In the Postscript of our last Number, we noticed very
briefly the occurrence of some disturbances at Lyons, by a rising of the silk-weavers against their masters. They prove to have been of a far more serious character, than, from the first imperfect notices, we were disposed to think. There is still a great deal of obscurity and uncertainty about their details, and most of all about their termi- nation—for they have terminated, at least ad interim—which we seek in vain to penetrate and unravel. Neither are their causes without doubt, though, through the conflicting accounts, we can yet see much light in respect to these. The following narrative, from the statement with which it commences, comes very ob-
viously from no friend to the workmen-rioters ; it is, however, the best account of the facts connected with the riots that has appeared. We shall give the other side of the question also.
" About three or four weeks since," says the writer, on Monday, No- vember 21, "the silk-weavers suddenly fancied themselves not sufficiently paid by the manufacturers for their labour. At that time, almost every hand was occupied, and the manufacturers daily receiving excellent com- missions from all parts of the Continent, also from England and America, and every body appeared in high spirits at the prospect of the poor being in full employ during the winter. Meetings were actively got up in every district, and a day fixed on for a general meeting of all the work- men, to go to the Prefect to petition for a tariff, fixing the price of every description of work with the manufacturers. Out of such an immense body of workmen as we have in Lyons, you may naturally suppose many, very many, more prudent and satisfied than the rest, refused to attend the meeting. The houses of such were forcibly entered, and they were compelled to join. The Prefect, either alarmed at their numbers, or for other reasons, espoused their cause ; and actually, contrary to all law, justice, common sense, and reason, granted them their demand, which was, on an average, an augmentation of one-third upon their wages. Satis- fied with their success, they returned to their quarters, burned several of the manufacturers in effigy who were opposed to them, and illumi- nated their dwellings.
" The next consideration was, how and when was the tariff to be en- forced ? The first day of November was decided on, and a committee among themselves chosen to see that no work was received by their fellow- workmen, except strictly in accordance with the said tariff, under pain of having their looms destroyed, and the work cut. The manufacturers, seeing the determined spirit of the workmen, allowed them to finish the work already on the looms at the advance ; but on application for fresh warps, their general answer has been, that when they decide to come down to the old prices, they were ready for them ; but as they (the ma- nufacturers) had taken their commissions at such and such prices, they could not advance on their wages without losing ; consequently they de- cline finishing their commissions. The natural consequences have been, that thousands are thrown out of employ. Last week they reas- sembled, to take into consideration their frightful situation, and to adopt necessary measures from which to extricate themselves. At the meeting, the whole blame was laid to the manufacturers; and they fully determined to wreak their vengeance on them this day, by breaking open their count- ing-houses, cutting their silk, &c. ; but as similar meetings and resolu- tions had hitherto passed off quietly, after an affiche from the Prefect, or Mayor, it was thought the one in question would have shared the same fate, and no particular precautions were taken on the part of the authori- ties to prevent, or to be in readiness to act in case of necessity. At seven this morning, the whole city was in alarm at the drums beating in every quarter for a general muster of the National Guard. At eight, the Prefect, accompanied by the General and a small party of soldiers, proceeded to the Croix Rousse (a quarter situated about a mile from the city), a most commanding situation, in which a great portion of the workmen reside, to endeavour to put down a disturbance which bad every prospect of be- coming serious. The rioters allowed the soldiers to advance upon them; when a general rush was made, the soldiers obliged to fly, leaving their arms. &c. behind. Several of them were made prisoners by the rioters, among whom were the Prefect and the General. At nine, several soldiers of the Line and National Guard proceeded to the spot, and were assailed with showers of paving-stones, &c. by which several were seriously wounded. Up to two o'clock, the troops had not fired a single shot ; but at that time the strength and boldness of the workmen advanced to such a pitch, that a sharp fire was opened upon them by the soldiers, and as sharply returned by the rioters, who appeared as well armed as the sol- diers, Several prisoners are taken on both sides, and many killed and wounded. At four, immense bodies of troops arrive, and keep up a con- tinual fire. At half-past four, the rioters had gained so much, that fresh troops and cannon havejust been sent to their assistance. Five pieces of cannon are now pouring grape-shot on the rioters as fast as they can be loaded. The numbers killed and wounded up to this time (six o'clock) must be immense ; but we can get no decided information, as the en- trance of every street in the city is guarded, and no one is suffered to pass unless he lives in the street, and a guard is sent with him to his door : I have just been accompanied to my chamber in the above manner. The whole of the houses, shops, warehouses, theatres, &c. are closely shut, and business of every description is suspended : the night, I hope, will terminate this horrible scene."
