5 NOVEMBER 1881, Page 18


THE Nineteenth Century is full of good papers, but, excepting always Mr. Tennyson's poem, there is nothing of first-class interest. Sir J. Pope Hennessy's account of Raleigh in Ireland is interesting to the historian, but, like every other true chapter of Irish history, is rather sickening reading. He describes Raleigh in Ireland as a man brave to a marvel, but treacherous

and bloodthirsty to the last degree, eager for glory, eager also for gain, and beyond and above all men the special destroyer of the Irish forests, a waste that time has been unable to repair.

The memory of his ravages still lingers in Ireland, where, especially among those who speak Irish, his fame is of a very different kind from that which he retains in England Lord Duuraven gives us a good sporting paper on sheep-hunting in the Far West, the sheep being the wild "big - horns " of the mountains, as difficult to kill as chamois ; and there is a sober, demi-official account of the government of Egypt, by Mr. Rowsell, from which we gather that the Egyptians hate the European Controllers, that the Euro- peans do remedy some gross abuses, but that it is simply im- possible for them to inspect details, and that consequently serious abuses still exist. The want of Egypt is local justice, and that will remain its want, even if the local tribunals which Mr. Rowsell desires are set up. Who is to compel the local officer to abstain from bribes ? The best paper, however, is a sketch of Columbus, by the Rev. Baldwin Brown, from the point of view that he was essentially the last Crusader, a dreamer governed not only by religious aspirations, but by a definite desire to rescue the Holy Sepulchre from the Infidel. That he invariably so represented himself is certain, and his character had in it much of the Crusader ; but it is pos- sible also that he knew how deeply Isabella of Castile was touched with the Crusading spirit, and let his own dreams loose because he was sure of a response. He related to the King and Queen a vision in which God or his messenger pro- mised him success, and there is little doubt he believed it ; but all the same he demanded prerogatives so great, that his sub- sequent ill-treatment was mainly due to the jealousy which he awoke in royal breasts. It is quite conceivable that his object in making these demands was to use the riches and power thus acquired for the rescue of the Holy Sepulchre, as Mr. Baldwin Brown, upon good evidence, maintains, but it is quite certain that he did not convince the Spanish Sove- reigns of his singleheartedness. They were not mean, as witness their treatment of the Pizarros, but they were keen-eyed and excessively jealous ; and they saw, we imagine, that Columbus, who, be it recollected, was no Spaniard, though full of religious dreams, intended to be the Godfrey de Bouillon of the New Crusade. That is no discredit to him, for the really great often believe in themselves, and often, too, mix up their own cause with the cause of humanity ; but it explains the treatment of Columbus, who, unlike Cortez and. Pizarro, never acquired power sufficient to alarm the Sovereigns, yet was far worse treated than they. Mr. Brown's essay is well worth study by any student of Columbus's life. There is a very curious account of an "Order," now apparently imbedded within the Church of England, which was founded in 1877, and which seeks to give to those who belong to it certain spiritual privileges, a baptism unmistakably accurate, and the assist- ance of a priesthood whose orders shall be recognised by the whole Christian world. The" Order" is, in fact, a new Church, claiming to preserve the true doctrine, as maintained by the Eastern and Western Churches before the great schism, and to teach it through a priesthood whose authority neither Rome nor Constantinople will dispute. The writer, the Rev. Dr. F.

G. Lee, claims great success for the "Order ":—

" Already there are representatives of the O.C.R. in almost every English diocese ; there are duly appointed officers, who—having severally introduced the simple but perfect sacramental machinery by which persons within the Establishment can be first securely and validly made members of the Church of God, and then fed and forti- fied by the seven sacraments of the Church Universal—unosten- tatiously govern them in things lawful, always cheerfully rendering to Cmsar the things of Cmsar, as in duty bound, though preserving ever the unalterable Divine deposit on behalf of its Divine Giver, and. supplying the needs of his children by grace."

It need scarcely be added that the members of the "Order "are wholly discontented with most of the Bishops, and look ultimately for emancipation from the State.

Mr. Albert Dicey argues in the Fortnightly with his usual force and temperance that the Irish Coercion Acts should be with- drawn, that the "popular vote" in political and agrarian trials, —that is, the institution of the jury—should be suspended, and that men like the leaders of the Land League should receive a fair trial and be punished. by the ordinary law. He is entirely opposed to Coercion Acts, as necessarily despotic, though not necessarily tyrannical, and holds that the law is sufficient even as regards boycotting, which could be put down like picketing, if only the tribunals could be made to work. That they do not

work is due to the collision between the popular view and the legal view, which, as he points out, both in France and England often produces absurd verdicts. His "case," enforced with strong and temperate reasoning, is summed up in these final sentences :—

" The system of ruling Ireland, like other parts of the United Kingdom, according to the rules of law enforced in the ordinary legal methods, was and is the only satisfactory system, and the sooner we can return to it, the better. There is, however, strong reason for thinking that this scheme of government has broken down, owing to the fact that trial by jury is for the moment unsuited to the con- dition of Ireland, and leads to failures of justice. The system, there- fore, of government which best meets the necessities of the case is to govern Ireland, like the other parts of the United Kingdom, in accordance with the ordinary law of the land, but to facilitate the due execution of the law by abolishing in certain cases, and perhaps only within certain districts, the right to trial by jury."

