Tire information, which we furnished last week relative to the pre- vailing influences at elections, has procured us many friendly and a few captious communications. Some inaccuracies in the names of mem- bers have been pointed out to us. There were also some typographical errors—some Hampshire boroughs, for example, were included under Hun. tingdon, by a mistake in the printing; and Southwark was made to stand in Middlesex instead of Surry. But the great and valuable part of our table, and that which is exclusively our own, remains almost un- assailed ; we mean that part which shows the working of the system— the wires of the show. The puppets we may in some cases have mis- taken, as our contemporaries had done. We pretended to no exclusive information respecting them ; and whether we substituted Judy for Punch, or the Devil for either, was, in our view, of very trifling im- portance. We are bound, in adverting to wires, to except Scarborough from such a motive power. We are informed by a correspondent, that it returns its members without a sixpence of expense to either. This is honourable to the town and to its worthy representatives. It is fit- ting that the Chair of the House at least should be held sans reproche, as it is, by Royal permission, sans pear.
The work of electing has begun. Several of the places were put in nomination on Thursday; and on Friday and to-day a very large pro- 3ortion of the English boroughs will have chosen their members. In cases of contest, however, a week or a fortnight will elapse before the results are known. Mr. Brougham and Lord Morpeth have accepted he invitation for Yorkshire. At Liverpool, some attempt has been made lo oppose Mr. Huskisson, but the effort was very feebly seconded. It is supposed that the Ministry are determined to oust the Huskisson party n every case, whether in open or close boroughs. Mr. Peel, it is said, will be materially assisted by the New Police, among whom many of the Norwich freemen are to be found. (Credal llama I) Among the most remarkable attempts to open close boroughs, are those at Malmesburg (Lord Aylesbury's), which is to be contested by Sir Alexander Malet and 111r. Mirehouse ; Wendover (belonging to the firm of Smith, Payne, and Smils), Shaftesbury (Lord Grosvenor and the Duke of Bedford's), To! »stock (Lord Forester's), Wenlock (the Duke of "Leeds's), Helton and Bridgenorth (where the Whitmores have the ascendancy), and Wigan (Lord Balcarras's). Whether it be that patrons value boroughs less, or voters have a better notion of the value of the elective privilege, the dis. position to resist the supremacy of a patron or a corporation is gaining ground.
The prevailing influence in the elections of the Welsh Counties and Boroughs is of a very uniform character. Scarcely a county can be con- sidered open. The principal landed proprietors of each county allot it and the borough town to the different pretenders ; and none have hitherto at- tempted to question the force of that influence so unhesitatingly exercised. Anglesey owes allegiance to the Marquis of Anglesey. The Earl of Uxbridge will be member. Brecknockshire is under the influence of Sir Charles Morgan. Lord Dynevor controls Carmarthenshire. In Flint- shire, none but a Mostyn can hope for success. Sir W. Wynn is adored in Denbighshire. The Duke of Beaufort returns the members fur Mon- mouthshire. Sir Charles Morgan is permitted to take his seat from de- ference. Lord W. Paget has been dismissed from the borough of Car- narvon, for his vote on the Catholic question. The prevailing party in the Corporation are High Tories. Earl Fowls returns the member for Montgomery, and the Marquis of Bute rules Cardiff. Cardiganshire is open, but will not be contested. On the whole, Wales will present the fewest changes in the representation.
Of thirty-five Irish Boroughs, twenty-three are under patronage, and not a few of the Counties are subject to influence. Ireland will not, however, be wanting in contests. There is hardly a borough so close or an influence so predominant as to exclude them. Corrupt arrange- ments are made, but the disposition to exercise the right of sufFrage for a political and not for a personal purpose is more general than ever k was.