On Tuesday, the writer continues his narrative, thus-
" At eight o'clock this morning, the firing recommenced ; but instead of only at the Croix Rousse, in several parts of the city. Several thou-
sand workmen collected in the night in the Brotteaux, the other side of the Rhone, and have made themselves masters of all the bridges, and consequently cut off all communication with the Swiss side of the Rhone.
A sharp cannonading is going on from the city, as also from the Croix Rousse, which is not yet taken. Up to ten o'clock, I have seen carried past my window upwards of 300 killed and wounded. The numbers killed on the other side must be enormous, as every cannon brings a row of them down . I have just heard that M. Ajax, the shawl-manufac- turer, is shot, a colonel of the Line, and six officers. In the first charge of cavalry, one officer and six men were killed, together with nine horses. M. Platzman, the elder, is wounded in the head ; also Gentelet, of the house of Gentelet and Dubost, riband.manufacturers. Reportsays he has since died. The General and Prefect were released last...nigt at ten o'clock ; but reports greatly differ upon what condition-. elr . for 40,000 ball-cartridges; another for 40,000 francs, for 1,he workmen killed, and an enforcement of the tariff. Fo **driest= Of
either I cannot vouch ; but I think the latter the mo 7''ACot a person is suffered to enter the streets, and the cafes
Eleven o'clock.—Several small buildings in differe parts .the city are burning; firing continuing without intermission, iers taking possession of all the first-floor windows near the Hated ige, in order to fire on the people in the streets.
" Half-past Eleven.—A flag of truce passing one of the bridges over the Rhone. I have ventured out, and hope on entering to announce a termi- nation of hostilities.
" Twelve o'clock.—Firing has recommenced, and the streets are once more clear. Nothing passes our street but the killed and wounded. " Firing continued till eight o'clock. All remains quiet."
And again on Wednesday-
" Tremendous firing. The Hotel de Ville taken by the rioters, also the powder-magazine ; and the whole city is at the fury of the mob. Houses are beginning to burn in all quarters, and large fires are lighted on all the public places, into which they throw all the books, stock, furniture, &c. of the different houses they enter. The largest fire is opposite our count- ing-house, which they have entered, but only to search for arms; which not finding, they have quietly withdrawn themselves. How this terrible affair will end, it is impossible to say, as the men are all getting drunk, antLstupified with wine and liquors. I can get no accounts of the killed and wounded, though several of the principal manufacturers are missing. They have acted most cruelly towards the soldiers,—taking them by the heels, and dragging them along the streets. Every part of the city is now in the hands of the mob ; and if they continue drinking as they have begun, I should not be surprised to see the greater part of the city in fames before night. Every body appears stupified no one knows what to think. Some men of respectable appearance were yesterday made prisoners; and on their persons were found proclamations, signed Henry V.' each of these individuals was well supplied with money."
This may be looked on as the masters' account of the affair. The weavers speak of it in rather different terms-
" Let roe begin by assuring you," says their advocate, "that in this in- surrection there has been nothing of a political nature. In the beginning,
some manufacturers' foremen, and a few old soldiers, took the lead ; having exclusively for their object the execution of the tariff which had been stipulated between the manufacturers, the authorities of the town, and the foremen of the workshops. Some mobbing had taken place before the period of the principal insurrection. The last was not of a more alarming character than those which preceded it, and might have been dissipated if the repeated promises made to the workmen had been ratified.