It follows, of course, from Mr. Dicey's argument, that the regular Courts should be left to try such cases without juries, a measure to which we believe all Judges are opposed, and which might have the result of discrediting ordinary justice altogether. We should prefer permanent Commissions, under a regular and exceedingly trustworthy Court of Appeal. Mr. T. Davidson gives us a eulogistic life of Antonio Rosmini, the last man who has founded a Catholic Order, and whom he believes to have been a very great philosopher. Rosmini founded the Order still known in Italy and England as the Rosminian or "Institute of the Brethren of Charity," who have houses at Domodossola and Rugby, and whose principle is "passivity,"—that is to say, passive submission to the Lord's will, upon principles thus ex- plained by Rosmini himself, who, we should explain, was always a man of perfect purity of life, and described himself as wicked only from the theological point of view :—

" I, most unworthy priest, have resolved to shape my conduct in accordance with two principles, which are these :-1st. To devote myself seriously to setting myself free from my most enormous vices, and purifying my soul from the iniquity with which it has been loaded since my birth, without going in search of other occupations or enterprises for the good of my neighbour, feeling, as I do, my utter incapacity of myself to achieve anything for their good. 2nd. Not to refuse any offices of charity towards my neighbour, if over Divine Providence shall offer or present them to me, inasmuch as God is able to make use of any instrument, and, therefore, even of me, for his purposes ; and, should this happen, I will preserve perfect indiffer- ence as to the nature of these offices, and perform those laid upon me with the same fervour as if I had assumed them of my own free- will."

Those principles, the suppression of the ego and passive benevolence, are the principles taught by Gautama, and Ros- mini's philosophy had in it a definite tendency to Buddhism. Indeed, it seems to us, as described by Mr. T. Davidson, ex- plicable only on the theory that he held the universe to be sentient, and to be God. He speaks of space as sensitive, and of "being," i.e., universal nature, as intelligence "whose nature is revealed to it through sense." " Rosmiui's philosophy, care- fully distinguishing between the intelligible esse of the universe and its sensible percipi„ shows that the former is absolutely one, the latter infinitely multiple,—in other words, that the pheno- menal universe is the result of the interaction of an infinite number of independent entities or atoms, endowed with sensi- tivity, and hence with volition and power of action." What is that but the Hindoo and Buddhist idea that the Infinite Mind is all, and the Universe only that through which it ex- presses itself ? Holding such ideas, we can hardly wonder that the Jesuits considered Rosmini a heretic, and only wonder that Rome did not ratify their verdict. True, he put a personal God behind his system, but the keen Fathers were right in believing that mankind would leave him out. Mr. W. Blunt, in his fourth paper on "The Future of Islam," wanders into a region of pure speculation, and is scarcely so interesting as is his wont. That all true Mussulmans expect a Mohdy, or inspired teacher, to arise from among the descendants of Mahommed is a fact ; but his advent has been delayed for centuries, and the necessary man of genius may never appear. That Mahom- medan ism, if it purifies itself, may become again a vital force, is also a fact ; but then, of what great creed may not the same be said ? We are more interested in Mr. Blunt's confirmation of an idea we have always held, and recently expressed, that an orthodox Khalif, a Khalif who was also an Arab of the semi- sacred branch of the Koreish clan, would be released from the authority of the Ulema, and able to interpret the divine, law by his own mouth. In other words, he could enable Islam to develope again new principles, the greatest change which could pass over it. The difficulty would be that any new interpreta-

tion, while it might revive the main body, would give birth to countless sects of " Old Believers." Mr. Blunt evidently thinks that Mussulman Puritanism died with the Wahabees.

We do not. The Wahabees were the Hussites ; the Lutherans of Islam have yet to come. The remaining paper is a lecture by Sir H. Maine on "The King in his Relation to Early Civil Justice," a lecture the only fault of which is that it is difficult to read it,

for the mass of thought it provokes. It is choked with learning and reflection, and abounds in side-remarks, ()biter dicta, as attractive as this. Sir II. Maine, speaking of the Code of

Munoo, as one of the many half-theological, half-legal, codes of India, says,—

" In these ancient law books, in so far as they are law books, the. authority of a King is assumed. He sits on the throne of justice. He has the book of the Law before him. Ile has learned Brahmans for assessors. Some part of these ideas, like much else of imme- morial antiquity, survive in India. A gentleman in a high official position in India has a native friend who has devoted his life to pre- paring a new book of Mann. He does not, however, expect or care that it should be put in force by any agency so ignoble as a British Indian legislature, deriving its powers from an Act of Parliament not a century old. He waits till there arises a King in India who will serve God, and take the law from the new Mann when he sits in his-

court of justice."

