The artisans of Sheffield have an educational institute, entirely self- supporting, which they call the People's College. Wednesday the 26th October was the anniversary meeting ; Dr. Lyon Playfair consented to preside, and delivered an address. From it we learn, that the success of the institution has increased every year, and that 2500 persons, women as well as men, have benefited by the instruction given in the College during the five years of its existence. At the outset, elementary educa- tion formed the chief object ; and subsequently the course has been ex- panded, until logic, natural philosophy, and chemistry, appear in its list of classes. Dr. Playfair showed that mere brute force, mere hand labour, is daily superseded by intellect—" is, like raw material, constant- ly decreasing as an element in the cost of manufacture", that local ad- vantages are losing value ; and that therefore the cultivation of the mind and the acquisition of knowledge become of greater importance. Ho showed that the enjoyments of life are doubled to him who is not the blind slave of the law, but its valued ally and more effectual cooperator. He inculcated the necessity of cultivating science for itself, " without a gold-seeking love" ; but they would find that science would "shower down material benefits on their daily life." It is our interest, therefore, to see that the fountains of science are always kept full ; but, unfortunately, such is not the case in this country. There are only 1190 places provided for the learned class. Dr. Playfair argued, that a closer union should subsist between industry and science, a nearer approach between the learned class and the manufacturing class, and better provision for the former, which would conduce to the interests of both.
"Let me urge you, in a national point of view, not only to look to the healthy growth of labour immediately applicable to productive industry, but also to that mental labour which gives to it its life and vigour. Though Adam Smith might have proved a bad merchant or an indifferent banker, the science- of the Scotch professor laid down the principles of trade, by fol- lowing which many of our politicians have built their reputations, and our merchants carved out their fortunes. Possibly Jeremy Bentham would ham) proved an indifferent administrator and a bad Lord Chancellor ; but his views for the reform of the law and of government have not been lost in modern changes. Theory and practice can never be more antagonistic than can a rule and a special application of it. If theory and practice were understood in their true relations, we 'would find the learned class and the manufacturing class approaching each other much more than they do now. The dignity of productive industry would be recognized by the one class, and that of pro- ductive talent by the other. In China, you are aware, the nobility and offi- cers of Government are a learned class, and yet the dignity of labour is more appreciated there than in any other country, and an author who writes com- mentaries on Confucius boasts of his brother who paints screens and fans. In one of the latest proclamations of the Emperor of China, in which he announces that he has raised an Empress to the throne to share with him the toils of government, after alluding to his own intellectual and moral vir- tues, he commends her as not shrinking from washing fine or even coarse linen with her own hands.' Do not agree with the error of a great author, that industry is the mother of science—' the vigorous and comely mother of a daughter of far loftier and serener beauty.' Science never had a mother. She came into the world a seed containing within itself the principles of growth, capable of elaborating its leaves for the healing of nations. Industry has often effected great progress without science ; but though Tubal Cain was skilled in brass, he was not the father of metallurgy ; and though Noah knew the effects of the fermented juice of the grape, from him did not spring the laws of organic metamorphosis. The gopher ark of Noah did not -raise the science of navigation ; nor did the gorgeous temple of Solomon give birth to one scientific law. The greatest buildings of ancient times, the Pyramids and entablatures of gigantic Doric, raised no theory of the me- chanical powers. The lyre of Apollo and the organ of Tubal did not tell us the laws of sound or the principles of harmony."
Lieutenant Gurney Cresswell, the gentleman who made the North-west Passage, passing from the Investigator to Melville Island, and thence to England, has been entertained by his townsfolk of Lynn. Last week, a public meeting was held in the Guildhall, and the joint address of the Corporation and inhabitants of Lynn, congratulating Lieutenant Cresswell on his safe arrival and good fortune, was read. He replied with warm thanks, and .gave a modest narrative of the voyage. In the evening there was a dinner. Besides Lieutenant Cresswell, Sir Edward Parry, Lord Stanley, Lord Calthorpe, and Mr. Bagge M.P., were present, and Mr. Cresswell the father of the hero. The most striking speech was made by Sir Edward Parry. He was enthusiastic in praise of Captain M'Clure-
"I'll say there never has been VI instance in which so magnificent -a navigation was performed in a single season as that performed by Captain M'Clare and his officers. There is nothing in Arctic discovery to be com- pared to that one summer's discovery in 1853. It is between nine hundred and a thousand miles from Point Barrow, which we consider any ship may reach in these days—we don't think so much of getting a little into the ice as we formerly did ; but from Point Barrow to Cape Parry, in `which our friend struck off in the Investigator to Baring Island,. and then upwards to the Bay of Mercy, where the Investigator is, I am afraid, still confined, is from nine hundred to a thousand miles. I assure you, from the experience I have had of the navigation of those seas, it is a moat marvellous.naviga- non to accomplish. I believe no man can tell more of the difftoultiea of it than 'I can ; and I repeat that there has been nothing in the whole course of Arctic discovery equal to that which Captain 1PClure and his companious accom- pliehed."