But several imprudent charges of cavalry and vollies of infantry, made -without due notification on the inoffensive groups, carried the irritation -which prevailed to extremity. Several platoons of the National Guard
were beaten and disarmed during the night. Preparations for resistance were made by the civil and military authorities ; and on their side, the Workmen procured arms, cast musket-balls, and carried two guns which they had taken to one of the neighbouring heights. On the following day, cannon and musketry continued to thunder in all quarters of the town. The workmen were everywhere victorious; and at length, in the following night, or rather at one o'clock next morning, General Roguet left the town at the head of the garrison, assailed by a dreadful fusillade, to which the regular troops replied in close column, the drums beating the charge. Time will nut allow me to tell you of the bitter complaints which are raised against the greater part of the manufacturers. Severe and destitute of bowels of mercy for these poor people, on whose sweat they have been fattening for a century and a half, their only answer to the complaints of the workpcopie has been by sarcasms and vollies of musketry.
"Ten centimes (td.) additional per yard on the wages of the silk- weaver, and torrents of blood would have been spared. An arrangement had been made among the masters not to pay the silk-weavers at a higher rate than from fifteen to eighteen sous per day for the finest goods. Now, I beg to ask you, whether it is possible for the head of a family to main- tain himself on such wages in a town where living is not less expensive than at Paris. Thus they were dying or hunger by the hundred. For a long time, the numerous hospitals of this great city were not sufficient for them. The waters of the Rhone served to stifle the sighs of the victims of this odious cupidity. I am not afraid to assert, that there is not a city in Europe where industry is more ingenious, or more worthy of interest, than Lyons. There is not one where the people are more laborious or more patient, and allow me to add, where they are worse paid. It is, I repeat, the horror of want which has driven the people to extremity, aggravated by cruel sarcasms and insolent railleries at their misery ; and at last it was the vollies of musketry, so infamously fired upon them, -which drove them to revolt and despair.
" I shall never forget the heart-rending spectacle of which I was wit- ness, of those long lines of men with hollow eyes and sickly aspect, the greater part of them without shoes and in rags, exposing themselves with- out arms to the devouring fire of grape-shot and musketry. These work- men, led on by able and intrepid chiefs, have proved a second time to Europe, that even the poorest part of the French population have nothing ih common with the populace of Bristol. Bold in combat, and moderate after victory, they immediately remember that those who had starved them were also Frenchmen. They instantly forgot their injuries, and thought only of the safety of the town. Security and good order prevail throughout the town; patrols traverse it in all directions ; thieves do not venture to show themselves ; and an attempt to throw open the prisons has been repelled, but not without further bloodshed.
From all the notices that we have seen, we have good reason to believe that this account of the respect for private persons and property, displayed by the mob, is not exaggerated. With the ex- ception of one coffee-house, and two or three private houses, -whence a continued firing had been kept up against them, they injured nothing ; and even in these instances, the property was not carried off, but burnt. The public building where the civic tax, the octroi, is collected, seems to have been burnt to the ground. This, according to the latest statements, is the extent of the damage sustained by property. The fires mentioned by the first writer seem to have been lighted tip by his own warm imagination.
The next letter is from a brother of the order of St. Simon—a well-known political sect in France, somewhat akin to our Owen- ites and Spenceans. His account comes down a little later than either of the other two- " You are aware," he says, "that since Wednesday, at two o'clock in the morning, the workmen, after two days' hard fighting with the National Guard and the troops of the Line, have remained masters of the town. Their attack was made with method and boldness. The great masses frortfthe fauxbourgs and the heights of La Croix Rousse marched on the H6tel de Ville, carrying the principal posts and bridges in their way, and driving back the troops towards that central point where it was necessary for them to unite. The movement was favoured by the work- men from all quarters of the town ; wlio unpaved the streets, raised bar.: -zicad.es, and kept up an irregular fire from their windows. So early as Tuesday evening, they had already gained a great deal of ground. General Roguet, seeing this, and that he could not maintain his position without a great effusion of blood, retired, with the whole of the garrison, during the night. The conquerors did not abuse their power to such a degree as their threats, during the engagement, gave reason to apprehend. They have only burnt the buildings of the Octroi, and destroyed, by way of punishment, five or six dwelling-houses, three warehouses, and a coffee- house, from the windows of which they had observed the firing to pro- ceed. Nothing was carried away, but all was burned or broken on the spot. Two men who had disobeyed this order were shot.
