mr. Beresford continued, that if the farmers could keep their best shepherds and the people of Saffron Wet- den their best cooks and bakers at home, they would be pleased; but those who did emigrate were the bone and sinew of the country. The Emigration Commissioners held out inducements to those who were the " pith and strength and marrow of the country " to seek their fortunes elsewhere. It was stated that emigration was the only panacea for agricultural distress; poor-rates were to be cut down by it. But there was not much diminution in Essex. He explained the philosophy of emigration as it affected that county. "Essex might be liable to one of the vast evils that emigration might introduce. For instance, at the late harvest it had been acknowledged that in some parts of the country the prices given for reaping corn and car- rying it in were excessive. He knew that in Surrey, where he happened to be at the end of August and beginning of September, in theparish where he was staying eighteen shillings was commonly paid for reaping an acre of wheat : that was, he thought they would agree, pretty nearly double what it ought to be. Then they said—the philosophers would say ,this to them, ' As in Essex you have got this large amount of poor who will reap for you, you by the excess of labour will have reaping cheap.' But that was not ac- cording to their system of philosophy ; for the supply of men fell over the whole surface, and if in a county so near as Surrey eighteen shillings was paid for reaping an acre of wheat, did they suppose that the ablebodied un- married man would stay here to receive eight or ten shillings, when by a day's journey he could receive el,thteen ? Another year they would go off to those counties, and they would be left in Essex deficient of labour, and obliged to raise the amount they paid for it." For these reasons, "Looking calmly at the case," he thought that emigration was not a boon to the agriculturists, unless they were permitted to send out whom they might choose.
The Liberal electors of Rochester have testified their esteem for Irr. Ralph Bernal, their late representative, by the presentation of a magnifi- cent silver centre-piece, forming a candelabrum, three feet high, bearing
six branches, and supported by three figures of Commerce, Wisdom, and Justice.
Deputations from Boards of Guardians in Ashton, Burnley, Black- burn, Bolton, Barton, Bury, Cherley, Clitheroe, the Fylde, Haslingden, Leigh, Oldham, Preston, Rochdale, Salford, Wigan, Barnsley, Bierley, Bradford, Dewsbury, Halifax, Huddersfield, Penistone, and Todmorden, Nottingham, Kendal, Great Boughton, and Stockport, met on Monday, at the Albion Hotel in Manchester, in order to express their opinion on the late " prohibitory order" of the Poor-law Board, forbidding relief to .ablebodied paupers in receipt of any wages or remuneration, and calling upon Boards of Guardians to give such relief only in the form of labour. The meeting was also attended by Mr. J. W. Patten M.P., Mr. W. Brown M.P., Mr. John Cobbett M.P., Mr. Robert Townley Parker M.P., Mr. James Heywood M.P., and Mr. John Cheetham M.P. The meeting ex- pressed its opinion in one comprehensive resolution, condemning the order on various grounds, and requiring its immediate repeal. The objections are summed up generally in the last sentence- " That, in short, the entire order is uncalled 'for, perplexing, and mis- chievous; that it can only be carried out through the sacrifice of all discre- tion and humanity by Boards of Guardians, and the surrender of all right of control or opinion by the ratepayers; and that, therefore, this meeting re- quires its total and immediate revocation."
The resolution was passed unanimously ; and arrangements were made to send a deputation to the Poor-law Board to obtain repeal, and other- wise carry on the opposition in the mean time.
Afterwards the deputations resolved themselves into a meeting in favour of Boards of County Expenditure, and passed resolutions for continuing that movement.
News reached Southampton by telegraph on Thursday, that the Emi- gration Commissioners had decided upon making that port a Government depot for emigrants going to the British Colonies, and a port of de- parture for ships employed in this service. It is understood that the terms on which the Commissioners have accepted the tender of the Lon- don and South-western Railway Company for constituting Southampton an emigrant station are, that a depot capable of accommodating 2000 emi- grants is to be built at the London terminus and in the Southampton docks. This would afford great advantages, and practically London would still be the central starting-point for emigrants.
Mr. Littledale, the Mayor of Liverpool, presided over a meeting held in the Sessions-house of that town, in order that the inhabitants might express their feelings on the death of the Duke of Wellington. Among the speakers were Mr. William Brown M.P., Mr. Charles Turner M.P., Mr. Horsfall M.P., the Earl of Sefton, Archdeacon Brooks, and others. Nothing new was said on a subject which has now tasked the invention of so many of our public speakers. It was resolved that a column sur- mounted by a statue should be erected to the memory of the departed hero ; and the necessary arrangements were made for collecting and ap- plying a subscription for that purpose.
Dr. Cotton, Provost of Worcester College, is the new Vice-Chancellor of the University of Oxford. He took the oaths of the office on Saturday.