Antrim will he contested. The Earl of O'Neill and the Marquis of Hertford have hitherto controlled the elections, each of them returning a member. Mr. Macnaghten, one of the late memberS, retires ; and the Earl of Belfast, the late member, Mr. O'Neill, and Mr. Macdonnel, the husband of the Countess of Antrim, are the new candidates. The Hon. H.Caulfield retires from Armagh,—Lord Acheson is the candidate for the vacant seat. The Primate of Ireland, a Beresford, controls the borough Of Armagh. Mr. Goulburn's return depends on his continuing in office. Athlone is the property of Lord Castlemaine, the brother of Lord Clan- arty: the arrangements are not announced. Lord John Russell, the late member for Bandonbridge, is trying Bedford : the Duke of Devon- shire is patron at the former place: Belfast is a corporate borough, under the influence of the Marquis of Donegal. The Earl of Belfast will be returned. No contest is anticipated for Carlow : the late members will probably be returned. The influence of the Earl of Neville will be stoutlyemployed to return his son, Lord Tullamore, for the borough of Carlow. Some troublesome people intend to make an attempt at *riling the borough. Sir A. Chichester, who owns Carrickfergus, from Ins connexion with the Donegal family, will be returned for that borough, lie contest is expected at Cashel, which is private property, Si; charles Coate and Sir William Young are the candidates for Cavan`, ,Me3Min- derson, the late member, is also in the field ; Mr. IL Matirell'hitS died. Lord Farnham's influence is in jeopardy. O'Connell has been compelled, by a prior pledge to Mr. Macnamara, to cede hiS kingdom of Clare to that gentleman. His rate colleague, Mr. Lucius O'Brien, and EIr. O'Gorman Mahon, will also be candidates. Mr. Vesey Fitzgerald has been talked of, notwithstanding his bad health ; but there is BO reason to believe he has thought at all about it. His friends may, however, put him in nomination to secure their own influence, or to weaken that of an opponent. An attempt will be made to open Clonmel, which is now in the interest of the Bigwell family, Mr. Coote, the son-in-law of Mr. Massy Dawson, is a candidate. Sir J. Brydges will le returned for Colersi.4e. He is connected by marriage with the Beresfords, who own the lewough. Cork County will not be contested. The late members are likely to be returned. It is open. Cork City is to be gained by force of money. The last election cost the Hutchinson family 12,0001. A certain class of poor freemen have a re- gular price, and the highest class are not wholly free from such influ- ence. The Marquis of Conyngham returns one candidate for .Donegal. Mr. Chichester is in the field. The late members are also candidates. The Earl of Mountcharles is the nominee of the Marquis. The Mar- quis of Downshire is Lord of the county of the same name. Lord Cas- tlereagh is likely to be returned. Lord A. Hill, it is said, will resign in favour of Mr. Tuite. There will be no contest for Downpatrick, which is private property. Drogheda was sadly put to it at the last election. The voters, finding they could not get their price, and not choosing to undersell, elected their Recorder to represent them; and following the fair example of Bridgewater in England, paid his passage over, that he might vote on the Catholic question—as he could not pay it himself. There is no probability of a contest in Dublin County. It is open. The late members are likely to be returned. There is a great stir in Dublin City. Mr. H. Grattan and Mr. George Dawson have offered them- selves on the Liberal interest. Mr. Moore represents the High Church. The return of the latter is certain ; but the others are both in jeopardy, as, through the division of interests, the fourth candidate, Mr. Recorder Shaw, may secure more than either of them. Sergeant Leroy is a candidate for the University; and he is supported by the powerful co- operation of the Head ; who is exerting himself, with unseemly energy, to excite the junior members on behalf of his favourite. Mr. Croker's success is somewhat doubtful. Dundalk, the private property of Lord Roden, will return its late member. Lord Northland will make the ar- rangements for Dungannon, Which is his property; and the Duke of Devonshire will superintend those for Dungarvon, if Mr. Sergeant Runayne's attempt to open the borough be unsuccessful. The Sergeant is a Catholic barrister, and his opposition is expected to be powerfully supported. The late member for Ennis, Mr. W. S. O'Brien, will pro. bably be returned for the next Parliament. Enniskillen will be provided for by Lord Enniskillen. Fermanagh is an open county. The late mem- bers arelikely to be returned. A sharp contest- may be expected for