" To-day (Thursday)," he adds, " the chiefs of sections are in commu- nication with the Mayor andthe Prefect, who have both issued proclama- tions. The settlement of the affair is difficult ; nevertheless, public order and tranquillity begin to reappear, and a number of warehouses are already opened."
Frere FRANCOIS concludes with some remarks on the character of the mob- " It is not impossible that one of the parties of the old political world may attempt to lay hold of this movement, and apply it to its own ends; its ts basis, its deep-seated cause, consists in the necessity for improv- ing the lot of the poorest and most numerous class, who will infallibly i
be led on in their sphere of action. It little matters to them what arid- trixry divisions may be established on the surface of society. They belong neither to the Republic nor to the Empire—they clap their hands neither
for the Charter nor for Henry the Fifth. Let us live by our labour, or d. le fighting,' is the rallying-cry of the workmen of Lyons,—a cry which is new to the political arena, but which will be heard afar off. Unfortu- nates ! Had they only known that so much lost time, so much devasta- tion, and so much spilling of blood, would only serve to aggravate their misery ! But now that the children of the great family of mankind, misled by anger, and forgetful of their true interests, only rob and cut each other's throats, where is the mediator or the priest who will inter- pose his beneficent authority ? It is we alone, the sons of St. Simon, who understand those principles which reconcile the rights of each with the safety, liberty, and happiness of all. During the days of our civil war, while mixing with the groups of the combatants, we have endeavoured to teach them those words of love and peace which we had learned from you. Our voice, alas I was quite too feeble to govern the tumult of pas- sion and the din of arms."
Men, engaged as the men of Lyons were on Monday and Tues.: day, have indeed, for the most part, very little leisure, and still inclination, nclination, to attend to the voice of a preacher.
Such are the accounts that have reached London of this unex- pected though not unaccountable outbreaking. The official state- ments, which are very meagre, do not add much ; nor do they, as far as they go, materially contradict what is above stated. The progress and results may be summed up in a sentence. The weavers assem- bled with a determination to extort from their masters the rise of wages which had been agreed to by the Prefect ; the masters also assembled, determined not to concede what was demanded ; violent feelings produced violent words, and violent words led to violent actions on both parts ; the National Guard, which is composed of the masters and householders, and in part of the workmen, divided; and both sides—the proofs lie rather against the mas- ters—first lost patience, then reason, and fired. The mob, with their advantage of position and numbers, pressed forward on the National Guard that was opposed to them, broke their ranks, seized their arms, turned the weapons so obtained against the garrison ; and the garrison, deprived of the assistance of the National Guard, and hard pressed by the weavers, found them- selves under the necessity of withdrawing from the town, and of taking up a position at a neighbouring fortress. The weavers, in undisturbed possession of the town, seem to have at once settled down into sober citizens, and their leaders to have assumed the tone and manners of staid and legal municipal authorities ; and order returned, as strangely as it had been chased away. There is a change of masters in Lyons, and no change else. The riots have occasioned great and anxious interest at Paris. At the sitting of the Dept'ties on the 25th, a communication was made by M. PERRIER respecting them. The most singular fact in this communication was contained in an extract of a letter from the Prefect, dated on the 20th, which bears " that never had the tranquillity of Lyons been more perfect ; no disturbances had taken place, none were apprehended." It seems to be a universal rule that no man shall be held fit for place who is long.-sighted enough to perceive what is passing an inch from his nose. M. PERRIER, after noticing, as far as they were then known, the particulars of the disturbance, detailed the means taken to sup- press them- " On the arrival of the despatch on the 23rd, the Council was imme- diately assembled, and every measure required by the urgency of the oc- casion was taken. Orders were sent off in every direction, and all the Prefects who were absent from their posts are returning to them. Under these circumstances, it was the duty of the Council to comply with the generous desire manifested by his Royal Highness the Duke of Orleans, and request his Majesty to allow him to proceed to Lyons; whither he is called by his patriotic impatience to throw himself into the midst of Frenchmen whose blood is flowing, and stop the fatal