According to the Plymouth Journal, when the Bishop of Exeter drove up to Mr. Prynne's church, St. Peter's, at Eldad, to assist at the con- firmation held there, he was saluted with "tremendous groans " from a crowd assembled. The Bishop faced about at once, and the groans were repeated. At the end of one of the prayers read during the service, some one ironically cried out, " Encore, encore !" as at a theatrical represent- ation. [Is there no civil police in the diocese of Exeter ?]
At the Newark Mechanics' Institution, on Wednesday, a soiree of un- usual attraction was held. Mr. John Handley, the President of the In- stitution, took the chair. The Duke of Newcastle, Sir Charles Anderson M.P., Mr. J. Evelyn Denison M.P., Mr. Vernon M.P., Mr. Manners Sutton M.P., Mr. Barrow M.P., Mr. Nicholson, the Mayor of Newark, and other gentlemen, were the guests and orators of the evening. The Duke of Newcastle took the lead. His theme, in the shape of a resolu- tion, was, that " it is essential to the welfare of society that literature and science should be accessible to all." He ran over a variety of topics naturally arising out of the opinion he was called on to assert ; treating them all with earnest and practical good sense. He observed, that apart even from practical results, Mechanics' Institutions are greatly beneficial, affording society and amusement to the over-toiled, and to the student facilities of improvement. He urged upon the directors to avail themselves of the assistance tendered by the Society of Arts to the Me- chanics' Institutions of the kingdom. Sir Charles Anderson made an in- telligent speech, enforcing in detail the general proposition that mecha- nics' and similar institutions are calculated to promote the diffusion of moral principles and useful knowledge ; urging the cultivation of self- -restraint and moral courage. To the care of Mr. Vernon was confided a resolution affirming the necessity of providing the means for gratuitous lectures, museums, and classes. That the institution has not been -without good effect was the testimony of Mr. Hall, the late Mayor of Newark; who said that it had materially improved the condition of the working classes.
The Nottingham people point to signs of unusual prosperity in their town. At the annual meeting of the School of Design, held on the 22d, a vast number of superior designs, executed by the pupils, were exhibited, some of them displaying great excellence. At the annual meeting of go- vernors of the General Hospital, held on the 21st, more than 10001. was contributed to the funds of that institution ; and at a bazaar held during the last three days of the week between 20001. and 30001. have been real- ized towards the establishment of a Midland Institution for the Blind. It is reported that on this occasion the wealthy both of town and country cooperated with unusual cordiality.
The remains of M. Frederick Cournet, the Frenchman who was killed in a duel last week, were interred in Egham churchyard on Sunday afternoon. About a hundred and fifty Frenchmen followed the body to the grave : at the head of the procession was carried a red flag, hung with crape, and bear- ing the inscription, "Republique Democratique et Sociale." No religious ceremony was performed over the body ; but M. Delescluze pronounced a short eulogium, closed with a demand of a cheer for the Republic ; which was given very heartily. Several ex-Representatives were present ; in-
cluding Ledru Rollin, Pyat, and Schcelcher.
The inquest was resumed and concluded on Tuesday. The evidence was more direct than on former occasions. Henry Hand, a person entered at a shooting-gallery in Leicester Square, deposed that two pistols were b of him by foreigners, who also purchased powder and ball. A. bill found upon Alain was that in which Hand wrapped the balls. The pistols were returned to the gallery by a stranger, who said that one was loaded. The witness passed the rod down the barrel, and found that it was loaded. He put a cap on the nipple, and afterwards put some gunpowder on the nipple, but the pistol missed fire both times. Hand then drew the charge, and found the rag pro- duced, and a ball, also produced, in the chamber. The rag rendered it next to an impossibility that the powder should explode—the rag was where the gunpowder should have been. Denis, a Frenchman who keeps a restaurant, stated that Barthelemy lodged with him. There was a quarrel between Barthe- lemy and Cournet; and from what Denis heard it would seem that a duel was intended. Cournet ones made an exclamation, after returning from a trip to Richmond, "The coward would not accept me today!" From Denis's evi- dence it would seem most probable that Barthelemy is the surviving prin- cipal ; but he gave no direct testimony to that effect. M. Soule, an advocate, stated that he knew there was to be a duel between Cournet and Barthelemy. Three days before his death, Cournet said he had a desire to avoid the ren- contre, but he could not; the terms of the quarrel were such as not to admit of explanation : the cause of the duel was a menace. Another witness de- posed to his knowledge of an intended duel between the two. A Juryman said, he should like to know who loaded the pistols • for who- ever put the rag in the pistol most certainly murdered the deceased. Could they not swear the other seconds ? The Coroner said, the seconds were sup- posed to be in custody : they had declined to make any statement, and there was no power to compel them. In summing up, the Coroner said, all the evidence tended to show that the unfortunate man met his death in a duel. There could be little more doubt that the four parties now in custody were present at the rencontre. Whether one of them was the principal, or whether the principal was the one not yet in custody, did not appear, nor was it material to know, for in the eye of the law all were equally guilty. ; and with reference to the degree of their criminality, he had no hesitation in telling them that all persons engaged in a deliberate duel were in the eye of the law guilty of murder. The room was then cleared ; the Jury de- liberated for about twenty minutes, and then returned a verdict of Wil- ful murder" against the four persons now in custody, and against a fifth person unknown. On Wednesday, the four prisoners were reexamined by the Chertsey Magistrates. The evidence was very similar to that given at the inquest. The counsel for the accused confined themselves to urging upon the Magis- trates to liberate them upon bail. • After consulting together, the Magis- trates regretted that they could not do so in any case, but must commit all for trial : even if they did not, the Coroner's warrant would cause their in- carceration.