There, in a sentence, is the Indian idea of British rule,—a cloul passing momently over a serene sky, which it is not necessary to think of, even when doing one's life-work.

The November number of the Contemporary is not very entertaining. Mr. Goldwin Smith's essay on the early American Republicans is interesting, like all his writings ; but it is neces- sarily rather a series of opinions on facts in American history,. than evidence for those opinions. Mr. Smith, we perceive, agrees with the modern observers who think that the Americans

would have given way for the time had George III. been a trifle

more obstinate, and that French intervention at the moment when it occurred was of the highest importance. We wish he would explain fully what has always perplexed us,—the small- ness of the force Great Britain throughout employed. She never had 20,000 men in any one place, and never 50,000.

altogether. If the war had been the King's, we could have understood this, but it was for some years popular. Mr. Little- dale's answer to the charge that clergymen manage business badly is merely an assertion that the laity manage it badly too, which is true enough, but no proof. The laity, for all their bad management, succeed; awl the clergy, it is alleged, do not. The true answer is, we imagine, that the clergy do their busi- ness well enough, considering how seldom they are allowed to

act without control, and how greatly they axe weighted by the difficulty of compromise, which follows of necessity, when the questions to be settled are those of conscience, not expediency. It is curious, by the way, that the Catholic clergy are always accused of managing business too well, and of accumulating wealth until they are a danger to the States. The "Non-resident American" does not tell us much about New York that is new,

or apparently perceive exactly what it is that Englishmen want to know. They do not want more assurances that life in New York is costly, but explanations of the reason. Why, for ex- ample, does a house in a good quarter, but not intended to. house many servants, cost £1,000 a year in rent, or E4,000 a year to keep going ? What is the outlay made on,—servants, or food, or carriages, or dress, or what ? The writer is evidently far from satisfied with the condition of the great American cities, and more than half inclined to believe that it will be necessary to restrict their right of self-government. Would it be impossible, now that eight Americans in ten are native-born, to restrict the suffrage, as the Presidency is restricted, to persons born and educated within the Union ? What ii the particular advantage of being ruled by Irishmen, who as guests cannot put forward any moral or indefeasible right to vote ? Miss Collet describes the ideas of the Brahmo-Somaj, the Unitarian

Association of India, and contrasts them with those of the "New Dispensation," the Church founded by Keshub Chunsler Sen, which is evidently losing itself in the depths of Hindu° mysti-

cism. We need only quote the following, from Mr. Sen's speech on baptism, delivered on June 10th :—

"'Why did Jesus plunge into the Water of the river ? Because he saw the Water was full of God. The Omnipresent Spirit of God he saw moving upon the face of the Waters, and in every drop sparkled Divinity. In such holy Water, in the Jordan of divine life was Jesus immersed. And as He dipped into the Water He dipped into Divinity, and straightway He came out of the Water, full of sew or Divine life, and the Holy Spirit overhead announced his accept- ance by God as His "beloved Son." Thus in Him was the Father

glorified, and likewise the Inspiration of the Holy Ghost. Behold, my brethren, the Water before us is full of the Lord, and blessed are they who are baptised in it, as was Jesus of Nazareth!' "

It would be difficult to distinguish that from pantheism. She mentions that the Brahmo-Somaj has now 140 churches scat- tered over India, but she omits to give the number, or pro- bable number, of disciples. The "Continental Observer" who writes on the Irish Question has apparently made up his mind that the mainspring of Irish agitation is Ultramontanism, and accumulates a quantity of evidence to prove his pre- conceived conclusion. He seems to us only to prove that many Irish Extremists are Catholics, and that they curse opponents of their Church as heartily and rhetorically as they curse everybody else. So far from Irish agitation being Ultramontane, it is dreaded by the Ultramontanes, who mutter that a little more religion of any sort, and specially a little more obedience to Holy Church, would do the Land Leaguers endless good. Mr. Challis, who writes "On Language as the Vehicle of Thought," sums up his conclusions as follows :—" 1. Sensations cannot be presented, but only represented by means of language : emotions may be both presented and represented. 2. Sensations can be represented by means of language only when they have been previously felt in experience, and have thereby acquired a definite association with the language em- ployed ; and this is true also as regards the representation of emotions. But emotions can be presented, even when they have never been felt before, by means of language between which and the emotion there exists no definite and established relation." Is not that a little broad ? There are surely other pains that can be presented or reproduced through language, besides "setting the teeth on edge," as, for instance, the peculiar pain in the feet which is produced in most persons by descrip- tions of a fall or fear of a fall over a precipice ; while there are pleasures, like those enjoyed by musicians, certainly producible by words, yet widely distinguished from emotions. Sir Francis Hincks denies at great length that Canada wishes to join the United States, and some other propositions recently advanced by Mr. Goldwin Smith. The controversy is well maintained, but it is a little tedious.