effusion. But as noble generosity cannot alone suffice to put an end to these disorders, as justice must pursue its course, and as the march of Government must not cease its active vigilance, it was necessary to send a responsible Minister to the theatre of these deplorable events. The Minister of War, there- fore, accompanies his Royal Highness. At the moment I was setting out to come to the Chamber, I received from the Prefect of Saone and Loire a notice that the General in command of the dep6t of that department had, during the night of the 22nd, received a courier from General Ro- guet, ordering him to send with the utmost expedition the two battalions of the 24th Regimentwhich were quartered at Macon and T. ournus. Two steam-boats were immediately put in. requisition ; and, with two other boats to be towed by them, 800 men, with stores and ammunition, in have been conveyed. These conveyances started at ten o'clockIn the morning, and the disembarkation might have been effected at three o clock in the afternoon of the 23rd. It is impossible that greater despatch could have been used. On the following day, four or five companies, who must
have arrived at Macon from Toornos the previous evening, no doubt joined their comrades. The arrival of these troops by the Saone afforded the means of effecting an hnmediate communication with Cenral Roguet, either within or without Lyons, according to the position in which he was placed."
An ordonnance appeared the same clay, which anecunced the extraordinary commission entrusted to the Duke of ORLEANS and Marshal SOULT ; they left Paris that evening, for the lurpose of executing it.
To appreciate arieht the nature and importance of the victory which the nopulsioe of Lyons have gained over the regelar troops and National Guards, it is neeessery to attend to f Le peculiar character and condition of the people, as well es the position of the town. ,. Of the statisaics of Lyons, we cony the following particu- lars from one of the private 'Liters in the Times.
"Within these few year the popolation of Lyons is cons'derably in- creased. In 1791, it contained 121,000 inhabitants; but in con equence of the siege of 1793, the nunihers were reduced to less than 80,0' 0. In 1802 the numbers ; and in 1827, the fixed populati0n llod increased to 97,439 ; but then:, was a floating population, estimated at -13,, S 1, which, with 8,609, the inmates of the barracks and hospitals, Foal: ti.e total po- pulation at that period 1.19,723. The population of the suburbs may be stated as follows:—
La GuillotiZfre and Les Brotteaux 18,000 La Croix Rousse, with the quarters of Serin and St. Clair 12,1100 Vaize 6,000 Total 36,000
When this number is added to the population of Lyons, proper, the whole appears to have amounted, at the period of the census in 1827, to 153,723; so that at the present period it may be stated in round numbers at 200,000. " From the sitoation of Lyons, on a sort of peninsula formed by the confluence of two great rivers, the Rhone and the i he Saone, it is exceedingly liable to fall into the hands of RI) armsd populace on any sudden emei.- geney like the present. With the exception of one of stone over the Rhone, the bridges are all of wood ; and although in general more useful than ornamental, they are justly admired for the boldncss of their con- struction, withstanding the inclemency of the severest winters, bravinz the impetuosity of an Alpine torrent, and forming numerous and conve- nient communicatioos between the city and its densely-populated faux- hourgs. But however convenient fur peaceful purposes during a period of public tranquility, it will readily he understood that these bridges, as soon as they had fallen into the hands of a victorious populace, carried with them the virtual control of the city, especially when overawed by the commanding situation of La Croix Rousse, and the other suburbs, which are situated on the neighbouring heights. " The silks of Lyons, so far tamed for the fastness of their colours and the good taste of their designs, form the great branch of manufacture. They make, also, however, a variety of mixed stuffs of silk and cotton, and of silk and worsted, as well as shawls, lace, and crape, stockings, gold and silver lace, and embroideries. In the silk trade, a great part of French-grown silks, together with large importations from Italy, are consumed. That whichis produced by the silkworms which are raised in the neighbourhood of the city, is naturally of the purest white which can be desired. In 1828, the number of workshops in all branches of the silk-trade within the walls amounted to 7,140, and that of the silk frame- or looms to 18,529; of which 10,693 were for plain silks, and the remain. der for velvets, gauzes, crapes, tulles, stockings, and other fancy articless In Les Brotteauo, La. Guilloth'sre, La Croix Rousse, and Vaize, there are from 5,000 to 6,000 silk frames ; and in the adjoining rural communes it is estimated that there are about as many more.