Both the late Members are in the field, and there are three new candidates,—LordDanlo,Sir John Burke, and Thomas B. Mar-
tin, the son of the former member. The Borough of Galway, which • is under the influence of Mr. Daly, the late member fOr the county, is likely to he contested ; and an attempt will be made to open it. The new candidate is Mr. Valentine Blake. Mr. Hare, who has-become Lord Ennismore, has of course retired from Kerry. Mr. Maurice Fitz. gerald, Major Crosbie, and the Hon. W. Brooke, are the candidates. Kildare will also be contested. Mr. Latouche retires, and the field is to be taken by five candidates,—the late member, Lord W. O'Brien Fitz. gerald, General Cockburn, Mr. Moore O'Farrell, Mr. Roberts of Solly. mount, and Sir William Hoste. The late members for Kilkenny County will again be returned. The Solicitor-General for Ireland, notwith- standing the powerful support of Government and of the houses of Dysart and Ossory, is not quite safe. There will be a powerful attempt' to open the borough of Kilkenny. Mr. Leader is the champion. King's County, though open, will not be contested. Mr. Russell will be re. turned for Kinsale. It is a borOugh of Lord de Clifford ; and the honourable gentleman married the niece of Lord de Clifford, and is his Lordship's heir. Leitrim will nut be contested. Colonel O'Grady and Mr. Massy Dawson will contest Limerick against the late members, the Honourable R. Hobart Fitzgibbon and Thomas Lloyd. Mr. Spring Rice will probably be again returned for the Borough of Limerick. Lisburne belongs to the Marquis of Hertford. The arrangements are not an. nounced. Both the late members for Londonderry retire—Mr. Stewart from ill-health, and Mr. Dawson because of his conduct on the Catholic question. Captain Jones is the new nominee. Sir George Hill relin. quishes Londonderry City, having been made the Governor of one of the West India Islands. A strong party is made to eject Lord Forbes from Longford. Sir George Featherstone is likely to be re. turned again. A son of Sergeant Lefroy is Lord Forbes's opponent. Louth will be hotly contested. Mr. Dawson, the late member, Mr. Bellew, and 111r. Matthew Fortesct:e, are said to be candidates ; Mr. Sheil, the Catholic barrister, is their powerful competitor. Mr. Jephtioa will have no difficulty in returning himself for Mallow, which is his own property. Lord Killeen, the Catholic nobleman, will, it is said, return him. self and Sir Marcus Somerville for Meathshire. The late members for Monaghan oiler themselves. They are to be opposed by a son of Lord Blaney. The Earl of Kilmorey will return his son-in-law, the Ho- nourable John Knox, for Newry. The Earl of Porkirlington will take care of his borough of the same name. Queen's County will not, it is said, be contested. Sir Charles Coote and Sir H. Parnell are likely to be returned again. The Hon. R. King retires from Roscommon ; and O'Connor Don and Mr. Tennyson will contest the field with Mr. French, the late member. New Ross will be managed by its owner. Mr. Fitzstephen French has offered himself for Sligo. The late members are also candidates. The borough of Sligo is private property: the ar- - rangements are not yet announced. Tralee, which belongs to the Denny family, is vested in trustees, as a provision for younger children. The trus. tees are Judge Dale and the Hon. Spring Rice. The seat cost Mr. Smith, the late member, 30001.; but as he occupied it for one year only, he will now have it for 50001. Mr. Smith is a connexion- of Lord Holland and the Marquis of Lansdowne; he married a natural daughter of Lord Ossory. The Earl of Belmore -is the patron of Tyrone. The late members, Mr. Stewart andthe lion. H. Corry, will, it is said, be returned again. O'Connell has invaded. Waterford, the peculiar pro.. vince of the Beresfords; and so little hope have they, that they solicit the second votes of the electors, despairing of the first. Sir John New- port retires from Waterford City ; Mr. Chapman opposes Mr. 'Rochfoete and Mr. Tuite, the late members for Westmeath. Both the late mem.. hers for TITesford retire. Colonel Chichester and Lord Valentia are likely to be returned in their stead. Wexford Borough, which has been opened by a decision of the House of Commons, has two candidates, Mr., Waddy and Mr. Roe. The borough was previously shared by Lord Ely and Lord Neville. There will be no contest for Wicklow. The late members, Mr. James Grattan and Mr. R. Howard, will be again re- turned. The Duke of Devonshire will probably return the Honourable George Ponsonby for Youghall.