Fraser has not very much which interests us, except the very best description of German student-life we ever remember to have seen. There is little but detail in it, but the detail brings home to us the German method of instruction, the mode of granting degrees, the Professors' system of teaching, exactly at the points where they differ from English ideas. With a page or two more about daily life, the manner of keeping oneself alive, the essay might be made a nearly complete account of University life in Germany. The writer, Mr. A. H. Baynes, has, we see, a theory that the practice of duelling, as kept up by the students, is really an amusement, which, like English athletics, enables them to let off superfluous life and vigour ; but he forgets that athletics, except at public schools, are not compulsory. If those only fought who are willing to fight, more might be said for the Schltiger, but it is often imposed by opinion upon the unwilling. The suggestion that. an Oxford Don would be all the better for a year or two of life as a privat-docent on the German system, during which he would show that he could really teach, is clever, but not very likely to be adopted. The first object of Oxford is not to raise a corps of teachers. Mr. F. R. Conder, to whom we have been indebted for so many practical papers on the cost and profit of railways, indulges himself for a moment in dreams about electricity as a motor. He seems to think that it will be possible, when power is trans- mitted from fixed engines, to take trains up Alpine inclines, and so reduce the first expenditure most materially. It may be, but taking trains down them will remain a most risky pro- ceeding. One moment's failure of the delaying apparatus, and horrible death is certain.

The Cornhill gives us a curious monologue, by Mario Pratesi, whether truly an Italian or not we know not, nominally about a raven, really about municipal life in Italy, which is pleasant to read ; but our interest is deeper in Mrs. Barbauld. Who knows not Mrs. Barbauld, and who knows her ? Who of all who recognise her name know that she was a hereditary schoolmistress, that she learned Latin, and Italian, and French, and a little Greek, of her father, Dr. Aikin ; that she bolted up a. tree and jumped into a lane, to avoid a richnut clownish suitor ; that she married Mr. Barbauld, a Unitarian clergyman, -" lest he should go crazy again," and had all her life to bear with a crazy temper, culminating at last in a burst of insanity and suicide ; that she settled with her husband in a corner of Church Row, Hampstead; and that she was one of the most loveable, genial, and letter-writing of human beings P All they know is, as a rule, that she could write poetry like this, and they are forgetting that.

"Life, we've been long together, Through pleasant and through cloudy weather : 'Tis hard to part when friends are dear ; Perhaps 'twill cost a sigh or tear, Then steal away, give little warning, Choose thine own time.

Say not good-night, but in some brighter clime, Bid me Good morning.' "

The sketch of her is admirable, the best paper, we think, in this month's Magazines. We do not quite recognise Mr. Gifford Pal- grave's usual charm in " Phra-Bat." It is a most instructive and quite new account of the scene of the great annual Siamese pil- grimage, with a very curious hint running through it of a certain identity of idea, especially in architecture, existing between Egypt and Siam ; but it is, for Mr. Palgrave, a little—shall we say ?- Turanian. He gives us an excellent, but slightly forced, de- scription of the shrine—which must be very like one of the temples on Chinese plates, in brick, not wood—and bears strong testimony to the continued vitality of Buddhism in Siam :—

"The great world-famous pilgrimages of Rome and Jerusalem have long since been matters of history ; Benares no more gathers as of old her millions of Hindoo votaries ; the Diemen concourse is but a feeble remnant of the past ; the lesser shrines of Loretto or Corn- postella, of Kerbela and Meshed Ali, of the Indian or the South- American peninsula, have well nigh lapsed into forgetfulness; while the spasmodic efforts to revive the like in France or elsewhere collapse in speedy indifference and neglect. Not so in this strange survival of past ages, this land forgotten by the years, this land of Siam. Here, to judge by appearances at least, there is no abandonment nor falling-off in the national reverence paid to the great East-Asian ascetic and teacher, or to his memorials, footmark, or likeness. Visited duly with all honour and ceremony both by the late and by the present king, indeed by every monarch in turn of the reigning dynasty, the shrines are in good repair, the offerings abundant, and the multitude of yearly pilgrims to each attests that the popular devotion keeps at least even pace with the royal. Esto perpetua."