-Respecting SirlohnTranklin, Sir Edward showed that ho does not quite give him up for lost-- "I have thought about it as much as anybody, and I can form only one idea as to the probable fate of Sir John Franklin. I don't agree with Mr. Creaswell about the probability of both ships having gone down, though no- thing has been seen of them. Though it is true that nothing might be seen of the ships. I don't think that the seamen would have all gone. I think that there is that stuff and stamina in one hundred and twenty Englishmen, that somehow or other they would have maintained themselves as well as the Esquimaux. They would have found the Esquimaux, and we should have found at least some trace of them. The only thing which I can suggest is this. Wellington Strait was discovered by myself; it is a large opening out of Lancaster Sound; when I was going up Westward from Melville's Island, we saw the strait free from ice, and so I marked it in my charts. It was not my business to go North as long as I could go West, and therefore we ran past and did not examine it ; but it was always a favourite idea of those who thought a North-west passage was to be easily made by going North. That, I know, was a favourite idea of Franklin's; and he did in- tend, if he could not go West, to r up the Wellington Channel. My belief is, that after he passed the first winter, he did go up that channel ; and that, having steam power, which I had not in my time, it is possible he may have gone up in a favourable season. You cannot imagine anything more differ- ent than a favourable and an unfavourable season, and you cannot imagine the sudden changes that take place in the ice there. I have been for two or three days together beset by ice, and from the mast-head you could not see water enough to float a bottle ; and in twenty-four hours there was not a bit of ice to be seen. Nobody could tell why. I cannot tell why. In a favour- able season, he may have gone up that inlet ; and he might, by steam power and favourable circumstances, have got so far to the North-west that he could not get back in any ordinary season. And those who knew Franklin know that he would push forward year after year, so long as his provisions lasted ; for he was not a man to look back if he believed that he could accomplish his object. He may have got beyond the reach of our searching parties ; for Sir Edward Belcher has not been able to get far up."
Sir Edward gave strong expression to an opinion that Lieutenant Cress- well ought to be promoted- " I don't know anything of the intention of the Admiralty, but I don't be- lieve the Admiralty can refuse to give promotion to the first man since the world began that ever traversed the North Seas." (Much cheering.) Lord Stanley, Mr. Bagge, and Mr. Cresswell the father, also made speeches.
Crowded meetings have been held at Cheltenham and Nottingham on the Eastern question ; and the usual resolutions against Russian aggres- sion and secret diplomacy were voted at both.
The municipal elections at Blackburn gave rise to rioting ; and in a skirmish between the Liberals and the Conservatives, several persons were seriously hurt.
At the annual meeting of the Wiltshire Archseological Spciety, held at Devizes last week, the Marquis of Lansdowne presided ; and likr. Pouktt &rope, President for the ensuing year, delivered an inaugural address.
The North-western Railway Company have offered prizes to their young men at Crewe for proficiency in a set course of studies in mecha- nics, geography, and British history. The Inspectors of Schools will be the examiners ; candidates must send in their names, ages, and a notice of the prize for which they intend to compete ; and the first examination will take place in October 1854.
The Committee of the Lawson Observatory collected, last week, about 3001. This leaves upwards of 10001. still to be obtained.
The railway from Ludlow to Hereford was formally opened by the Directors on Saturday. A train went from Shrewsbury to Hereford ; there was a luncheon in the Music Hall, with speeches ; and then the party returned to Shrewsbury. The new portion of the line will not be opened to the public till the end of the month.
A number of new coal-pits have been commenced in the neighbourhood of the Saltwells, West of Dudley : the coal is of excellent quality. The increasing demand for coal in the district renders the opening of these new pits a matter of importance.