"The disturbances, whatever may be their present aspect, undoubted] y had their origin in what at islacclesfield or Manchester would be called a strike for higher wages. This is confined, I understand, to the workmen in the silk trade; but at Lyons there are other branches of manufacture of considerable importance,—such as the making of hats and pottery, the manufacture of paper-hangings, the printing of books, the making of artificial flowers, and other articles of a fanciful nature, which employ a great number of hands. The warehouses of Lyons serve also as a depot for the woollen stuffs of Elbeuf, Sedan, and Louviers, for the supply of the Southern provinces, and for their exchange against the oils and the soaps of La Provence, and the wines and brandies of Languedoc, which from Lyons are sent to the North. Steam-boats are established on the Saone, which ply to Chalons, and so connect Lyons with the North, while the Rhone forms its medium of communication with the Southern provinces. There are two great roads between Paris and Lyons,—the one by Burgundy, the other by Le Bourbonnais. There are also great roads which serve as communications between Lyons and Strasburg, Geneva, Marseilles, St. Etienne, and Italy."
The Times' informant adds, that the excitation which led to the riot was chiefly produced by the insolence and ignorance of some of the masters; but we suspect that the causes lie deeper. It cannot fail to be perceived by all men who reflect, that the Revo- lution of the Three Days has very little changed the formal posi- tion of Frenchmen and, France. The public journals are free, the Charter is respected, opinion is powerful, gross acts of oppression dare not be perpetrated ; but with all these essential goods, the legal expression of the wants and wishes of the nation is nearly as much narrowed as it was under CHARLES the Tenth. In a word, the Revolution—formally—has been a revolution for the rich, not for the poor. The labourers, the artisans, the great mass of the middle classes, all the lower, have neither part nor lot in it. The whole constituency of France does not exceed two hundred thousand per- sons in a population of thirty millions. The object of a practical statesman, in extending the political franchise, is to insure the making of good laws, by giving the nation on which they are to operate a voice in their formation ; and to insure their execution, by giving the nation an interest in their observance. But, apart from the more palpable advantages of free government, there is, and always will be, a mighty sum cf general satisfaction 'diffused wherever it prevails.. Give men an interest in the state, and they will feel attachment to it, as they do to all things in which they have an interest, not for the mere profit, but because it is their own. It. is this which makes men submit to the inconveniences and losses of a. revolution 'with cheerfulness—the government which it gives- is their own The beloved FERDINAND is at present very seriously indisposed; and Don CARLOS is in consequonca the (.k.,et of much greater solicitude than usual, both to his own and to his brother's friends.
Tnr. SUNDERLAND Clio; -,,,1 --The form of the reports has been again. altered. The distinction bet we.•n Common Cholera and Malignant Cholera is now abandoned. We must aecommodate our report to the new state of things.
Remained on Nov. 25 23 Deaths, Nov. 25 3 New Cases on. — 25 11 2e 5 9 • 11 .7 4
:17 1 tj 3 ::':4 ...... .....
29 15 30 4 30 13 — — Total Deaths 31 Total 97 _ Recoveries, Nov. 25 26 i'..4 6 29 5 30 ... .. .. . . 3 —
Total Recoveries ... 45.