From the nature of their constitution, any thing like a political con- test is almost excluded from the Boroughs and Counties of Scotland. We recollect but one instance in which the voice of the people had the slight- est influence on the election of a member ; which was that of Mr. Hume. The Town-Council of Brechin on one occasion contemplated the return of an opposing candidate—a Mr. Mitchell—when the inhabitants rose en masse, and compelled them to recal the pledges given to that gentle- man. In the Counties, there are not unfrequently struggles between two wealthy families for predominance : such a struggle was waged in Lanark some years ago between Lord Archibald Hamilton and Sir Alexander Cochrane ; but in that, as well as in less important ones, which have from time to time taken place, the people were mere lookers- on. In Scotch Boroughs, the forms of election are extremely compli- cated. The corporation consists in general of two parts—that which re- presents the merchants, which is self-chosen, and that which represents the trades, which is chosen by the freemen of companies. But this corporation does not choose the member—it only chooses a delegate to co-operate with the delegates from three or four other boroughs in ohm. ing him. The majority of the delegates of course secures the election. Thus the most insignificant borough has precisely the same power as the largest and most wealthy. In the Counties, the right of voting is vested in the freeholders.; and the qualification is equivalent to about 4001. It is not necessary that a voter should possess the land : he requires only to pee. sess the superiority, as it is called ; and that superiority is sold every day of the week without a farthing's worth of property accompanying it. • It has even been decided, we believe, by the Scotch Courts, that a superiority may be bestowed solely for the purpose-of voting; and that the person on whom it has been so bestowedshall be compelled to render it up again 012 the demand of the grantor. Taking the country as a whole, however, the real freeholders greatly preponderate, and even the fictitious voters are generally persons of substance. It is nevertheless true, that the most subservient, though not the most directly venal of all the electors in the empire, are the freeholders of Scotch counties. So completely are they under the control of every Administration, that their votes may be always reckoned by a ministerial candidate, come from what quarter or with what pretensions he may ; • and .even in ordinary questions of do- mestic policy, the Lord Advocate (the Crown law officer) can, by die simpinissue of his cinatlar, command a majority of.the country to almost any measure be has a mind. To dwell on such a system as this, or on the little obscure intrigues of the Scotch Boroughs, would be to misuse our pages. We point out the bad parts of the English and Irish systems, because there are many better parts, and the contrast may be of advan- tage. But in Scotland, every spot is equally bad. With the exception of Mr. Hume—an exception which, in this case, amply proves the rule— that country never has returned a popular man to Parliament because he was popular. The only contests at present waging, which excite a species of inte- rest in Scotland—the interest of intrigue—are those of Inverness County, the Fife, Perth, and Forfar, and the Dunfermline Boroughs, and that of the Kirkcaldy Boroughs, which we noticed last week. The contest in Inverness-shire curiously exemplifies the working of the Scotch system.. Mr. Charles Grant has represented the county with great ability for a number of years ; he was introduced to it by his father's in- fluence at the India House, where so many convenient things for hun- gry lairds were to be got ; and while he was a Minister, he held it by reason of the many good things that he himself had to dispense. He is opposed by a Mr. M•Leod, whose only claim to the support of the elec- tors, as he very candidly states it, is that he means to vote with the Duke of Wellington ; a claim which, in all human probability, will procure his return, as his determination to support any Ministry that was formed would have done, as long as that Ministry remained. Mr. 111`Leod, in proof at once of his principles and his frugality, has his circulars franked by Mr. Under-Secretary Peel. The Fife,,Perth, and Forfar Boroughs, are five it} number,—Cupar, St. Andrew's, Dundee, Forfar, Perth. Forfar happens at this election to be the returning or presiding borough, with the privilege of a cast- ing vote ; and Dundee has suffered a small misfortune—it has lost its franchise from the improper conduct of the corporation. Cupar and St. Andrew's have declared for the Hon. Mr. Melville, brother to the Earl of Leven. Perth holds with the son of Lord Wharncliffe, the Hon. Mr. Stuart Wortley ; Colonel Ogilvie of Clove, of the Airlie family, has a strong interest in Forfar. Lastly comes down, at the twelfth hour, Mr. Campbell, Deputy Chairman of the East India Company, to make up the partie guarree. The joke of the whole is, that all these can- didates are of the same political party, being one and all of them Minister- ialists In the Dunfermline Boroughs there is an opposition of politics. Dun- fermline has all along been Tory; by which word, in Scotland, is always meant Mr. Pitt, and all that have followed him, the Administration of 1806 excepted. Inverkeithing is at the service of any man who is will- ing to purchase—the price has fallen much of late, from want of com- petition. Culross is held by Mr. Gibson Craig. Queensferry is in the hands of the Hopetoun family. Stirling' is in the predicament of Inver- keithing, but ad interim supports-Mr. Dounie, the late member, who has Dunfermline also. The new candidate for these boroughs is a Mr. John- ston. There is an appearance of principle in both these gentlemen, that we are glad to hail—they both profess their determination to oppose the East India Company monopoly. We hope the boroughs will endeavour to pin down Mr. Donnie to his word on that head.