The Preston manufacturers have issued tus, address to the public to counteract statements made by the committea, of the operatives. Parti- culars are given to show that the workers, urged and guided by the com- mittee were pursuing i many cases a most unfair course previously to the lock-out : certain manufacturers had made advances beyond the usual rate of wages ; when the committee interfered, the workers in these mills where the increase was paid demanded the "ten per cent" beyond the previous advance. The masters objected, but offered in several cases to add to the former advance so as to make up the ten per cent. The men refused. Moreover, the employers understood that if the ten per cent were generally granted, leaving an inequality of payment, then those manufacturers who paid least would in detail be compelled to give the highest rate. Beyond this, employers were interfered with in the ma- nagement of their property.
"In conclusion, deeply as the committee of masters deplore the suffering necessarily entailed upon the town by the present unhappy state of things, and sincerely anxious as they are to obviate it, they cannot hold out the slightest hope of a resumption of work so long as the operatives submit them- selves to the guidance of their present leaders ; many of whom are strangers in the town, others of them being mere traders in agitation, and all having a personal interest in the continuation of the strike.'
Six thousand operatives met in the Orchard at Preston on Saturday. The chairman said he had advised the workers of Burnley and Bacup, who are "locked out," to apply "by hundreds for parochial relief." A delegate from Blackburn recommended the Preston people to seek work in other places—one-half might find it in Blackburn by-and-by. Another gj,eaker urged the operatives to turn the "cotton lords" out of the Town- Council at the coming election.
At a meeting on Monday, the speakers condemded the riotous proceed- inisislegigan ; and a resolution was passed pledging the meeting to sup- **, th_e d f Preston in maintaining peace and order. The weestetct oonfini ave received 1750h this weak; which will allow them ta pay the we ens 4s. each.
Mr. Hume has lid aged a letter to the Operative Association at Pres- ton respecting the atelisi of affairs in that town. He condemns all strikes, as hilarious both to atitaters and men. The workmen having stated that they have always 'berni in favour of arbitration, whereas the masters have refused their easen4 Mr. Hume remarks, that whichever party has de- 'd itrldltrtreen has "much to answer for " : he sees on the list of ad- voeates for arbitration instead of war in the disputes of nations " many master manufacturers who are at this moment in strife against their men."
Wholesale traders now refuse to give credit to the small dealers of Preston ; alleging that it will be to the advantage of both parties not to do so.
A struggle is impending between the shipowners of the Tyne and Wear and the seamen. The owners are endeavouring to obtain non-union men, and have an agent in Scotland on that errand; the unionists threaten that they will strike in a body rather than be conquered in detail. The cause of contention is not wages, but the regulations with regard to man- ning ships and harbour-work.
The riot at Wigan, briefly mentioned in our Postscript last week QS announced by telegraph, proved to be a very serious matter ' • and has since been followed by an outbreak in which one rioter lost his life and some others were wounded.
On Friday afternoon, the day of the first outbreak, the coal-owners met as usual at the Royal Hotel, known among the Wigan men as " the Eagle." For upwards of a month the coal-miners, 4000 in number, have been anew.- pkyed , and the factory workers, 6000 in number, for more than six weeks. While the masters were deliberating under the presidence of Mr. Peace, the agent of the Earl of Bakarres, a great crowd were anxiously awaiting their decision in the streets. The men, it is said, were ready to take half the rise they demanded ; and they heard with dissatisfaction that the masters had deckled to throw open their pits for a fortnight, so that the men might come in and work at the old rates if they chose. The market-place was full of people ; there was an annual fair going on ; and the signs of dissatisfaction augmented as the darkness set in. How the actual riot began is not accu- rately known. One story is, that a son of Mr. Peace insulted a factory youth ; that his companions took his part; and that young Peace, running into a jeweller's shop, was pelted with stones. The jeweller, however, was popular, and the stone-throwing was stayed when some of the mob exclaimed, "Charley Johnson is a decent fellow ! " Another story is, that young Peace, going through the market-place, was recognized and driven into the Dog and Partridge; where he presented a pistol at his assail- ants, and stood a siege in the house. Which of the two versions is the truer, matters little ; the young colliers and factory youths soon gave a serious turn to the row. News of the stone-throwing reached Mr. Sim, the chief con- stable ; and he with the whole borough force—nine men !—went down to the Dog and Partridge. But Mr. Sim found himself awkwardly placed. He first tried the effect of a speech ; but no sooner had he begun than there were cries of "Don't hear him !—go at it!—knock their glazed hats off !"