We have no doubt, that Ministers find it a much more difficult task than ordinary men would suppose, to procure servants endued with a little common sense,—or we should not have had to note, in the course of two short weeks, these repeated departures from the form of the re- port which was first adopted in respect to the Sunderland cases. If there was any truth in the insinuation of Dr. Dann against the Sunder- land doctors, that they kept back cases of Cholera from his knowledge, and that it was necessary in consequence to take cognizance of Diar- rhea, in order that none should be omitted,—and if, as was plainly meant by such an inclusion, the symptoms of Diarrhea and Cholera may, at least for a time, appear to be identical,—ou what grounds was the re- port of the former dropped at all ? Again, if Common Cholera was really meant to represent English Cholera, why is it now included in the same category with Malignant Cholera ? or, if they are no more than different stages or forms of the same disease, what comes of the whole theory of their Continental or Oriental origin ? and whence the neces- sity of so tremendous a parade about a disease which has probably never been absent from our shores for an autumn and winter since the island was peopled ? We were made to believe, when Cholera was first talked about, that its characteristics were—the ejection of white matter like rice-water, vomiting, spasms in tile extremities ; that these were followed by prostration of strength, coldness, and other symptoms of approaching death. Now, it seems, the fatal symptoms are—the fatal symptoms ; the vomiting is favourable rather than otherwise, the purgings very fre- quently do not occur at all, neither are the spasms constant nor fatal; choice. The Revolution of July 1530, great as were its benefits, anti cheaply and speedily as they weee purehased, had its draw- backs of stagnated tract:, interrupted chnerrca and broken credit —as all revolutions have. The whole nation felt these more or less ; but the wealthy part of it got piece and power as a salve to their sores. The pour got no pla,as anti no power; they had all the evil, cad none of the good. Is it. then, wonderful that they should be d:ssatiscied ? Tile truth iv, h 1e14. nothin can give per- manence and stahlity to V;o t', -')eye of cr to any throne .1, on of sensibly men, but tit: ene. a of a 000it ma-
jority of its subjLce L in LI eea not
to 200,0110 2,000,00o, , l','.'e- hensiort or r tunildf, is aiw:, net-- '' ^oleosh_ti-
1 tvt,. as
1 to ,! 1 ley iii be There v-
ing to the ee symptoms of tea The intel;lea
to Sunday last. prevailed. The ..1 functions, nor had any of had the Princa Reyal and
The Mayor of 1. I, nutheturers to le ,.: t which yea
to rt-.;"1.0 n P±:2'.)1111 p.k".:,
killed and wounded in the hospitals to anae,
On the use of fiaaerie too formidable a n and Well armed; all 1! number of them eaee• with sticks, and start! such an indignity weal I H, thrust.
Tit -Emperor Nicilnaas has issued So, which gives the particulars of the intended amnesty to his 1).:::11 subjects. The exceptions, as is usual in such ins`.ane.:s o 111,:12o.da'r mercy of absolute Kings, are numerous.
The Lisbon Gazettes of the _0th Novemher, mention the de- =rid of a forced loan of 240,0001. by Don Nlianaa, in order to protect himself from the threatened visit °fins brother.
no acToInts town, n.
to eater it. s'.11: ma- are,.•• I a13
. • 1..s..1 are apt to feral oen are armed, habits, a 'great ee. Our mobs heat To a Frenchman ;Mullet or a sword- Sull!ract "Recoveries and Deaths from 1 -,. 5 Total Cases I" 4
Remained on Nor. 30
■ 33 Total Cases since Oct. 26..
31) Recoveries ]S4
Deaths....., 97 2SL
Remain as above
33 and yet in India the malignant Cholera, as distinguished from the mild, is termed " spasmodic." Dr. Barry, whose conclusions we honoured the other week with respectful mention, then spoke of contagion from con- tact, contagion from aerial currents—of men carrying infection, and goods carrying infection, and Heaven knows what else : now, when a plain question is put to him with respect to the disease, of which he says, Ili his own peculiar English, " the spread is increasing," he is as shy as the Minister to Lord Londonderry-
" The symptoms of the disease he had seen in Sunderland were precisely the symptoms he had seen at St. Petersburg. How it gut there (whether it was imported or arose spontaneoas(W. it was not his business to decide; there it was. One fa- mily he would mention that he had seen at Sunderland. Two of then, were in the hospital : three were in their own dark, dirty, close, and ill-ventilated room at home. He was not going to enter into any discussion on the subject of contagion; but he would observe, that in such atmospheres as they lived, cholera, fever, or almost any
disease, would be more or less communicable to others."