It appears that the principals in the late duel, Barthelemy and Cournet, had, as the former believed, arranged their difference ; but that subsequently Cournet thought he detected a menace in the note requesting to know whether he had given currency to certain calumnious expressions in Paris regarding the other ; whereupon he instantly withdrew his previous explana- tion, and in the eyes of Frenchmen a duel was inevitable. When the parties met at Egham, Cournet won the toss for choice of position, pistols, and right to fire. Cournet advanced his ten paces, fired, and missed. " Barthelemy, who had reserved his fire, then advanced his ten paces, and, standing twenty paces from his adversary, addressed him in the true style of French rhodo- montade, reminding him that his life was now at his mercy, but that he would waive his right to fire if Cournet would consent to continue the duel with swords. Cournet, who it is said had previously shot fourteen men in different duels, refused the offer, and reminded his antagonist that he had still the right of another shot if he should fail. On this Barthelemy raised his pistol, drew the trigger, exploded the percussion-cap, but failed to dis- charge the contents. A new cap was inserted, a second attempt was made with the same result. Barthelemy again appealed to Cournet to have the contest decided with swords ; and again Cournet refused, but offered him the use of the pistol which he had formerly discharged. The offer Was accepted ; the pistol was loaded by Baronet, (who, it is said, had before leaded both pis- tols,) and being put into the hands of Barthelemy, was discharged with the fatal effect which has originated the inquiry."
This story, which we believe is substantially correct, shows that Cournet had fair play, and that Barthelemy, the surviving principal, ran a greater risk than he knew of.
The Yarmouth Magistrates, after hearing more evidence, and reexamining the victim, have committed Howth for trial for attempting to murder Mary Ann Proudfoot by " burking."
Two murders attended with very atrocious circumstances have been com- mitted at Moss Pitt, about three miles from Stafford. In a secluded lane, and ins lone dilapidated house, lived an aged couple named Blackband : they owned the house and some land ; but they were penurious, and the old man was in the habit of carrying about with him a considerable amount of gold. A knowledge of this fact seems to have led to his murder. About half-past seven o'clock on Monday morning, it was discovered that the cottage was ou fire ; an engine was obtained from Stafford, and after a time the fire was ex- tinguished. It had originated in the upper story ; and in a bedroom were found the charred bodies of the old couple, both lying on the remains of the bedstead. A close examination proved that they had not died from fire : the man's head had been crushed with heavy blows both on the back and front ; and the bone over the right eye of the woman was broken—her head alone had not suffered by the fire. No gold was found. The old couple slept in different rooms. In the lower part of the house, at the bottom of a stair- case leading to the woman's room, was a large pool of blood. It is surmised that the assassin first killed and robbed the man as he lay in bed ; that when he descended to the ground-floor he encountered the woman, struck her down, and carried the corpse to the husband's bed ; and then set fire to the bed- stead, hoping it would be thought the Blackbands had perished by an acci- dental fire. A dog belonging to the victims was found in a well ; it had been knocked on the head. Shortly before the fire was discovered, a gentle- man who was passing along the lane saw a man in the fields, going in a di- rection away from the cottage.
Two porters in the employ of the Oxford Worcester, and Wolverhampton Railway Company, have been fined by the Worcester Magistrates for having left two laden trucks at night on the main line near the station, by which a collision was caused. Fortunately, no one in the scanty train that ran into the trucks was hurt by the shock ; the trucks were thrown off the rails, and the locomotive was somewhat damaged.
There was a fierce gale on the Durham coast early on Wednesday morning; and at Sunderland several wrecks occurred, in two cases with the loss of life. The Napoleon, a Sunderland brig, struck against a pier, was crushed, and immediately sank : one man was saved, but six or seven were drowned. A French lugger struck in the same way, broke in two, and was afterwards shattered to pieces: all hands, six in number, pe- rished. The mate of the Zillah was washed overboard from the wheel, and drowned. In other cases where vessels went ashore, the mariners were saved by means of lines or by the life-boats.