— and stones began to fly. Sim was also manceuvered into a corner, and, fiuding he could do nothing, he retreated ; the crowd opening a lane for the men, but still flinging stones. He sent his men down a narrow lane, and faced the crowd alone, tried another speech ; received stones in reply ; Nyasa's-it:LW by the leg ; shook oft' his foes ; got under the columns of the Moof Trak "was stoned there." Sim now joined his men again ; eftn crowd at his heels, went to the Police-office ; where he found Mr. Eeke the Mayor. Here some Magistrates joined them, with the news that-the-Inch hatl got to the Eagle. Upon this the Mayor, Magistrates, Police, antPli few special constables, went up to the Eagle ; the Mayor, in front, charging-Ilk inhabitants whom he met, to help to keep the peace. None obeyed., By this time the mob had broken up the stalls in the market-place for bludgeons, armed themselves with stones, and smashed a good deal of glass. The Mayor and the officers reached the Eagle at this crisis, and requested the mob to withdraw. A volley of stones and a burst of cheers were the replies. "Let's go at them," said the Mayor turning to Mr. Sim: but Mr. Sim saw that there was no support—the two were almost alone—and they retreated,- the Mayor, Sim, and two Magistrates, had been struck with stones. This was about eight in the evening. The Mayor went to the rails, way station to telegraph for troops from Preston ; Mr. Sim posted his, men in some back premises, and kept up communication with thilliayor. •,ffa For the next three hours the mob held undisputed possesaion of the toww The shopkeepers hastily closed their shops ; the rioters had -broken and put. out the gas-lamps, and all was darkness. They paraded from street to street ; smashed the windows at the Police-office, the Moot-hall, the Town- hall, the Victoria and Clarence hotels; and, having made a tour of the principal streets, they returned to the Eagle. This time, not satisfied with the damage done from without., they rushed into the house, broke the mir- rors, tore down the curtains, and damaged the furniture. " Let's go to Taylors'" was the next cry. The Taylors are cotton-spinners; their win- dows were broken and much damage done. In succession the mob attacked other houses ; in particular, that of Mr. Johnson, another cotton-spinner. "The house and the mill are enclosed ; but they got inside the gates, broke the windows of the house entered the lower rooms, broke a valuable finger- organ and pianoforte, .dearoyed the engravings, paintings, and furniture of three rooms, and having collected some umbrellas and table-linen, and por- tions of a sofa, they got burning coals and made a fire in the middle of a parlour, leaving the place in a blaze. Mr. Johnson and his family were in the house when the attack was made, but they escaped before the mob broke in ; and after they left the house, Mr. Johnson and some men exerted them- selves to extinguish the fire. Damage to the extent of about 5001. was done. Before they finally retired, the rioters broke some garden furniture, and hurled a heavy log of wood upon a conservatory."
At length after eleven o'clock, the train with the soldiers arrived ; 150 men from Preston, under the command of Captain Wilt. The Mayor and Magistrates placed themselves at the head of this body, and sallied into the streets. It was very dark, rioters were heard coming, but they were few in number, and six were captured. The rest had gone home. The soldiers turned into quarters, and all was quiet by one o'clock. Saturday passed off quietly ; but all persons were warned not to appear in the streets at night unless on business. Sunday also passed smoothly; but there were ominous rumours abroad all day. Mr. Peace, the agent of the Earl of Balearres, had brought up some Welsh colliers to the works at Haigh, and had placed the " knobstieks" under the charge of the Police. Towards sunset, it became evident that mischief was brewing. Just before six o'clock, a body of colliers, from three to four hundred, actually marched through the town with drums and fifes. As soon as they had passed, the bugles of the Thirty-fourth Infantry rang through the streets ; the men mustered in the Town-hall, and the Magistrates hastened to the spot. Meanwhile, the rioters had marched upon the saw-mills at Haigh. Some traitor, however, among their own body, had informed Mr. Peace of the intended attack, and he had gar- risoned the mills with six policemen and an inspector. Some of the work- men were also armed with guns. "What are called the Saw-mills are in fact the works generally of the sawyers, carpenters, and other artisans em- ployed in preparing timber, waggons, iron-work, and other materials, for the extensive colliery of the Earl of Balcarres. Mr. Peace, the manager, has his offices there, and transacts his principal business at the works. Thes canal forms the left boundary of the premises, and substantial buildings of stone enclose it on the right and further side. At the front entrance, a porary wooden fence, six or seven feet high, in which is a wooden door ad
been run up to complete the enclosure on that side. A pile of warehouses urea the centre of the premises, with a gateway in the middle, divides than into two spacious yards; the first being about 100 and the second nearly 200 yards in length, the width varying from a few yards at the en- trance to 100 yards along the greater portion of the place." The rioters ar- rived there four hundred strong; some reinforcements from Aspull and Blackrod did not arrive; so they instantly attacked the mils. Stones were showered on the defenders, and the gates were battered with pieces of wood. Au attempt was then made to escalade the place ; but the Police knocked down their assailants as they appeared above the boarding. At length the rioters got on the flank of the besieged ; and the Police and Mr. Peace's men re- treated to the inner yard. The mob entered the outer yard, and tried to fire the place; but a workman thrust his gun through the glass and fired; and upon this the rioters retreated. They rallied again immediately ; but another volley of four shots effectually drove them back, and they fled towards wigan, bearing away their wounded. When the Police gained the main road it was clear. The soldiers now appeared, but too late to be of service. Leaving fifty rank and file in charge of the mills, the main body returned to Wigan. None of the rioters were arrested.