It required no ghost to tell us that dark, dirty, . close, ill-ventilated . rooms, might render tiny disease contagious, and might generate disease where there was none ; lint when Dr. Barry says it is not his business to decide whether the cholera of Sunderland is or is not spontaneous, he forgets that he had concluded that the cholera of St. Petersburg, with which he has stated the cholera of Sunderland to be identical, was not Spontaneous, but imported ; he forgets also, that on this sole question of spontaneity or importation hinges the necessity, or the contrary, of all those precautions externel and internal practised and suggested by the
• Government, acting under the advice of their medical assistants. Go- vernment did not send Doctor Barry to Petersburg to look at a man and see if his face was blue, and down to Sunderland to look at another man and see if his face was also blue ; they did not seek for the solution of a patholegical difficulty, but in respect that it was connected with a politi- cal difficulty. If Doctor Barry be inadequate to the task imposed on him, of deciding what it was his business to decide,—namely, whether ,holera be contagious or not,—he ought at once to confess his inability, -and terminate his useless inquiries. Of whatever value his skill may be to his patients, it is quite obvious that it is of no value to the State.
Since the last week's report, a case which was at one time supposed to be one of Malignant Cholera, has occurred at-Newcastle. The fact was communicated to the home Secretary by thelMayor of that town. The following is aaletailed account of the case.
R.Jordan was fifty-six years of age; of good health and temperate habits, though he was very frequently dirty in his person ; a labourer living on the New Road opposite to the Keelman's Hospital, felt cramps in his feet and legs a little before one o'clock, p.m. on Saturday, November' 13; he had oftot had cramps in his legs &fore. His son, observing him not looking well, advised him, as the day was cold, to remain at home till be had his dinner, and take threepenny-worth of rum with warm water. He replied he would try to walk it off, and would take his dinner when he.cam:. back. He then went out. On his return, the son observed a great change in the appearance of his father ; that his legs were more cramped, and that his fingers were clenched. He was immediately put to bed, domestic comforts were applied, and medical assistance sent for. Mr. Davison, surgeon, saw him about two p. in. He found him in bed, with a cold, clammy skin, with pulse at 84, and almost imperceptible ; sunk eye, contracted countenance, livid lips, tongue colder than natural, but moist and covered with a whitish fur ; a slight shrivelling of the Augers ; abdomen flaccid, and not corrugated, and capable of bearing the greatest pressure without pain to the patient. Soon after, he was seized with a.iasins in the arms and legs. Before Mr. Davison saw him, he had three evacuations by stool ; the last of which resembled water-gruel and had vomited some brandy with a small quantity of what appeared to be bread, of which he had eaten in the morning. He passed some urine at the commencement of the attack, but none apeared to have been secreted afterwards. Brandy and laudanum' ammonia, and other stimulants, in conjunction with calomel and opium, were administered without any permanent beneficial effect. Hot bottles and bladders were applied. Ile expressed no feeling of thirst. He lived in a dirty, low room. No traces whatever of infection were dis- coverable. He died at eleven o'clock, p.m., apparently without pain, his counte- nance appearing placid." Subsequent to the despatching of the Mayor's letter, a meeting was held at Newcastle, at which Dr. Dann attended ; and on the case being described, he stated, " that several of the symptoms and appearances certainly resembled those in spasmodic cholera, but there were others which favoured a different construction. If the same case had occurred at Sunderland, he should have ranked it among the cases of malignant .:./in!era. As it was at Newcastle, isolated and alone, all he could say teas,
it wets a,dvubtful of suspicious case."
So much for Dr. Dmin's pathognomics. The doctors of Newcastle seem to have very little doubt on the subject ; indeed, the case of Reay, which occurred before the first Sunderland case, much more resembled cholera than that of Jordan did,
The Duke of Newcastle has very handsomely subscribed 1501. and his Duchess 501. for the relief of the poor in Sunderland, who seem to be in a state which is disgraceful to a Christian country.' The Marquis of Cleveland has also contributed 2001. ; the Marquis of Londonderry 1001.; the Bishop of Durham, Sir H. Williamson, M.P., and Mr. VT, Russell, Ii l .P., 501. each.