4 NOVEMBER 1916, Page 32

Studies in Education. By M. W. Keatinge. (A. and C.

Black. 5s. net.)—The Reader in Education at Oxford, at the outset of this clever book, remarks that we spend £36,000,000 a year on our schools—" more than one quarter of the money spent by the nation in one year on alcohol" —and " yet there is no sign that great forethought is used in the expenditure of this large sum, that any formulation of a clear purpose has been made by the responsible authorities." His essay on " Social Needs and the Curriculum " is noteworthy in this connexion. Here and elsewhere he lays great stress on the importance of aesthetic in education, as well as physical training, for men and women need to know how to use their leisure. Mulcaster, the Elizabethan High Master of St. Paul's, included in his " five-branched elementarie " reading, writing, drawing, singing, and playing, and apparently himself taught the lute and virginals.