Early next morning, a troop of the Royal Dragoons from Manchester ar- rived at Wigan.
There has been no rioting since Monday ; but the colliers were loud in their threats of vengeance against some who had returned to work, and against the masters. The military force in Wigan on Wednesday com- prised 280 Infantry, a troop of Dragoons, a troop of the Lancashire Hussars, and a troop of Yeomanry. Mounted messengers kept up con- stant communication between the military and the threatened points. A pistol was fired at one of the soldiers as he rode in from the Saw-mills at HMgh. The wounded colliers had appeared in the streets : they were not arrested.
The six prisoners have been examined, and their cases disposed of. One is committed for felony, two are remanded, one is called on for se- curity, and two are discharged. They were mere boys—the elder under aixteen.
A very shocking murder has been committed, at Burnham Abbey farm, in Buckinghamshire, about four miles from Windsor. Mr. Goodwin, the farmer, returned home late on Tuesday night. His groom, Moses Hatto, was up and took his horse. On entering the premises, Mr. Goodwin saw a light in one of the bedrooms, and smelt smoke. He called Hatto, and Bunce his ground-keeper, and went into the room. Amazed and horrified, he found the body of his housekeeper, Mary Ann Sturgeon, lying with her head near the fire-place, and a 131£1.68 of fire, placed upon her, burning the lower part of her body and her legs. Both the legs had been burnt off close to the trunk, and the fire was consuming the floor. The head and the unburnt parts of the body were fractured and mangled. Mr. Goodwin picked up a tooth and a hair-phi In the passage, and there were blood-marks on the stairs. Some jewellery had been stolen from Mr. Goodwin's room. A Coroner's inquest tins held on Wednesday, and these details were given in evidence. At the adjpurned inquest, yesterday, circumstances were narrated which tended to throw suspicion upon Hatto the groom, who lived in the house, and in whose company the murdered woman was last seen alive. The Coro- ner, however, said that there was "no legal proof" of his guilt. The inquest is again adjourned.
Tapnor, an Englishman, is in custody for the murder of the widow Saujon in Guernsey. The evidence warranted the Magistrates in coming to a con- clusion tantamount to an English committal for trial.
The municipal election at Liverpool was attended by the assassination of a policeman. In Scotland Ward, the low Irish population were riotous be- cause a Conservative candidate was proposed. While Policeman Sunderland was taking a man into custody, he was stabbed by another in the thigh ; the femoral artery was divided, and the poor fellow soon expired. Copeland, an Irishman, has been committed for the murder.
Wilbraham, a pointsmau at the Victoria station in Manchester, has been fined 6/., and sent to prison in default of payment, for neglecting his points. Re turned certain points to allow the engine detached from a train to get on to other rails; he should then have allowed the points to resume their usual position, and the train would have gone to the platform ; but he kept the points open, and the train ran into the locomotive. Fortunately, the shock was alight; but a number of passengers were bruised.
The heavy rains last week caused serious floods in Kent and Essex. Large tracts of land were covered by the waters of the Medway.
A portion of the extensive paper-staining mills of Messrs. Potter, at Dar- wen, has been destroyed by fire. The property consumed was valued at from 16,000/. to 20,0001.; the insurances were 12,000/.
Five persons have been killed, and a great number wounded with scalds or fractures, by the explosion of a boiler at Mr. W. Hesketh's cotton-factory at Blackburn. It is feared that some of the wounded will not survive : the fireman became raving mad, a number of bricks having -truck his head. The inquest has not yet begun, and nothing is reported as to the cause of the disaster.